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VW 137 05-2003-粗糙度(英文)


Klass.-Nr. 02 62 4
The English translation is believed to be accurate. In case of discrepancies the German version shall govern.

January 2003
Geometrical Product Specific

ations Technical Drawings

Specification of Surface Texture
Konzernnorm Descriptors: surface finish, surface texture, surface roughness, roughness, drawing specification, drawing entry, drawing note, technical drawing
This content of this standard corresponds in all points to VDA 2005

VW 137 05

Contents 1 2 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 4 4.1 4.1.1 4.2 4.3 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 6 6.1 6.1.1 6.1.2 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 8 Page Scope ..................................................................................................................................................3 Normative references..........................................................................................................................4 Definitions............................................................................................................................................5 Basic symbol .......................................................................................................................................5 Expanded symbol................................................................................................................................5 Complete symbol.................................................................................................................................5 Surface (texture) parameter ................................................................................................................5 (Surface) parameter symbol................................................................................................................5 Specification of surface texture ...........................................................................................................5 Profile parameters ...............................................................................................................................5 Parameters based on the material ratio curve (ISO 13565-2) ............................................................6 Evaluation length ln .............................................................................................................................6 Tolerance limits for numerical values of surface parameters .............................................................6 Graphical symbols for the indication of surface texture ......................................................................6 Basic symbol for surface texture .........................................................................................................6 Symbol for material removal ...............................................................................................................7 Symbol, if material removal is prohibited ............................................................................................7 Complete symbol.................................................................................................................................7 Specification of requirements..............................................................................................................8 Position of the surface texture specifications on the complete symbol...............................................8 Surface texture symbols (surface parameters, positions a and b)......................................................9 Number of sampling lengths ...............................................................................................................9 Drawing .............................................................................................................................................10 Type and size of symbols..................................................................................................................10 Symbols on surfaces.........................................................................................................................11 Collective specifications in the field provided in the drawing frame..................................................12 Depth of waviness Wt requirements .................................................................................................13 Dominant waviness surface requirements ........................................................................................14 Preferred values ................................................................................................................................14

Norm vor Anwendung auf Aktualit?t prüfen / Check standard for current issue prior to usage.

Form FE 41 - 12.00

Page 1 of 33
Fachverantwortung/Responsibility EZTD Bestenreiner Normung/Standards (EZTD, 1733) Tel: +49-5361-926513 Sobanski

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? VOLKSWAGEN AG

QUELLE: NOLIS

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9 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 9.10 9.10.1 9.11 9.12 9.13 9.14 10 10.1 10.2

Examples of entry ............................................................................................................................. 15 Tooth flanks ...................................................................................................................................... 15 Repeated form elements .................................................................................................................. 15 Symmetrical parts ............................................................................................................................. 16 Different specifications on one surface............................................................................................. 16 Contact surfaces ............................................................................................................................... 16 Radii, chamfers ................................................................................................................................. 17 Radii and chamfers without specific surface requirements .............................................................. 18 Multiple requirements........................................................................................................................ 18 Production process, surface character ............................................................................................. 19 Length of the evaluation length......................................................................................................... 19 Length of the evaluation length in the event of dominant waviness ................................................. 20 Specification of the surface lay ......................................................................................................... 20 Specification of the machining allowance......................................................................................... 22 Simplified specification ..................................................................................................................... 22 Examples of entries for porous and stratified heavy-duty contact surfaces ..................................... 23 Surface parameter for special functions ........................................................................................... 23 Specification of transmission characteristic ...................................................................................... 23 Meaning and specification of the evaluation length and the sampling length for special cases ...... 23

Annex A Synoptive tables (informative) ........................................................................................................... 26 Annex B Examples (informative)...................................................................................................................... 28 Annex C Comparison of Ra and Rz (informative)............................................................................................ 31 Annex D Former practice (informative) ............................................................................................................ 33 Books to refer to: .............................................................................................................................................. 33 Changes The following changes have been made as compared to VW 137 05: 1992-09:
─ ─ ─ ─ ─ ─ ─

Terms coordinated with the national and international standards Symbols introduced for the textual indication of surface Code letter introduced for the minimum dimension Specification of the sampling lengths changed Surface requirements specifications for dominant waviness introduced Surface parameters for specific functions introduced Position of Ra amended

Previous issues 1967-08; 1971-02; 1974-10; 1975-07; 1983-10; 1983-11; 1992-09

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Preface Essential points relating to the indication of surface texture were changed in the standard DIN EN ISO 1302:2002 with respect to the preceding issue DIN ISO 1302:1993. The new issue contains surface parameters, some of which are not common in the automotive industry, while other, previously common, parameters are no longer standardized. In addition, new rules, which were previously not the norm, were introduced to describe exactly the nature of the surface along with new filters. This standard was developed in order to maintain the continuity of the previous specifications and to keep the possible number of specifications for the general case under control. The following metrological basis applies: The standardized filter is the Gaussian filter according to DIN EN ISO 11562. The normal evaluation length for the R profile comprises 5 sampling lengths. The original meaning for the maximum roughness, Rmax, and the designation are retained and defined in VW 101 24 (VDA 2006). The use of the short wave filter λs is not permitted unless specifically requested in the technical product documentation. The long wave filter λc is used. The 16% rule is not applied. The actual values may not exceed or fail to reach the specified roughness values, as appropriate. The motif parameters according to DIN EN ISO 12085 and the description of the height of surfaces from two vertical random components using the material probability curve according to DIN EN ISO 13565-3 are not used because there has been no experience with them. Comparison of DIN EN ISO 1302 / VW 137 05 (VDA 2005) DIN EN ISO 1302 Motif parameters Rzmax 2.5 No longer standardized Rz1max 2.5 Rz3max 2.5 Rtmax 2.5 16% rule 0.08-2.5/Rz 6.3 VW 137 05 (VDA 2005) Not permissible Rz 2.5 Rmax Not permissible 0.8x3/Rz 2.5 Not permissible Not permissible Not permissible

