2014 高考英语冲刺阅读理解专项 50-35
During times of trouble, Franklin Delano Roosevelt spoke from a small room without a fireplace in the White House basement to millions of Americans. In his
calm and conversational manner, he reassured（使??恢复信心）the nation in the depths of the Great Depression（大萧条）and through a World War. Saul Bellow described his own experience of listening to President Roosevelt, hold the nation together, using only a radio and the power of his personality. “I can recall walking eastward on the Chicago Midway? drivers had pulled over, parking bumper to bumper, and turned on their radios to hear Roosevelt. They had rolled down the windows and opened the car doors. Everywhere the same voice, its odd Eastern accent, which in anyone else would have angered Midwesterners. You could follow without missing a single word as you walked by. You felt joined to these unknown drivers, men and women?” The nation needed the assurance of those Fireside Chats, the first of which was delivered on March 12, 1933. Between a quarter and a third of the work force was unemployed. Every bank in America had been closed for at least eight days. It’s hard for us to imagine. It was the hardest time of the Great Depression. The “Fireside” was symbolic（象征性的; most of the chats came from a small room in the White House basement. Frances Perkins, Roosevelt’s Secretary of Labor, described the change that would come over him just before the broadcasts: “His face would smile and light up as though he were actually sitting on the front porch(门 廊) or in the parlor with them. People felt this, and came to respect and love him.” In that first radio visit, Roosevelt began by explaining how the banking system worked: “When you put money in a bank, the bank does not place the money into a safe—deposit vault（金库房. It invests your money in many different forms of credit—bonds, mortgages.” He went on to announce that the banks would reopen the next day.
1. The main purpose of the article is to
A. give examples of the power of radio broadcasting B. make people examine their attitudes toward money C. suggest that Roosevelt was America’s greatest president D. show how Roosevelt reassured Americans during hard times 答案解析：答案为 D。本题为主旨大意题。纵观全文，本文主要讲述美国总统罗斯福在
困难时期如何恢复人们的信心。 第一段为本文的中心段落， 后面的内容都是围绕本段展 开。故答案为 D。
2. According to the article, the Fireside Chats raised the hopes of Americans because President Roosevelt .
A. spoke to them in a friendly and confident tone B. explained to them how to invest their money C. was open about his own fears for the country D. used humor to draw their attention away from their problems 答案解析：答案为 A。本文为细节题。从第一段的第二句话 “In his calm and conversational manner, ....”可知，与此意思最接近的就是选项 A。
3. The name “Fireside Chats” was probably intended to A. demand listeners to protect resources B. encourage spirited discussion among listeners C. request people to desire for hope and reassurance D. persuade Americans to talk with their families
答案解析：答案为 C。本题为细节题。从文章第四段首句 “The nation needed the assurance of those Fireside Chats, the first of which was delivered on March 12, 1933.”可知，Fireside Chats 主要是帮助人们恢复希望和信心。故答案为 C。
