第 十一 讲
Back to the past
I 重点短语 take over 接管、占据 take off 脱掉（衣帽等） 、切除（物） 、动身、 （飞机等）起飞、请（几天）假 take… off…从（价格）中减去?? take on 雇用（某人） 、承担（工作） 、
呈现、流行 take out 取出 1. take to 喜欢上（某人） 、开始（??） 、养成??的恶习 take up 拿起、占有、开始、继续、 （车辆等）搭载（乘客） take in 吸收、包括、了解、理解、欺骗、收留（某人）住宿 take back 取回（某物） 、收回（承诺等） 、归还 take after（长得）像（父母等） take… for…把??当作??、误认??为?? ①求助于 ②翻到（书的某页） ③变成 ④开始工作 ⑤把注意力导向??
2. turn to
①[U]毁灭 the ~ of civilization ②[C]常用 pl. 废墟、遗址 the ~s of ancient Rome 3. ruin ③ in ruins 成为废墟的、荒芜的 ④ bring … to ruin 使??毁灭 ⑤ fall in/into ruin = go to ruin 灭亡；荒芜 ⑥vt. Heavy smoking ruined his health. ruin oneself ruin/ destroy/ damage 都含有“破坏、毁灭”的意思，但有区别： destroy 指彻底毁坏不能或很难修复。 damage 指价值、用途降低或外表损坏等，不一定全部破坏，损坏了还可以修复。 ruin 现在多用于借喻中，泛指一般的“弄坏了” 。 remains ①pl. 剩余、残留物；② pl. 遗体、尸首 ①link v. 保持，仍然处于(某种状态) = still to be = continue to be = stay remain 后接形容词、名词.、分词、不定式或介词短语等 ②vi 剩下 ，还有 ≠ stay
the remaining time = the time left (注意 remaining 和 left 的位置变化)
比较：remain / stay ①作连系动词，意为“继续保持某一状态” （continue to be）时，常可互换。 ②表示“剩余” 、 “残存”时，通常只用 remain，而不用 stay。 ③remain 暗指呆在原地或保持原来的形状或状态。 只能用作不及物动词， 故无被动式， 不能带宾语。主语可以是人，也可以是物。 ④stay 指在某地作短暂停留，或逗留在一定的场所。主语通常是人。 be involved in 热衷于、专心于、参与、卷入、牵涉到 involve oneself with 和??混在一起、和??有牵连 involve sth. 包含、需要 winning the game involves both skill and fortune.
① = take … away 移开 ② = take off 脱掉 6. remove … from… ③ =get rid of 除掉、清除 ④ =dismiss… from… 撤职 ⑤ =move 搬家 ①“环境、情况、条件” ，常用 pl. ②[U]“状态、状况” ，但可与 a 连用 in good condition ; in a terrible condition 7. condition ③“环境、情况” ，其前的介词用 under / in ④ on condition that “在??条件下” in a condition to do sth. 宜于做某事 on no condition 在任何条件下都不 ① 8. require + ② ③ ④ n. / pron. sb. to do sth. doing/ to be done 从句 用虚拟语气
(should) + 动词原形
in return (for…) 作为（对??的）回报 / 报答 by return （接信后）立即作复 Many happy returns (of the day)! 祝你长寿！祝你长命百岁！ in turn 依次地 by turns 轮流地 take turns to do sth. = take turns at doing sth.轮流做某事 It’s one’s turn to do sth.轮到某人做某事
carry out 实施、执行、进行 10. carry on 进行、继续。有时可跟动名词 carry on with 继续做（某事） carry off 夺走（奖赏） 、带走 ①adj. 主要的、重要的、较大的 ②n. 主修科目、主修学生 ③vi. 主修 （in +科目）
in memory of = to the memory of 为纪念?? （只用于对已故人的怀念） in honor of = in one’s honor 为纪念?? （既可用于对已故人的纪念，也可用于对活人 的敬意） goods 货物、 商品、 财产。 （复数形式， 无单数形式， 不可与数词连用， 但可与 many， these，those 等连用。作主语时，谓语动词用复数形式。 ） possession （pl.）财产；所有物； [U] 持有；具有 wealth [U] 财富
II 重点句型 1. Unfortunately, all the people were buried alive, so was the city. 2. A saying goes that Rome wasn’t built in a day. (= As the saying goes,) 3. I am very honored and grateful that you have come today. 4. Not only was Rome a city and a republic, but it was also to become the capital of one the largest empires in history. 5. There is another similarity between China and Rome.