1 Scope This standard describes the rules applicable within the automotive industry for specifying surface texture, the primary concern of surface finish analysis, in technical product documentation (e.g. drawings, specifications, contracts, reports) by means of graphical symbols and textual indications. Its aim is to simplify the use of the new edition of DIN EN ISO 1302 and it describes the normal case. The surface specifications listed are recommendations. Particular requirements may necessitate the use of other surface specifications. The images in this standard are examples to illustrate the relevant rule. They are complete only insofar as they represent the described situation. This standard does not describe the specification of requirements for surface imperfections, such as pores and scratches. The rules and procedures for assessing surface texture are defined in VW 101 24 (VDA 2006).

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2

Normative references

The following normative documents contain specifications that, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of this standard. For dated references, subsequent amendments or revisions to this publication do not apply. Users of this standard are nevertheless requested to check whether it is possible to use the latest versions of the following normative documents. For undated references, the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies. Members of ISO and IEC maintain registers of valid international standards. DIN 6790-1:1980, Specification by terms in technical drawings; terms DIN EN ISO 1302:2002, Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) – Indication of Surface Texture in Technical Product Documentation DIN EN ISO 3098-1:1999, Technical Product Documentation – Lettering – Part 1: Latin Alphabet, Numerals and Marks DIN EN ISO 4287:1998, Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) – Surface Texture: Profile Method – Terms, Definitions and Surface Texture Parameters DIN EN ISO 4288:1998, Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) – Surface Texture: Profile Method – Rules and Procedures for the Assessment of Surface Texture DIN EN ISO 11562:1998, Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) – Surface Texture: Profile Method – Metrological Characteristics of Phase Correct Filters DIN EN ISO 12085:1998, Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) – Surface Texture: Profile Method – Motif Parameters DIN EN ISO 13565-1:1998, Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) – Surface Texture: Profile Method – Surfaces Having Stratified Functional Properties – Part 1: Filtering and General Measurement Conditions DIN EN ISO 13565-2:1998, Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) - Surface Texture: Profile Method – Surfaces Having Stratified Functional Properties – Part 2: Height Characterization using the Linear Material Ratio Curve DIN EN ISO 13565-3:2000, Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) – Surface Texture: Profile Method – Surfaces Having Stratified Functional Properties – Part 3: Height Characterization using the Material Probability Curve VW 101 24: 2002 (VDA 2006: 2002), Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS), Surface Texture: Rules and Procedures for Evaluating the Surface Finish. VW 101 25: 2003 (VDA 2007: 2002), Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS), Surface Texture: Definitions and Characteristic Values of the Dominant Waviness.

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3 3.1

Definitions Basic symbol

Graphical symbol indicating that surface texture requirements exist, figure 1. 3.2 Expanded symbol

Expanded basic symbol indicating that material is to be either removed or not removed in order to obtain a required surface texture, figures 2 and 3. 3.3 Complete symbol

Basic or expanded symbol expanded in order to facilitate the indication of additional surface texture requirements, figure 4. 3.4 Surface (texture) parameter

Parameter expressing micro-geometrical properties of a surface. 3.5 (Surface) parameter symbol

Symbol indicating the type of surface texture parameter. NOTE Parameter symbols comprise letters and numerical values, e.g.: Ra, Rz, Rmax, Rpk, etc.

4

Specification of surface texture

Surface specifications should only be made if they are required for the function of the surface. In general, the following shall apply: - as coarse as possible and no finer than necessary for the drawing entry, - as detailed as necessary for production (even more so if this does not cause additional expenditure) Surface specifications can be omitted if the normal production processes ensure that the end condition of the surface is appropriate. The parameter designation and the associated numerical values contain five pieces of information that are essential for the interpretation of the requirement:
─ ─ ─ ─ ─

Which of the three surface profiles (R, W or P) is indicated (see section 4.1). Which characteristic of the profile is indicated. How many sampling lengths make up the evaluation length (if this is significant, see sections 4.2, 6.1.2, 9.10, 9.10.1 and 10.2). How the indicated specification limits are set out (see section 4.3). What cut off is used for measurement (see DIN EN ISO 4288).

The indication of a surface texture requirement must therefore contain both the designation of the parameters and the numerical value of the specified limit. 4.1 Profile parameters Profile parameters are standardized for the three surface profiles (R, W and P profiles). Profile parameters are defined using the Gaussian filter according to DIN EN ISO 11562.

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4.1.1 Parameters based on the material ratio curve (ISO 13565-2) Table 1 lists designations of parameters that relate to the linear material ratio curve. The parameters are only defined for the R profile. The definition of parameters is based on a filter process according to DIN EN ISO 13565-1. Table 1 – Designation of parameters based on the material ratio curve according to ISO 13565-2 Roughness profile parameters acc. to DIN EN ISO 13565-2 Filtering acc. to DIN EN ISO 13565-1 4.2 Evaluation length ln Rk Parameters Rpk Rvk Mr1 Mr2

The surface texture requirements apply to the evaluation length. If no indications are given for the evaluation length in the technical product documentation, e.g. in the drawing, then the normal evaluation length applies to the R profile. This is made up of 5 sampling lengths. The length of a sampling length corresponds to the wave length limit λc. For small surfaces, it must be noted that the scan length comprises the normal evaluation length, the run-in length and the run-out length. As the lengths of the run in and run out measure λc/2 and λc respectively (depending on the measuring device), the surfaces to be tested must be at least 6 x λc and 7 x λc respectively. If the surface to be measured is smaller than this, the number of evaluation lengths must be indicated (see also sections 6.1.2 and 9.10). The length of the sampling length is stipulated in DIN EN ISO 4288:1998 in tables 1 through 3. For the P profile, the normal evaluation length according to DIN EN ISO 4288 is the same length as the geometrical element to be measured. In the event that this cannot be realized e.g. due to equipment-related reasons, the evaluation length must be indicated appropriately. 4.3 Tolerance limits for numerical values of surface parameters If a value is specified for surface roughness, it represents the highest permissible value for the parameter, see also VW 101 24 (VDA 2006). If a lower limit is specified, then this must be achieved.