4. Saul Bellow’s description of his own experience of listening to President Roosevelt shows .
A. how popular and encouraging Roosevelt’s Fireside Chats were B. how easily Roosevelt’s Fireside Chats could be understood C. what great interest general public took in national affairs D. what a hard life Americans had in Great Depression 答案解析：答案为 A。本题为细节推断题。从文章第二段 “?hold the nation together, ...”和倒数第二段 ““His face would smile and light up as though he were actually sitting on the front porch(门廊) or in the parlor with them. People felt this, and came to respect and love him.” 可知，罗斯福的 Fireside Chats 受到人们的欢迎，并鼓舞着人们。
English has become the world's number one language in the 20th century. In every
country where English is not the native language, especially in the Third World, people must strive to learn it to the best of their abilities, if they want to participate fully in the development of their countries. But many people are concerned that English's dominance (优势地位) will destroy native languages. A close examination reveals （显示） a great number of languages have fallen casualty to English. For example, it has wiped out Hawaiian, Welsh, Scotch Gaelic, Irish, native American languages, and many others. Luckily, some of these languages are now being revived （复苏）, such as Hawaiian and Welsh, and these languages will live again, hopefully, if dedicated people continue their work of reviving them. In the case of Welsh, its revival is so successful that the language is now being used as a medium of insturction in schools and universities in Wales. Many leaders of these Third World countries are obsessed with (被迷住) English and for them English is everything. They seem to believe that if the students speak English, they are already knowledgeable. These leaders speak and write English much better than their national languages. If these leaders deliver speeches anywhere in the world they use English and they feel more at home with it and proud of their ability as well. The citizens of their countries do not understand their leaders' speeches because they are made in a foreign language. All the greatest countries of the world are great because they constantly use their own languages in all national development activities, including education. From a psychological point of view, those who are taught in their own language from the start will develop better selfconfidence and self-reliance. From a linguistic point of view, the best brains can only be produced if students are educated in their own language from the start. Those who are taught in a foreign language from the start will tend to be imitators and lack self-confidence. They will tend to rely on foreign consultants. There is nothing wrong, however, in learning a foreign language at advanced levels of education. But the best thing to do is to have a good education in one's native language first, then go abroad to have a university education in a foreign language. 1. The main idea of the first paragraph is probably _________. A. to stress the position of English B. to appeal the protection of native languages C. to show the importance of grasping English for employees D. to demonstrate ( 阐述) English is the world’s number one language
答案解析：答案为 B。本题为主旨题。虽是对第一段的大意提问，但实则是对全文的中心 进行定位。考生要确定第一段的主题句 （topic sentence）.是第一句话 “English has become the world's number one language in the 20th century.” 还是该段的最后一 句话 “But many people are concerned that English's dominance will destroy native languages.”？即作者关注的问题是英语还是本国语言？略读后文可知， 由于更多的国家 讲英语，很多其他语言已经消失， 然而也有一些语言在复苏，同时也谈到了母语对国家 和个人的作用。因此，本文的重心是关注本国语言。故答案为 B。
2. The revival of Hawaiian and Welsh shows any language will live if it ________. A. is against foreign language C. is taught in schools B. is used as a medium in education D. is done by dedicated people
答案解析： 答案为 D。 本题为细节题。 从第二段 “...and these languages will live again, hopefully, if dedicated people continue their work of reviving them.” 可知， 答案为 D。
3. The underlined expression in paragraph three probably refers to _________ A. they are sure to use English better with their families B. they use English better in their countries than in foreign countries C. their native language is poorer than their English D. they are not afraid that critical audience find their errors 答案解析：答案为 B。 本题为句意推断题。理解该句需要结合上下文。由划线部分的前一 句话 “These leaders speak and write English much better than their national languages.”可知，这些领导用英语讲话和写作比用本国语言要好，因此可以推断，他们 用英语发表演讲的时候，会感觉运用自如. 故答案为 B。 本题的混淆选项 C 选项 “他们 的本国语言比英语要差”强调的是本国语言， 而划线部分强调的是领导人的英语运用能力。
4. In the opinion of the writer, which statement below is NOT true? A. A native language has great effect on the development of a nation. B. The earlier a person learns a foreign language, the greater his ability will be. C. Learning a foreign language should be arranged in a later time. D. The native language will greatly influence one’s life. 答案解析：答案为 B。本题为推断题。从倒数第二段首句 “All the greatest countries of the world are great because they constantly use their own languages in all national development activities, including education.”可知，所有伟大的国家之所
以伟大是因为他们在发展国家的时候使用了本国语言，故答案 A 正确。从倒数第二段后部 分内容可知，从心理学的角度讲，一开始就学习母语的人会更自信，更独立；从语言学的 角度讲，大脑只有在最开始学母语的情况下才能发展最好；而一开始就学外语的人会变成 模仿者并缺乏自信。可以推断，作者认为母语对人的生活有影响，外语学习应该安排在后 面，而不是越早学外语，一个人的能力就越强。故 C、D 正确，B 错误。