【例 1】A large number of students in our school ______from the countryside; the number _______ growing these years. （2007 上海育才 2 月交流卷） A. is; has been B. are; has been C. is; have been D. are; have been 【易错点悟】解答该题的关键是要注意 a number of 和 the number of 后接名词复数作主语 时的主谓一致关系。 【要点精析】a number of 意思为“许多” ，后接复数名词作主语时，应视为复数，谓语动 词要用复数形式； the number of 后接复数名词，意思为“??的数量” ，表示单数
意义，谓语动词要用单数形式。 【答案】B 【例 2】—O’Neal works hard. —So he does. He is often seen _____ heavily before his teammates have even arrived at practice. （2007 浙江余杭中学 2 月卷） A. to be sweated B. sweated C. be sweated D. sweating 【易错点悟】解答该题关键是要正确处理好“感觉动词、使役动词”主动形式与被动形式 复合结构中动词的选用。 【答案解析】根据句子结构可知，感觉动词 see 用于被动结构，选项 A、C 不可以用于这 一结构中；选项 B 为被动意义，不成立；只有选项 D(sweating)现在分词与 be seen 构成复合结构，强调状态。 【答案】D
单项填空 1. Mr. Wang has been selected ________ chairman of the conference. A. a B. an C. the D. / 2. Housework _____ cooking, washing dishes, sweeping and cleaning. A. involving B. involving in C. involves D. involves in 3. The emergency ________ that the police should be called at once. A. insists B. suggests C. requires D. advises 4. ―Are you very anxious? ―Yes. Ten minutes ________ like an hour when you are waiting for a phone call. A. seem B. seems C. do D. does 5. ―What do you think of Peter? ―He is a helpful person. He is always helping people without expecting anything _____. A. in turn B. in return C. on his return D. on the turn 6. The refugees (难民)have been fed, clothed and _____ by welfare organizations around the world. A. stored B. collected C. housed D. provided 7. ―Why didn’t you join them? You are ________.
―I had to receive an unexpected visitor. A. wanted to B. wanted to have C. supposed to D. supposed to have 8. John is the only son of the couple, so it is certain that he will ______ the big business when his father gets old. A. hand over B. take over C. go over D. turn over 9. With more forests _______, huge quantities of good earth are being washed away. A. being destroyed B. destroyed C. to be destroyed D. destroying 10. Nothing _________ after the terrible fire which had been cause by someone smoking in bed. A. remained B. left C. continued D. kept 11. The meeting being over, I found her _____ at the desk and ____ to music. A. seating; listened B. seated; listened C. seating; listening D. seated; listening 12. ________ as one, the people of that country eventually drove the invaders out of their country. A. Linked B. Combined C. Joined D. United 13. A monument was set up at the centre of Tian’anmen Square _____ those who devoted their lives to our country. A. in praise of B. in place of C. in memory of D. in need of 14. Some young people are holding a birthday party next door, and the noise nearly _____ me crazy. A. let B. get C. make D. drive 15.－You didn’t get hurt at all in the traffic accident? －_______. I was a lucky dog. A. No problem B. I don’t think so C. I’m afraid not D. Good heavens no 完形填空 One fine evening a man walked into a fast - food chicken place and bought a nine - piece bucket of chicken. He 16 his chicken to the park for a romantic picnic under the moonlight with his 17 . Upon reaching into the 18 , however, he received a 19 . Instead of chicken he discovered nine thousand dollars! The young man 20 the bucket back to the store and asked
for his 21 exchange for the money. The manager, 22 by the young man’s honesty, asked for his name and told him he wanted to call the 23 and the local news station to do a morality (道德说教) that would 24 others. “My date’s waiting, I just want my chicken,” the hungry man refused. The manager was deeply struck by the young man’s humility (谦虚). He 25 to be allowed to tell the story on the news. At this the honest man became 26 with the manager and demanded his chicken. “You are an honest man in a (an) 27 world! This is a perfect opportunity to show the world that there are honest people 28 willing to take a stand for what is right. Please, give me your 29 and also the woman’s name. Is that your wife?” “That’s the 30 ,”said the young man. “My wife is at home. The woman in the car is my girlfriend. Now let me have my chicken 31 I can get out of here.” It’s 32 to look good to people who don’t 33 you. Many of us do a good deed here and there, and everyone 34 we’re something that we are not. But God sees your heart. It really doesn’t matter how much you 35 or what other people think of you. What matters is what’s on the inside. 16. A. took B. ate C. carried D. sent 17. A. sister B. wife C. friend D. lady 18. A. park B. car C. pocket D. bucket 19. A. love B. welcome C. surprise D. pleasure 20. A. returned B. brought C. got D. lifted 21. A. money B. right C. change D. chicken 22. A. moved B. encouraged C. surprised D. delighted 23. A. newspaper B. people C. government D. public 24. A. please B. desire C. inspire D. interest 25. A. asked B. begged C. needed D. required 26. A. glad B. calm C. angry D. silent 27. A. dishonest B. honest C. lovely D. peaceful 28. A. never B. even C. yet D. still 29. A. address B. name C. chicken D. opinion 30. A. problem B. difficulty C. astonishment D. excitement 31 .A. but B. so C. for D. as 32. A. difficult B. good C. easy D. pleasant 33. A. know B. love C. realize D. understand 34. A. finds B. says C. thinks D. insists 35. A. get B. do C. pay D. receive 阅读理解 (A) If you’re the type of traveler who just wants a suitable place to hang your hat and you don’t