In the automotive industry, the following applies:

NOTE The 16% rule is not applied. 5 Graphical symbols for the indication of surface texture

All the symbols indicated in DIN EN ISO 1302 are permitted. The symbol “for all surfaces around a workpiece outline” shall be avoided. 5.1 Basic symbol for surface texture

The basic symbol shall consist of two straight lines of unequal lengths inclined at approximately 60° to the line representing the surface in question, as shown in figure 1. If the basic symbol according to figure 1 is used alone (without additional information), this is not deemed to be a requirement.

Figure 1 – Basic symbol for surface texture If the basic symbol is used with additional information (see section 6), then no decision has yet been made as to whether removal of material is necessary in obtaining the specified surface (see section 5.2) or whether removal of material is prohibited (see section 5.3).

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5.2 Symbol for material removal If removal of material, e.g. by machining, is required to obtain the prescribed surface, a cross bar, as shown in figure 2, shall be added to the basic symbol. The expanded basic symbol according to figure 2 alone (without additional information) is still not a requirement.

Figure 2 – Expanded symbol for material removal

5.3

Symbol, if material removal is prohibited

If removal of material is not permitted to obtain the specified surface, a circle shall be added to the basic symbol, as shown in figure 3.

Figure 3 – Expanded symbol, if removal of material is prohibited

5.4

Complete symbol

When additional requirements with respect to the nature of the surface have to be indicated (see section 6), a line as shown in figure 4 shall be added to the longer of the two lines in the graphical symbols illustrated in figures 1 through 3.

a
a) b) c) Any production process allowed Material removal is required Material removal is prohibited

b

c

Figure 4 – Complete symbol For textual indications, e.g. in reports or contracts, the following abbreviations shall be used, whereby said abbreviations have the following meanings: Figure 4, symbol a Figure 4, symbol b Figure 4, symbol c APA (any process allowed) MRR (material removal required) NMR (non material removal)

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6

Specification of requirements

The following surface parameters are used in the automotive industry to describe surface texture: For homogenous surfaces ─ (average) roughness Rz ─ (arithmetic) average roughness Ra (see note) ─ maximum roughness Rmax ─ overall height of waviness profile Wt ─ overall height of the profiles of the dominant waviness WDt ─ average height of the profiles of the dominant waviness WDc ─ overall height of the primary profile Pt NOTE The arithmetic average roughness Ra is the arithmetic average of the absolute amounts from the individual roughness values within the evaluation length after the waviness has been filtered out. One disadvantage here is that individual freak values are not taken into consideration and the level of information provided is thus very low. Nonetheless, the arithmetic average roughness has its legitimacy e.g. for providing surface specifications for semifinished products. For porous and stratified heavy-duty contact surfaces
─ ─ ─

reduced peak height Rpk core peak-to-valley roughness Rk reduced score depth Rvk

For special applications, it may be necessary to specify other requirements in addition to a surface parameter and its numerical value, such as e.g. Mr1 and Mr2, sampling length, production process, surface lay and orientation, machining allowance or other roughness parameters. See Annexes A and B for further details. NOTE The motif parameters according to DIN EN ISO 12085 and the description of the height of the surface from two vertical random components using the material probability curve according to DIN EN ISO 13565-3 are not used because there has been no experience with them. 6.1 Position of the surface texture specifications on the complete symbol

The positions of the different surface texture requirements on the symbol are shown in figure 5. a = Surface parameter and numerical value (numerical value in ?m) c = Production process b = Second surface texture requirement (surface parameter, numerical value in ?m) d = Indication of the surface lay e = Machining allowance (numerical value in mm)

e

c a d b

Figure 5 – Positions (a to e) indicating additional requirements (designation areas on the complete symbol). If a third or further requirements are to be indicated under position b, the symbol must be enlarged accordingly in the vertical direction to create space for more lines. Positions a and b move upwards when the symbol is enlarged.

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6.1.1

Surface texture symbols (surface parameters, positions a and b)

If a value is indicated for the surface roughness and this is not marked with an L, it always represents the highest permissible roughness value for the surface and may not be exceeded. If there is only one surface texture requirement, then the surface parameter (e.g. Rz) and the numerical value (e.g. 10) shall be arranged at position “a” in the complete symbol, see figure 6.

a
Figure 6 If a minimum dimension is required, the surface parameter, numerical value and the letter L (lower) shall be arranged at the position “a” in the complete symbol, see figure 7. The minimum dimension must be achieved.

La
Figure 7

If two surface texture requirements are required, i.e. if an upper and lower limit are to be specified, the maximum dimension shall be arranged at position “a” and the minimum dimension at position “b” in the complete symbol, see figure 8. NOTE U (for upper) and L (for lower) shall only be positioned before the surface parameter if there is a risk of confusion.

a b
Figure 8 A blank space shall be left between the indicated parameter and the limit value.

