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(通用版)2016高考英语二轮复习 专题四 语法填空和短文改错 第三讲 语法专题 二 代词和介词针对训练


代词和介词

[专项训练] 【代词】 Ⅰ.单句语法填空 1.(2015·高考浙江卷改编)How would you like ________if you were watching your favorite TV program and someone came into the room and just shut it off without aski

ng you? 解析:句意:如果你正在看最喜欢的电视节目,有人走进来,不说一声就关掉了电视, 你会作何感想? it 指代 if you were watching...asking you 这件事。How do you like it if...?如果??,你作何感想?可以当作固定句式记忆。 答案:it 2.(2015·高考重庆卷改编)The meeting will be held in September,but ________knows the date for sure. 解析:句意:会议将在九月份举行,但是没人知道确切的日期。句中的转折连词 but 是解题的关键,表明人们现在只知道会议在九月份开,但确切日期不知道。 答案:nobody 3.(2015·辽宁五校协作体联考改编)—I’d like some apple juice. —Sorry,there is ________left.What about some other drink? 解析:句意:——我想买点苹果汁。——对不起,苹果汁没有了,其他饮料可以吗?此 处是指苹果汁没有了,有范围限制。故填 none,指特定范围之内,表示“一点儿也没有”。 答案:none 4.(2015·四川名校联盟测试改编)Monitor in Class 8 rushed to the classroom to ask for help only to find _________of the classmates there. 解析:句意:8 班班长跑到教室寻求帮助,却发现没人在那儿。none 指的是三者或三者 以上的人或物中没有一个,可以与 of 连用。 答案:none 5.The students returned to school with a sense of achievement,a feeling that ________helped people in need. 解析:句意:这些学生带着成就感回到学校,一种他们帮助了那些需要帮助的人的成就 感。设空处指代前面提到的 the students,在同位语从句中作主语,故填 they。 答案:they 6.I’m writing this letter to share with you ________(I) opinions. 解析:句意:我写这封信来与你分享我的看法。设空处作定语,修饰名词 opinions, 故填形容词性物主代词 my。 答案:my 7.(2015·浙江重点中学协作体适应性训练改编)________road out of town is good, but this one is better than the other. 解析:句意:出城的两条路都不好,但是这条路要比那条路好些。根据后句中 better 和 the other 判断,此处指两条路,再由 but 后面的转折内容可知设空处表否定,故填 Neither。 答案:Neither

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8.This project requires close teamwork.________ will be achieved unless we work well together. 解析: 句意: 这个项目需要密切的合作,除非我们通力合作,否则一事无成。根据句意, 此处应该用表否定意义的代词,不强调范围,故填 Nothing。 答案:Nothing 9.—Mum,have you seen my new book? —The one you bought last Sunday?I’m afraid I haven’t seen ________. 解析:句意:——妈妈,你看见我的新书了吗?——你上星期日买的那本吗?恐怕我没 有看见。空格处指代上文出现过的同一事物,因此用 it。 答案:it 10 . Lily was the only person who noticed me coming into the classroom , the ________all absorbed in reading. 解析:句意:Lily 是唯一注意到我进教室的人,所有其他人都沉浸在阅读中。从题干 可以看出,这里的其他人是指教室里除 Lily 之外的人,故此处有范围,且表示特指,并且 有复数,故填 others。 答案:others Ⅱ.单句改错 1.(2015·高考陕西卷·短文改错)I wanted to do anything special for him at his retirement party. ________________________________________________________________________ 解析:句意:我想在他的退休晚会上为他做点儿特别的事情。此处是表示某件事而不是 任何事情。 答案:anything—something 2.(2015·高考四川卷·短文改错)It’s been three Saturdays now and it really costs me many. ________________________________________________________________________ 解析: many 用来指代可数名词复数,而此处指代花费的钱,因此要用 much。 答案:many—much 3.(2015·河南信阳模拟·短文改错)All the people I visited were grateful,not only for surviving but to the country for helping their. ________________________________________________________________________ 解析: 句意: 我所拜访的所有人都心存感激, 不光为幸存下来, 也为国家对他们的帮助。 设空处作 help 的宾语,指代 all the people I visited,故用人称代词的宾格形式 them。 答案:their—them 4. All over the city, history and modernity come together to make that an essential place for tourists to discover. ________________________________________________________________________ 解析:句意:遍布全城的历史性和现代性的结合,使得这里成为一个游客们必定前来游 览的地方。本题考查“make + it + adj./ n.+ to do”结构,it 为形式宾语,不定式 为真正宾语。只有 it 可以作形式主语和形式宾语。 答案:that—it 5.Not having found something,he had to go home with empty hands. ________________________________________________________________________ 解析:句意:没有找到任何东西,他只好空着手回家了。根据后句中 with empty hands