want to spend a fortune to do it, here are several ways to save on your next hotel room:
*Be Flexible Hotel rates are based on supply and demand, so be aware of peak periods. If your destination’s high season is from December through April and you’re trying to book near the end of April, you might find considerable savings if you change your travel dates by a week or two. *Check Hotel Web Sites The large travel-booking Web sites often sell rooms from the
middlemen who have bought up empty hotel moms. But the major hotel chains also offer last-minute discounts, and because they’re not paying the middleman, they sometimes have better deals than the travel sites. Most people are so intimidated ( 畏 缩 的 ) by know-it-all hotel desk clerks that they don’t bargain for a better deal. But bargaining for a better deal is often worth the trouble, because most hotel general managers would prefer having a customer paying a lower-than-usual rate to no customer at all. And if you find something unfair on your hotel bill, don’t be afraid to complain. To keep your goodwill, hotels will often reduce or cancel such charges.
*Don’t be Afraid to Bargain
*Avoid Hidden Costs Expensive little extras hotels never mention can increase the
cost of your stay. Don’t let this happen. Find out about resort fees, fees for parking and Internet use before you agree to stay. And don’t touch the hotel’s phone unless you absolutely have to — the rates can be more than $2 a minute even inside the United States. 36. According to the passage, which of the following will save you some money? A. Change your visiting places in high season. B. Book rooms through Web sites. C. Use the hotel’s phone. D. Bargain with desk clerks for your room, 37. That travelers can bargain for better deal is often based on the fact that _______. A. managers often prefer a lower-paid customer to no customer B. there are many places which should not be charged C. customers are often afraid to complain the price D. the desk clerks and managers often cheat the travelers 38. The passage was mainly written to ________. A. advertise hotels B. complain high costs C. serve the travelers D. introduce hotel services (B) Children who spend more time reading with their parents have a greater chance of becoming better readers than those who don’t. With help from their parents, children can learn techniques to improve their reading skills. “A lot of parents think after their child learns to read, they should stop reading to them,” Donna George said. “They are sadly mistaken.”
George offers her services to parents at the Title I Learning Centers. She said reading aloud to children may be the most valuable thing parents can do. “It is better for children to hear things at a higher level than where they are,” George said. “Parents are their child’s first teacher.” Parents help their children build listening, phonics, comprehension and vocabulary skills when they read aloud to them. Before parents can identify reading problems, they should escape the enemy-television and limit the time their children spend watching television. George suggested not allowing kids to have a TV in their bedrooms, setting a schedule of when kids can watch or keeping a list of how many programs children watch. Louise Joines said while her 14-year-old daughter and 10-year-old son enjoy reading, the television sometimes becomes a distraction. So she tries to build the situation by suggesting books the entire family will enjoy reading together, like the Harry Potter series. Parents who do not read themselves should not count on their children being enthusiastic about it. If parents would read to their children at least 15 minutes every day, children would not have so many problems in school. It is the patents’ job to help build that desire in their children, and of course to know what kind of books to read is also important. 39. According to George, reading aloud to children ________. A. help them correct mistakes B. is helpful to their reading C. is parents’ first duty to their children D. can get children out of television’s attraction 40. The underlined word (in Paragraph 4 ) means something that __________. A. can improve children’s reading B. can help children’s right way of reading C. can make children interested in reading D. can make children not attentive 41. What does the fourth paragraph mainly want to show is important? A. reading skills B. reading speed C. feeding materials D. reading environment 42. If the passage is not completed, which of the following can follow the fifth paragraph? A. Parents choose reading materials for their children. B. Advice is given to control their children. C. What TV programs children can watch during reading. D. How children improve their reading by themselves. 43. Which one would be the best title for the passage? A. Children Spend More Time Reading with Parents. B. Parents Are Their Child’s First Teacher. C. How Parents Make Their Child a Better Render. D. How to Improve Children’s Reading Ability.