6.1.2

Number of sampling lengths

If it is necessary to indicate the number of sampling lengths (in the R profile) or the length of an evaluation length (in the P and W profiles), this shall be entered in position f as shown in figure 9, separated by an oblique stroke (see also section 9.10). In the R profile, the λc filter shall always be indicated with the number of sampling lengths.

f/a

λc x f / a

P or W profile R profile f = length of the evaluation length (P or W profile) Number of sampling lengths (R profile) Figure 9 NOTE The wave length limit for the long wave filter λc is also designated as a sampling length

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7 7.1

Drawing Type and size of symbols

The size and line width of symbols is dependent on the lettering size used in the drawing to note dimensions, see figures 10 and 11. It is not possible to change the symbols, e.g. mirror-image presentation.

depending on the length of the specification

Figure 10

Figure 11 The lettering in field c, figure 11, can contain upper and/or lower case letters; the height of the field can be larger than h, in order to accommodate a range of additional specifications. The dimensions of the symbols and additional specifications shall comply with table 2. Table 2 h d1 1) H1 H2 Size of figures and letters, see DIN EN ISO 3098-2 Line width for symbols and letters 2.5 0.25 3.5 8 Dimensions in millimeters 3.5 5 7 10 14 0.35 0.5 0.7 1 1.4 5 7 10 14 20 11 15 21 30 42 20 2 28 60

1) In CAD systems the line widths closest to these values shall apply

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7.2

Symbols on surfaces

Symbols and lettering (same size as dimension figures) are to be arranged in a manner so they can be read from the bottom or from the right hand side of the drawing, with the drawing placed in the normal reading position. The symbol points from the outside either directly to the part edge, to an extension line used as a lengthening of the part edge or if needed, to a datum line, the arrow of which is to point from the outside to the edge of the part or extension line, see figure 12. The symbols of figures 1 to 3 can be arranged as desired; however, the lettering is to be entered according to the above-mentioned rule.

Figure 12 In general, surface requirements shall be entered individually on all surfaces where they are required. This also applies to opposing surfaces with the same surface texture. In accordance with the basic principles of dimensioning, the symbol is to be entered only once for a given surface, preferably in the view that also includes the dimensions of the surface. For rotating parts the surface specifications are to be entered only once for each plane of a symmetrical representation, see figure 13.

Figure 13

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7.3

Collective specifications in the field provided in the drawing frame

By way of example, letters are assigned to the symbol for the individual surface textures in figures 14 to 16. If the same specification applies to all the surfaces of a part, then only a collective specification shall be entered in the field “Surface finish” (if present) or near the title block, see figure 14.

Oberflaechenbeschaffenheit Surface finish VW 137 05

xx

Figure 14 If the same specification applies to most of the surfaces of a part, the collective specification shall likewise be entered in the “Surface finish” field (if present) or near the title block, together with an additional parenthesized basic symbol as shown in figure 1, without further information. NOTE When using collective specifications, it can arise that small surfaces are overlooked and cannot be measured as a result of the necessary evaluation length (for the R profile). In this case, Pt can be measured or the surface texture can be compared visually, e.g. with surface comparison samples.

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Symbols with surface specifications that indicate exceptions to the majority of the surface texture shall be specified at the respective surfaces in the drawing, see figure 15. If the deviating surface specifications on the drawing are uncomplicated and of limited scope, the complete surface texture may be parenthesized (see figure 16) instead of the basic symbol according to figure 15. NOTE The letters and numbers are provided by way of example.

Oberflaechenbeschaffenheit Surface finish a1 VW 137 05

(

)

Oberflaechenbeschaffenheit Surface finish a1 VW 137 05

(

a2

)

Figure 15

Figure 16

7.4

Depth of waviness Wt requirements

If the Wt value is specified below the roughness parameter Rz, both measuring values are valid independently, see figure 17. NOTE The waviness shall only be specified when the function demands it.

Rz 25 Wt 10
Meaning: Rz ≤ 25 ?m Wt ≤ 10 ?m Figure 17

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7.5


Dominant waviness surface requirements

There are 3 criteria for specifying the dominant waviness dominant projections are not permitted ─ dominant projections are permitted to an upper limit value ─ dominant projections are not permitted or are conditionally permitted within a maximum/minimum or bilaterally limited period length range The specification in the drawing is entered as follows:

WDc 0
if a dominant waviness is not permitted

or

WDt 0

WDc 1.6 WDt 2.5

if the upper limit value for the average height of the profile elements and the total height of the profile cannot exceed 1.6 ?m and 2.5 ?m respectively. The indications in the drawing for a limited period wave range and indications as to the evaluation length are described in section 9.10.1.

8

Preferred values

It is economically sensible to stipulate preferred values for surface parameters, whereby no more than one place after the decimal point should be allowed. For Rz, values from the following series shall be selected: 0.4 0.6 1 1.6 2.5 4 6.3 10 16 25 40 63 100 160

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9

Examples of entry

The following figures and the corresponding requirements are examples of surface texture specifications in technical product documentation (TPD), e.g. drawings. 9.1 Tooth flanks

In order to indicate the surface texture of tooth flanks that are not shown in the drawing, the surface specification shall be located on the reference circle, either in the section or in the view, see figure 18.

or
Figure 18

9.2

Repeated form elements

The surface texture of repeated form elements shall only be specified once, together with the dimension entry, as long as confusion with similar form elements is not possible, see figure 19.

Figure 19

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9.3

Symmetrical parts

The surface texture of clear and obviously symmetrical parts with a symmetry axis shall only be entered once, see figures 20 and 21.

Figure 20 9.4 Different specifications on one surface

Figure 21

In the event of different surface textures on one surface, the area of the deviating requirement is designated and dimensioned with a wide dash-dot line, see figure 22.