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可知他没发现什么。 not anything 相当于 nothing, 上文已有表示否定的 not, 故把 something 改为 anything。 答案:something—anything 6.The Xiaomi Phone 4 has functions similar to ones of Apple’s iPhone 6,but sells for just half the price of its competitor. ________________________________________________________________________ 解析:句意:小米手机 4 有与苹果的 iPhone 6 相似的功能,但销售价格仅是它的一半。 替代名词 functions,又有后置定语 of Apple’s iPhone 6,表特指,故用 those。 答案:ones—those 7.—Which book do you think is the best? —Neither.They are both boring and expensive. ________________________________________________________________________ 解析:句意:——你认为哪本书最好?——都不好,它们既枯燥又昂贵。对话中的 best 提示我们比较对象至少是三者,对三者或三者以上的事物进行全部否定用 none。答语中的 both 可能会误导以为答案为 Neither。 答案:Neither—None 8.The parties of the contract have equal legal status,and neither party may impose its will on the others. ________________________________________________________________________ 解析: 句意: 合同双方享有同等的合法地位, 任何一方都不能把自己的意愿强加于对方。 签署合同的只有两方,表示“另一方”,用 the other。 答案:others—other 9.I’ve lived in New York and Chicago,but don’t like neither of them very much. ________________________________________________________________________ 解析: 句意: 我在纽约和芝加哥住过, 但是我不喜欢它们中的任何一个。 根据转折词 but 可知,后面的意思应为“两个都不喜欢” ,因为前面有 not,故把 neither 改为 either,not either=neither。 答案:neither—either 10.Why are you leaving right away?You promised to stay more two hours. ________________________________________________________________________ 解析:句意:你为什么要马上就离开呢?你答应过再待两个小时的。“another+数字 +复数名词=数字+more+复数名词”意为“再几个,又几个”。 答案:more—another 【介词】 Ⅰ.单句语法填空 1.(2015·高考福建卷改编)Human life is regarded as part of nature and,as such, the only way for us to survive is to live________harmony with nature. 解析:句意:人的生活是自然的一部分,因此,我们生存下来的唯一的方法就是与自然 和谐相处。in harmony with 与??和谐相处。 答案:in 2.(2015·高考湖北卷改编)This meeting room is a non?smoking area.I would like to warn you________advance that if you smoked here you would be fined. 解析: 句意: 这个会议室是无烟区域, 我想提前警告你:如果你在这里吸烟,会被罚款。