对话填空 A= a passer-by B = a native A: (44) E______ me, could you tell me which bus I can take to the Wang Fu Jing Department Store? B: Just take the No. 1 bus going in that (45) d______ (pointing) and get off at the Wang Fu Jing Stop. Walk a few (46) s________ to the corner and turn left. Keep on (47) g________ until you come to a tall cream-colored building. That’s the Wang Fu Jing Department Store. There are usually a lot of cars (48) p_______ in front of it. A: Thank you. And where is the No. 1 bus stop? B: (pointing) It’s over there. A: How many (49) s_____ are there from here to Wang Fu Jing? B: Only one. A: In that case, I’d rather walk. B: It’s about a twenty-five (50) m_____ walk. I think you must know the Beijing Hotel when you see it. A: Yes, I do. It’s on the (51) l____________ side of the street. B: That’s right. You walk (52) p_______ the Hotel and turn left at the (53) c________. Keep on walking and you’ll get to the Department Store. A: Thank you. B: You’re welcome. (44)_________ (45) _________ (46) _________ (47) _________ (48) _________
(50) _________ (51) _________ (52) _________ (53) _________
书面表达 最近，你班就“考试”这一话题举行了一次讨论会。请根据以下信息，用英语写一篇 短文，叙述大家对考试的看法。 考试非常重要 可以通过考试了解自己的学习效果，把成绩作为努 力的动力。 1. 有人得高分就兴高采烈,考试不及格就情绪低落。 2. 有的为了取得好成绩,甚至不参加任何课外活动。 3. 如果没有考试，大家就不必为此担心，还可以选 择自己喜欢的科目，多参加课外活动，在社会实践 中学习更多的东西。 1.考试是必要的,但应该进行适当的改革。 ??????
1. 短文必须包括所有要点。 2. 词数：120 左右。 3. 参考词汇：改革 reform ； 课外活动 extra-curricular activities
4. 文章的第一句已为你写好， 不计入总词数： Some students think that it is very important to have an exam. _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ ______________
【单项填空】 1．D。表示头衔职务地名词作宾语、补语及同位语时（有时放在 as 之后） ，一般不用冠词。 2．C。involve 在这里意为“包括、包含” 。 3．C。require 意为“要求” ，引导宾语从句时用虚拟语气。 4．B。表示时间、距离、金额数量等的名词作为一个整体作主语时，谓语动词常用单数形 式。 5．B。B。in turn 意为“依次” 。in return 意为“作为回报” 。on his return 意为“他一回来” 。 D 无此用法。 6．C。house 在此句中为动词，意为“给（某人）提供住所” 。根据题意，其他选项均不符 合。 7．D。此题考查 be supposed to 的用法。因为此事是已过去的事情，故用不定式的完成式。 应选 D。 8．B。hand over 意为“移交、交出” 。take over 意为“接管” 。go over 意为“复习、仔细 检查” 。turn over 意为“移交给、翻身” 。 9．A。根据后面暗示动作正在进行，more forests 与 destroy 之间构成逻辑上的被动关系且 动作正在进行。故选 A 项。 10．A。remain 意为“剩下、留下” ，是不及物动词。leave 是及物动词，若用被动形式也 对。 11． D。 seat 是动词， 意为 “使??坐下” ， 常用被动形式， 或后接反身代词构成 seat oneself。 12．D。link 指将人或物连接或联系起来。combine 意为“结合、联合” ，指为了一目的而 把两个以上的事物联系起来。unite 意为“联合、团结一致” 。 13．C。in praise of“赞美、赞扬” 。in place of“代替” 。in memory of“纪念” 。in need of “需要” 。 14．D。drive sb. crazy 意为“使某人发疯” ，是习惯搭配。 15． D。Good heavens 意为“天哪” 。常用于表示“惊讶，谴责或宽慰” ，no 相当于 I don’t get hurt。 “No problem” 。意为“没关系，没问题” ，用于安慰对方。I don’t think so 意 为“我不这么认为” 。当我们不同意对方观点或看法时，则使用本句。另一常听到的 语句 I’m afraid not。也具有相近的表达意味，但语气比 I don’t think so。更为委婉。 【完形填空】 16．A。 “把…带到…去” 用 take sth. to …来表示。carry 无方向性；send 意为“寄去” ， 都不符合题意