Figure 22 9.5 Contact surfaces

In the case of contact surfaces of parts drawn in the assembled condition with identical surface textures, the requirements are entered according to figure 23.

Figure 23

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9.6

Radii, chamfers

The surface texture for concave radii (fillets), convex radii and chamfers shall be indicated on the dimension line of the radius or on a special line which points to every form element, see figure 24.

Figure 24 If the surface texture of all radii is the same, a general note with the corresponding symbol is entered in the “Surface finish” field (if present) or near the title block, see figure 25. As a result, the individual specification on the drawing is omitted. NOTE When specifying the surface texture for radii and chamfers, it is important to note that it is often impossible to perform an actual measurement because the available evaluation lengths are too short. In this case, a visual inspection, e.g. using surface comparison samples, may be performed, see also section 9.7.

Oberflaechenbeschaffenheit Surface finish Radii VW 137 05

Rz 25

(

)

Figure 25

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9.7

Radii and chamfers without specific surface requirements

If both the surfaces adjacent to the radii or chamfers can be measured using the relevant measuring equipment, the following rule shall apply: Concave radii (fillets) for which no surface textures are expressly specified shall have the texture of the smoother adjacent surface requirement, see table 3. Table 3 Drawing example

Design of concave radii and chamfers

Rz 6.3

Rz 2.5

Rz 16

Rz 25

Convex radii and chamfers for which no surface textures are expressly specified shall have the finish of the rougher adjacent surface requirement, see table 4. Table 4 Drawing example

Design of convex radii and chamfers

Rz 6.3

Rz 25

Rz 25

Rz 25

If only the longer of the adjacent surfaces can be measured using the relevant measuring equipment, the same surface specification shall apply to the adjacent radius or chamfer. 9.8 Multiple requirements

If minimum roughness information is also required on specific functional surfaces, e.g. for ensuring the adhering capabilities of an oil film or for surfaces that are to be joined using an adhesive, then the maximum value shall be specified on the symbol above the minimum value, see section 6.1.1 and figure 27. If several different roughness requirements are necessary on one surface, they shall be positioned one under the other, see figures 26 and 27.

Rmax 4 Rz 1.6

Rmax 25 Rz 16

Rz 4

Figure 26

Figure 27

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9.9

Production process, surface character

If a specific production process or surface character is required for individual surfaces, this shall be noted in unabbreviated format on the extension line of the symbol. The terms refer to the final surface condition. Caution! The final surface condition is called, e.g. according to DIN 6790-1, “lapped” not “lap”, see figures 28 to 34. If a surface with a specific surface texture must be post-treated, the area shall be identified with a wide dashdot line on which the process shall be entered, see figure 35.

honed

lapped Rz 1.6

Rz 1

plunge-cut ground Rz 6.3

Polished Rz 1.6

Figure 28

Figure 29

Figure 30 30

Figure 31

burnished Rz 1

shot-peened Rmax 6.3

free from angularities

bright
Rz 4

Rz 25

Figure 32

Figure 33

Figure 34

Figure 35

9.10

Length of the evaluation length

For the P profile, the normal evaluation length according to DIN EN ISO 4288 is the same length as the geometrical element to be measured. In the event that this cannot be realized, e.g. due to equipment-related reasons, the evaluation length must be specified. In figure 36, the evaluation length is specified as 4 mm. For the R profile, the normal evaluation length comprises 5 sampling lengths (5 x λc), see also section 4.2. If the surface to be tested is too small, the number of sampling lengths can be reduced and specified, see figure 37.

4 / Pt 25

0.8x3/Rz 6.3

Figure 36

Figure 37

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9.10.1

Length of the evaluation length in the event of dominant waviness

The evaluation length is specified according to DIN EN ISO 4288. The designer also ensures that the wave lengths of dominant waviness are in the evaluation zone. When specifying a limited period length range, the evaluation lengths must be at least five times the period length (see VW 101 25 or VDA 2007). The upper and lower limits of the period lengths are dependent on the function of the surface; the minimum lower limit is 0.02 mm. An example of a drawing specification with an upper limit value for the period length is provided in figure 38, while one with an upper and lower limit is illustrated in figure 39.

1.2x5/WDc 0

0.3-1.2x5/WDc 1.6

Figure 38

Figure 39

9.11

Specification of the surface lay

If a specific direction of lay is required, the appropriate symbol as indicated in table 5 shall be added to the surface texture symbol, see figure 40. Whenever the direction of lay cannot be clearly described by a symbol from table 5 or if a specific direction of lay is to be excluded, this information shall be added to the production process details, see figure 41.

ground Rz 16

ground Rz 16

Grooves not in axial direction


Figure 40 Figure 41

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Table 5 – Symbols for the directions of lay Symbol Explanation

=

Parallel to the plane of projection of the view in which the symbol is used.

Direction of lay



Perpendicular to the plane of projection of the view in which the symbol is used.

Direction of lay

X

Crossed in two oblique directions relative to the plane of projection of the view in which the symbol is used.

Direction of lay

M

Multi-directional

C

Approximately centrical relative to the center of the surface to which the symbol applies.

R

Approximately radial relative to the center of the surface to which the symbol applies.

P

Non-grooved surface, undirectional or pitted

NOTE If a direction of lay that is not clearly captured by a symbol is to be indicated, it shall be described in an additional note in the drawing, see figure 41.