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in advance“提前”。 答案:in 3.(2015·高考陕西卷改编)The little pupil took his grandma ________the arm and walked her across the street. 解析:句意:那个小学生搀着他奶奶的胳膊,送她过了街道。“take sb.by+the+身 体部位”为固定搭配,意为“抓住/触及某人的??”。 答案:by 4 .(2015·高考浙江卷改编 )Have you ever heard of the trees that are homes ________animals both on land and sea? 解析:句意:你听说过成为海陆两栖动物的栖息地的树吗? be home to 为固定搭配, 意为“是??的栖息地,是??的家园”。 答案:to 5 .(2015·高考浙江卷改编 )These comments came in response ________specific questions often asked by local newsmen. 解析:句意:这些评论是回应当地记者常提出的各种具体问题的。根据句子的关键信息 these comments 和 specific questions 可知,此处表示这些评论是对各种具体问题的回应。 in response to 回答,响应。 答案:to 6.(2015·高考重庆卷改编)Last year was the warmest year on record,with global temperature 0.68℃ _________the average. 解析:句意:去年是有史以来最暖和的一年,全球温度比平均值高出 0.68 摄氏度。根 据逗号前面的 the warmest year 可知,去年的温度应该是在平均值之上的,故填 above, above the average 在平均值之上。 答案:above 7. (2014·高考浙江卷改编)While staying in the village, James unselfishly shared whatever he had with the villagers without asking for anything ________return. 解析:句意:在村子里待的那段时间,詹姆斯无私地同村民分享他所拥有的一切,而不 要任何东西作为回报。由关键信息 unselfishly shared 和 without asking for anything 可知,此处表示“不要任何东西作为回报(in return)”。 答案:in 8.(2014·高考江西卷改编) It is unbelievable that Mr.Lucas leads a simple life _________his great wealth. 解析:句意:尽管 Lucas 先生有大量的财富,但是他过着简朴的生活,这真是让人难以 置信。根据“a simple life”以及“his great wealth”可知此处用表转折关系的介词 despite(尽管)。 答案:despite 9.(2014·高考全国大纲卷改编)September 30 is the day ________which you must pay your bill. 解析:句意:9 月 30 日是你付账单的截止日期。by 意为“到??为止”,符合句意。 答案:by 10 . As is widely received , outdoor activities help children learn through curiosity,which,________turn,promotes creativity. 解析:句意:人们普遍认为,户外活动有助于孩子通过好奇心学习新事物,这反过来也 能促进创造力。in turn 为固定搭配,意为“反过来” ,符合句意。

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答案:in Ⅱ.单句改错 1.(2015·高考浙江卷·短文改错)My old classroom was interesting because three sides of the classroom were made from glass. ________________________________________________________________________ 解析:此处表示的是“教室的三面是由玻璃制成的”,从制成品中可以看出原材料,应 用 be made of 结构,所以应将 from 改为 of。 答案:from—of 2.(2015·高考陕西卷·短文改错)My soccer coach retired in last week. ________________________________________________________________________ 解析:last week,next week,this week,that week 前不加介词。 答案:去掉 in 3.(2014·高考浙江卷改编)Facing up to your problems instead running away from them is the best approach to working things out. ________________________________________________________________________ 解析: 句意: 面对你的问题而不是逃避它们才是解决问题的最好办法。 instead 为副词, 后不接宾语,故改为介词短语 instead of。 答案:instead 后加 of 4.To view of the weather,our school sports meet has to be held in the indoor stadium. ________________________________________________________________________ 解析:句意:由于天气原因,我们学校的运动会不得不在室内体育馆举行。in view of 意为“鉴于,由于,考虑到”,为固定搭配。 答案:To—In 5.I have just graduated from senior high school.I want to find out a part? time job in the summer. ________________________________________________________________________ 解析:句意:我刚刚高中毕业。我想在夏天找一份兼职工作。find out 意为“查明”, “找到”应为 find。 答案:去掉 out 6.I believe it’s the best way to get close nature and enjoy its beauty. ________________________________________________________________________ 解析:句意:我相信这是接近大自然并欣赏其美丽的最好方法。get close to 为固定 搭配,意为“接近,靠近”。 答案:在 close 后加 to 7.In spite its 30 years of history,the Spring Festival Gala has gradually lost its appeal,particularly among younger viewers. ________________________________________________________________________ 解析:句意:尽管走过来三十个年头,但春晚逐渐丧失了它的魅力,特别是在年轻观众 中。in spite of 意为“尽管”,为固定搭配。 答案:在 spite 后加 of 8.He invited me to a dance after the show at Christmas Eve. ________________________________________________________________________ 解析:句意:在圣诞节前夕的演出之后,他邀请我参加了一个舞会。Christmas Eve 圣