17．D。从第二段可知，不是他妻子；从 romantic picnic 可知，只能是他的 lady 18．D。 “当把手伸进 bucket 的时候” 19．C。因为买的 chicken 成了 dollars，所以应是“吃惊”(surprise) 20．B。年轻人把 bucket 带回(brought)了商店 21．D。 22．A。被年轻人的诚实所感动。 （moved） 23．A。经理想通过报纸(newspaper)，电台来进行道德教育，从而，鼓励(inspire)他人要诚 实 24．C。 25．B。经理恳请(begged)，宣传此事 26．C。经理的好意，这年轻人并不领情，他只是急于要 chicken，然后去见他的 lady。这 时他很生气(angry)。 27．A。 “在当今这个不诚实的(dishonest)世界上，这是一个很好的机会向世人展示，仍然 (still)有人主张要诚实。 28．D。still 表示仍然，进一步说明前面的 honest people 29．B。name 和后面的 name 一致 30．A。年轻人去约会的是他的(girlfriend)，而不是他的(wife)，现在经理让他留下他及他 妻子的名字， 不是等于把他和他 girlfriend 的事公布于众吗？对这年轻人来说，当然是 一个 problem。 31．B。so 表示这样， 32．C。easy 表示向不认识的人展示好的一面是很容易的 33．A。know 表示认识 34．C。know 表示知道 35．B。最后一段作者通过上面的事例，谈了一点自己的想法。 【阅读理解】 36．D。文章的第一条建议并没有提到更改地方会省钱，因此 A 项不对：由第二条建议可 知，通过网站买票并不一定能够省钱，因此 B 项不对；由最后一条建议可知旅店的电 话费有时是很贵的，因此 C 项不对；而由第三条建议可知，D 项是正确的。 37．A。由文章的第三条建议可知，之所以旅客能够与旅店进行讨价还价是因为他们往往 宁愿旅客交低费也不愿房间空着没有人住。 38．C。由文章的第一段可知，本篇文章主要是介绍如何降低旅店住宿费用的方法。因此 C 项最佳。 B 篇属于社会教育类文章。本文主要是介绍父母给孩子读书的重要性，父母给孩子读 书有利于孩子的阅读水平的提高。 39．B。由文章的第三段可知。选项 A、C 没有提到；D 项的表述不符合原文。 40．D。既然本段第一句就说电视是阅读的敌人，以及后面对电视的限制，因此可以知道 电视不利于读书，所以选 D。 41．D。本段主要是讲了电视对孩子的阅读会产生不好的影响，常常读书的环境没有电视 或者电视关掉，这些都属于阅读环境的内容，因此 D 项正确。
42．A。文章的最后一段的最后一句“of course to know what kind of books to read is also important”暗示了后面应该涉及到孩子应该读什么样的书。因此，A 项正确。 43．C。本篇文章主要是说明父母给孩子读书的重要性，父母给孩子读书有利于孩子阅读 水平的提高。因此 C 项正确。A 项应该是父母多花时间在孩子身上而不是相反；B 项 与 D 硬的范围模糊，不能概括文章的主要内容。 【对话填空】 44. Excuse 45. direction 46. steps 47. going 48. parked 49. stops 50. minutes’ 51. left / left-hand 52. part 53. corner 【书面表达】 One possible version: Some students think that it is very important to have an exam. If so, we know the results of our studies, and the exams also make us study hard. However, other students don’t think so. They say if they get high marks in the exams, they are very excited. But when they fail, they will be in very low spirits. What’s worse, they don’t usually take part in other extra-curricular activities. If the exams are prohibited, we don’t have to worry about the marks. In that case, we can choose the subjects we like, take part in more activities and learn more through social practice, which will greatly benefit us in the future. In my opinion, it is. But our exams should be reformed. It should test not only our knowledge, but also our practical abilities.