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9.12

Specification of the machining allowance

The machining allowance is generally specified only in those cases where several process stages are illustrated in the same drawing. Machining allowances are therefore found e.g. in blank-component drawings of cast and forged workpieces, in which the finished workpiece is shown in the blank-component drawing. The indication of machining allowances by a defined symbol is not applicable to textual indications. When the machining allowance is specified, it may occur that this requirement is the only requirement added to the complete symbol. The machining allowance may also be specified in conjunction with a normal surface texture requirement, see figure 42.
turned

Figure 42 9.13 Simplified specification If complicated entries are to be repeated or if there is insufficient space on the drawing, the basic symbol is entered for the relevant surface with a letter and the meaning is explained near the drawing title block, see figure 43. Lower case letters should be used to this end, preferably from the end of the alphabet.

ground

Oberflaechenbeschaffenheit Surface finish VW 137 05

(

)
Figure 43

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9.14 Examples of entries for porous and stratified heavy-duty contact surfaces The surface parameters, Rpk, Rk and Rvk are entered in the drawing as described in section 6, see figure 44.

Figure 44 10 Surface parameter for special functions For special functions, it may be necessary to deviate from the normal specifications described in the foregoing sections and to stipulate different surface texture requirements. In this event, the drawing according to figure 45 shall be used. NOTE Examples for surface texture specifications, see Annexes A and B 10.1 Specification of transmission characteristic

A short wave filter, λs, in addition to the long wave filter, is in principle not permitted according to VW 101 24 (VDA 2006). The exception to this rule is where this is expressly specified in a drawing. In this case, the transmission characteristic shall be specified before the parameter designation, separated by an oblique stroke (/). The transmission characteristic is specified in the form of the values of the filters' wave length limits (in mm), separated by a hyphen (“-”). The short wave filter is given first, followed by the long wave filter, e.g.:

MRR 0.0025-0.8 / Rz 4

0.0025-0.8 / Rz 4

in text
10.2

in drawings

Meaning and specification of the evaluation length and the sampling length for special cases

Certain parameters are defined on the basis of the sampling length while others are defined on the basis of the evaluation length. If the evaluation length is not specified before the parameter designation, this means that the requirement is based on the normal evaluation length, see section 4.2. If a particular evaluation length is required, e.g. 0.8x16 / Rz 6.3, this yields an evaluation length of 0.8x16 = 12.8 mm. As this evaluation length cannot be processed by all measuring equipment – particularly older models – the evaluation length that comes closest to the limit value shall be set on the device, e.g. 12.5 mm. NOTE In those cases where the number of sampling lengths within the evaluation length is not defined, this must be specified.

Page 24 VW 137 05: 2003-01

a
Lower specified limit L

b
Type of filter

c
Transmission characteristic

d
Number of sampling lengths

e

f
Surface parameter

g
Limit value

Profile

Param eter

L

“X”

0.08 – 0.8 ground

3

Rz

3.3

L “X” 0.8 x 3 / Rz 3.3

h
Type of production a) b)

i
Surface lay

k
Production process

c) d) e) f) g) h) i) k)

Specification of the lower (L) specified limit – refer to section 6.1.1 for details Filter type “X”. The standardized filter is the Gaussian filter (DIN EN ISO 11562). The previously standardized filter was the 2 RC filter. During the transition period, it may be appropriate for some companies to specify the filter type in the drawing. The filter type can be specified as “Gaussian” or “2RC”. This is not standardized, but specification of the filter designation as suggested here is unambiguous. Other filters must be specified. The transmission characteristic is specified as short-wave, long-wave filter, see section 10.1. Number of sampling lengths – refer to sections 4.2, 6.1.2, 9.10 and 10.2 for details. Profile parameter – refer to section 6 for details. For general purposes, the normal parameter is Rz. See section 6. For porous and stratified heavy-duty contact surfaces Rk, Rpk and Rvk shall be indicated. Limit value in micrometers Type of production – refer to sections 5.2, 5.3 and 5.4 for details. Surface lay – refer to section 9.11 for details. Production process - refer to section 9.9 for details. Figure 45 - Specification of the surface texture requirements in technical drawings for special functions

Page 25 VW 137 05: 2003-01

Table 6 lists surface parameters for auxiliary and special functions and their meaning. Figure 45 illustrates how the different determining elements are to be indicated in the drawing. Table 6 - Surface parameters for auxiliary and special functions Defining standard Zt VW 101 24 and DIN EN ISO 4287 Pp, Rp, Wp VW 101 24 and Height of the largest profile peak DIN EN ISO 4287 Pv, Rv, Wv VW 101 24 and Depth of the largest profile trough DIN EN ISO 4287 Pz Average profile height VW 101 24 and DIN EN ISO 4287 Wz Average depth of waviness VW 101 24 and DIN EN ISO 4287 Pc, Rc, Wc Average height of the profile VW 101 24 and elements DIN EN ISO 4287 Rt VW 101 24 and Overall height of the roughness profile DIN EN ISO 4287 Pq, Rq, Wq Quadratic average roughness VW 101 24 and DIN EN ISO 4287 Psk, Rsk, Wsk Incline of the amplitude VW 101 24 and density DIN EN ISO 4287 Pku, Rku, Wku Steepness of the amplitude VW 101 24 and density DIN EN ISO 4287 Psm, Rsm, Wsm Average groove width VW 101 24 and DIN EN ISO 4287 Pδq, Rδq, Wδq Quadratic average value of VW 101 24 and the profile slope DIN EN ISO 4287 Pmr, Rmr, Wmr Material ratio VW 101 24 and DIN EN ISO 4287 Pδc, Rδc, Wδc Mr1 Mr2 Rpq, Ppq Rvq, Pvq Rmq, Pmq Pmr(c) Rmr(c) Wmr(c) VW 101 24 and DIN EN ISO 4287 Material ratio VW 101 24 and DIN EN ISO 13565 -2 Material ratio VW 101 24 and DIN EN ISO 13565 -2 Parameters for surfaces with VW 101 24 and dual machining DIN EN ISO 13565 -3 Height difference between 2 intersection lines Material ratio curve (Abbott curve) VW 101 24 and DIN EN ISO 4287 Code Parameter Height difference of the profile element Explanation Pz always equals Pt Parameter is not suitable for characterizing roughness Corresponds to the standard deviation of the amplitude density Pmr identical to former tpa and Rmr identical to former tpi, if the 5% rule is complied with. Surface portion at the upper limit of the bearing roughness core profile Surface portion at the lower limit of the bearing roughness core profile In the event of dual machining or wear inspections For measurement result documentation; load-bearing characteristics

Page 26 VW 137 05: 2003-01

Annex A A.1 No.