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诞节前夕,应与介词 on 连用。 答案:at—on 9.Do you know any other foreign language except English? ________________________________________________________________________ 解析: 由本题中的信息词 any other foreign language 可知应用 besides, 表示“除?? 之外(还有)”。 答案:except—besides 10.We left at 6:30 a.m.on our school bus and arrived Beihai Park three hours later. ________________________________________________________________________ 解析:句意:我们上午六点半坐校车离开,三个小时之后到达北海公园。arrive 为不 及物动词,后可接 at 或 in。at 用于表示较小的地方,in 用于表示较大的地方。 答案:在 arrived 后加 at [高考模拟] Ⅰ.语法填空 (2015·江西南昌高三年级调研测试卷)阅读下面材料,在空白处填入适当的内容(1 个 单词)或括号内单词的正确形式。 Some inventions happen in strange ways.The potato chip is one of them. Moon’ s Lake House was 1.____________ restaurant in New York in the 1850s.George Crum was the cook there.Many rich people often came to the restaurant 2.____________ (enjoy) his cooking. The one thing that really upset Crum was 3.____________ a customer complained about the food and sent it back to the kitchen to be done over.He would often return it overcooked.He was happy to see the customer walk out of the restaurant 4.____________ (angry). On August 24,1853,a customer returned his fried potatoes to the kitchen, 5.____________ they weren’t crunchy( 脆 的 ) enough.Crum reacted in his 6.____________ (usually) way.He cut the potatoes very thin and cooked them in hot oil.They were so crunchy and Crum was sure that the man would refuse 7.____________ (eat) them.Instead,the man loved them.He even asked for more. Now,do you know 8.____________ invented the potato chip?It’s George Crum! He 9.____________ (late) set up his own restaurant.He named it Crum’s House.He put baskets of his potato chips on all the tables.They made his restaurant a very popular place. Today,potato chips are one of Americans’ 10.____________ (favor) foods! 【解题导语】 本文告诉我们薯片是怎么被发明出来的。 1.解析:考查冠词。restaurant 是名词,此处表示泛指,故用不定冠词 a。 答案:a 2.解析:考查非谓语动词。这里用动词不定式作目的状语,表示许多富人常常来这里 吃他烹饪的饭菜。 答案:to enjoy 3.解析:考查表语从句。此处应用 when 引导表语从句,且在从句中作时间状语。 答案:when 4.解析:考查副词。根据前面“walk out of the restaurant”可知,后面应用副词

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angrily 修饰动词。 答案:angrily 5.解析:考查连词。根据语境可知,此处表示“因为油炸的土豆不够脆”,强调原因, 故用 because。 答案:because 6.解析:考查形容词。根据后面的名词 way 可知,此处应用形容词。 答案:usual 7.解析:考查动词不定式。refuse to do sth.“拒绝做某事”。 答案:to eat 8.解析:考查疑问词。根据后面“It’s George Crum”可知,此处问的是谁发明了薯 片。 答案:who 9.解析:考查副词。根据后面的“set up”可知,这里应用 later。 答案:later 10.解析:考查形容词。根据后面的“foods”可知,这里需要用形容词,且表示“最 喜欢的”。 答案:favorite Ⅱ.短文改错 (2015·河北石家庄一模)假定英语课上老师要求同桌之间交换修改作文, 请你修改你同 桌写的以下作文。文中共有 10 处语言错误,每句中最多有两处。每处错误仅涉及一个单词 的增加、删除或修改。 增加:在缺词处加一个漏字符号(∧),并在其下面写出该加的词。 删除:把多余的词用斜线(\划掉。 修改:在错的词下划一横线,并在该词下面写出修改后的词。 注意:1.每处错误及其修改均仅限一词; 2.只允许修改 10 处,多者(从第 11 处起)不计分。 One year ago,I had a special English lesson hold at the railway station.It was quite different from the regular English classes we were familiar to,for we had no textbooks,no blackboard or no fixed seats. Gathering at the entrance of the station,we told to collect as many English words and sentences as possible here.Curious and excited , we walked around the station and looked everywhere,search for any information in English.Whenever an English word comes into sight,the class would burst into the cheers as if we had discovered a new world.With the Chinese translation and vividly pictures,we could figure out its meaning with ease. Now, this unforgettable lesson still encourages me to be an active learner where I go. 答案: One year ago,I had a special English lesson hold at the railway station.It was held to ,for we had with

quite different from the regular English classes we were familiar no textbooks,no blackboard or no fixed seats. and

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∧ Gathering at the entrance of the station, we were told to collect as many English words and sentences as possible here .Curious and excited,we walked around the there

search station and looked everywhere, for any information in English.Whenever searching an English word comes into sight,the class would burst into the cheers as if we came vividly pictures,we vivid

had discovered a new world.With the Chinese translation and

could figure out its meaning with ease. Now , this unforgettable lesson still encourages me to be an active learner where I go. wherever

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