Synoptive tables (informative) Symbols with surface texture specification Symbol Meaning / Explanation Machining that removes material is not permitted, unilateral specification of upper limit, R profile, largest average roughness 25 ?m (maximum permissible roughness value) Evaluation length comprising 5 sampling lengths The machining must remove material, maximum roughness within the whole evaluation length R profile, largest maximum roughness 4 ?m Evaluation length comprising 5 sampling lengths The machining must remove material, unilateral specification of upper limit, R profile, average roughness 3.2 ?m (maximum permissible roughness value) Evaluation length comprising 5 sampling lengths The machining must remove material, unilateral specification of upper limit, R profile, largest average roughness 2.5 ?m (maximum permissible roughness value) Evaluation length comprising 3 sampling lengths Machining that removes material is not permitted, bilateral specification of upper and lower limits, R profile, upper limit: average roughness 40 ?m lower limit: average roughness 25 ?m Evaluation length comprising 5 sampling lengths, values may not exceed or fall below upper and lower limits respectively The machining must remove material, unilateral specification of upper limit, P profile, profile overall height 25 ?m (maximum permissible value), evaluation length is the same as the workpiece length. (This is not economical for long lengths; in such cases the evaluation length may have to be limited, e.g. to 8 mm.)

A.1.1

Rz 25

A.1.2

Rmax 4

A.1.3

Ra 3.2

A.1.4

0.8x3 / Rz 2.5

A.1.5

Rz 40 Rz 25

A.1.6

Pt 25

8 / Pt 25

Page 27 VW 137 05: 2003-01

A.2

Symbols with supplementary specifications

Symbols with supplementary specifications (These specifications can be used together with appropriate symbols from A.1). No. A.2.1 Surface pattern: direction of lay at right angles to the plane of projection of the view (see 9.11) Machining allowance 3 mm (see 9.12) A.2.3 3 Symbol Meaning

milled

Production procedure, milled (see 9.9)

A.2.2



NOTE The manufacturing method, the surface sample and the machining allowance are only given as examples. A.3 No. A.3.1 The meaning of the symbol is specified in the drawing near the lettering field (see 9.13) A.3.2 Symbols for simplified drawing entries Symbol Meaning

y

z

Page 28 VW 137 05: 2003-01

Annex B No. B.1

Examples (informative) Specification Example

Surface roughness:
─ ─ ─ ─ ─ ─ ─

Bilateral specification Upper limit of the specification, Rz = 25 ?m Lower limit of the specification, Rz = 6.3 ?m Both: Highest permissible roughness value Normal evaluation length (5x λc) Lay approximately circular around the center point Production process: milling

milled
0.8x5 / Rz 25 0.8x5 / Rz 6.3 c

NOTE Given the large roughness tolerance, a variable cut off would have to be used for measurement. As this is not economical, the cut off is specified. B.2 Surface roughness on all individual surfaces excluding one:
─ ─ ─ ─ ─ ─

Single, unilateral specification of upper limit Rz = 6.3 ?m Highest permissible roughness value Normal evaluation length (5x λc) Surface lay, no requirement Production process: material is removed

The individual surface with a different requirement has the following surface roughness:
─ ─ ─ ─ ─ ─

Single, unilateral specification of upper limit Ra = 1.6 ?m Highest permissible roughness value Normal evaluation length (5x λc) Surface lay, no specification Production process: material is removed

NOTE Can only be specified if the normal evaluation length can be used on all surfaces. B.3 Surface roughness:
─ ─ ─ ─ ─ ─

Two unilateral specified upper limits Rz = 1.6 ?m ─ Rmax = 6.3 ?m ─ Maximum roughness Highest permissible roughness value ─ Normal evaluation length Normal evaluation length (5x λc) (5x λc) Surface lay approximately at right angles to the plane of projection of the view Production process: grinding Single, unilateral specification of upper limit Rz = 1 ?m Highest permissible roughness value Normal evaluation length (5x λc) Surface lay, no specification Surface treatment: nickel/chromium coating

ground Rmax 6.3 Rz 1.6



B.4

Surface roughness:
─ ─ ─ ─ ─ ─

Fe//Ni20pCrr Rz 1

Page 29 VW 137 05: 2003-01

No. B.5 Surface roughness:
─ ─ ─ ─ ─ ─ ─ ─ ─ ─

Specification

Example

A unilateral upper specification and a bilateral specification Unilateral, Ra = 3.2 ?m Highest permissible arithmetic average roughness Normal evaluation length (5x λc) Bilateral Specified upper limit, Rz = 16 ?m Specified lower limit, Rz = 6.3 ?m Both: Normal evaluation length (5x λc) but different cut off Surface lay, at right angles to the plane of projection Surface treatment: nickel/chromium coating

Fe//Ni10bCrr
Ra 3.2 Rz 16



Rz 6.3

B.6

The surface texture specification and the dimensioning can be combined by using the same extension line. Surface roughness on the chamfer:
─ ─ ─ ─ ─

Single, unilateral specification of upper limit Rz = 2.5 ?m Highest permissible roughness value Normal evaluation length (5x λc) Surface lay, no requirement

Production process: material is removed Surface roughness on the side surfaces of a key groove:
─ ─ ─ ─ ─ ─

Single, unilateral specification of upper limit Rz = 6.3 ?m Highest permissible roughness value Normal evaluation length (5x λc) Surface lay, no specification Production process: material is removed together on an extension line or separately on the relevant projection and dimension lines Single, unilateral specification of upper limit One after the other: Rz = 1.6 ?m; Rz = 6.3 ?m; Rz = 40 ?m Highest permissible roughness value Normal evaluation length (5x λc) Surface lay, no requirement Production process: material is removed

B.7

Surface texture and dimensioning can be specified:
─ ─

All three roughness requirements together in the example are:
─ ─ ─ ─ ─ ─

Page 30 VW 137 05: 2003-01

No. B.8

Specification Specification of surface texture, dimensioning and machining process. The example illustrates three consecutive production processes or stages. 1st
─ ─ ─ ─ ─ ─

Example
ground

2nd
─ ─

3rd
─ ─ ─ ─ ─ ─

stage: Single, unilateral specification of upper limit Rz = 1.6 ?m Highest permissible roughness value Normal evaluation length (5x λc) Surface lay, no requirement Production process: material is removed stage: No surface requirements, other than: Chromium coating stage: A single, unilateral specified upper limit, only valid for the first 50 mm of the cylinder surface Rz = 6.3 ?m Highest permissible roughness value Normal evaluation length (5x λc) Surface lay, no requirement Production process: grinding ground Rz 1.6 WDc 0 Dominant projections are not permitted A unilateral specified limit for the surface roughness Rz = 1.6 ?m Production process: grinding Upper limit value for the average profile height of the dominant waviness 1.6 ?m Maximum roughness Rmax = 6.3 ?m Production process: grinding Upper limit value of the period length 1.2 mm Number of period lengths = 5 Dominant waviness not permitted A unilateral specified limit for the surface roughness Rz = 6.3 ?m Lower limit value of the period length 0.3 mm Upper limit value of the period length 1.2 mm Number of period lengths = 5 Upper limit value for the overall height of the WD profile 2.5 ?m Maximum roughness Rmax = 6.3 ?m

B.9

Dominant waviness:
─ ─ ─

B.10

Dominant waviness:
─ ─ ─

ground Rmax 6.3 WDc 1.6

B.11

Dominant waviness:
─ ─ ─ ─

Rz 6.3 1.2x5/WDc 0

B.12

Dominant waviness:
─ ─ ─ ─ ─

Rmax 6.3 0.3-1.2x5/WDt 2.5

Page 31 VW 137 05: 2003-01

Annex C C.1

Comparison of Ra and Rz (informative) This appendix is not part of VDA 2005

Diagram for average roughness Ra

The average roughness value Ra is only permitted in exceptional cases as it provides a lower level of information than the peak-to-valley roughness Rz on account of the fact that different peak-to-valley roughness values can have the same average roughness value Ra, see section C.1.3. C.1.1 Conversion of Ra values to Rz values If technical drawings or other product documentation based on outside supplier requirements with Ra values are compiled, the Ra values shall be converted into Rz values using the following diagram (figure C.1), see note.

Scatter range

Upper limit of Rz for conversion from Ra to Rz

Ra values in ?in

Ra values in ?m

Upper limit of Ra for conversion from Rz to Ra

Rz values in ?m

Figure C.1 – Diagram Determination of the average peak-to-valley roughness Rz in case of requirements concerning the average roughness Ra or determination of the average roughness Ra in case of requirements concerning the average peak-to-valley roughness Rz, considering the scatter range and sufficient certainty. The upper limit line of the scatter range is used to determine the Rz limit value for a prescribed Ra value. The lower limit line of the scatter range is used to determine the Ra limit value for a prescribed Rz value.

Page 32 VW 137 05: 2003-01

NOTE There is neither theoretical reason nor empirical proof for a precise conversion of the average roughness value Ra to the peak-to-valley roughness Rz or vice versa. The Rz values assigned to the Ra values and the Ra values assigned to the Rz values are subject to scatter. This is why the diagram shows a grid area rather than a graph. Using the limit lines of the scatter area to determine the Rz and Ra values ensures that a sufficiently high certainty factor is taken into account. Note that with foreign production requirements the average roughness Ra (the term used in GB is “centre line average value CLA”, the term used in the USA is “arithmetical average AA”) is frequently given in ?in (microinch) as compared to ?m (micrometer). As a consequence, the Ra values are represented in both units in the diagram. C.1.2 Example of entry with Ra value and Rz value In the drawings, the converted Rz value is entered on the symbol along with the original Ra value as a reference value in parentheses serving as the decisive indication of the conversion, see figure C.2.

Rz 6.3 (Ra 1.6)
Figure C.2 – Example of entry with Ra value and Rz value C.1.3 Surface profiles with approximately similar Ra values but different Rz values, see figure C.3

Figure C.3 – Surface profiles

Page 33 VW 137 05: 2003-01

Annex D

Former practice (informative)

For drawings that were first released or last modified prior to the release of this standard, the following requirements shall apply with respect to waviness: If there is no additional specification for Wt, Wt must then be less than or equal to the measured Rz value, see figure D.1.

Rz 25

Meaning:

Rz ≤ 25 ?m Wt ≤ Rz – actual value Figure D.1

Books to refer to: DIN EN ISO 3274:1998, Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) – Surface Texture: Profile Method – Nominal Characteristics of Contact (Stylus) Instruments DIN EN ISO 5436-1:2000, Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) – Surface Texture: Profile Method; Measurement Standards – Part 1: Material Measures


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