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高一上(模块一) Unit 1 1 Going to a British high school for one year was a very enjoyable and exciting experience for me. 在英国上了一年的中学对我来说是一段非常令人愉快和兴奋的经 历。 (1)句中 Going to a British high school 为动名词,作主

语。如: Walking after a meal is very good habit.饭后散步是很好的习惯。 (2)这里 experience 意思是“经历” ,可数名词,但表示“经验” 时为不可数名词。试比较: Please tell us about experiences in the UK. 请给我们讲讲你在英国 的经历。 He has much experience in teaching children in kindergarten.他有丰 富的幼儿教学经验。 2 On the first day, all of the new students attended an assembly in the school hall.开学第一天,所有的新生都去学校礼堂参加晨会。 这里 assembly 指学校全体师生参加的会议, 类似我们的集体晨会, 其形式多样,大多每周举行一次,内容有学生才艺展示、主题演讲、校 长训示等。 3 This sounded like my school in China.这听起来倒是像我在国内就 读的学校。 短语 sound like 意思是“听上去像” ,后接名词,也可接从句。如:

I heard what sounded like fireworks.我听到了好像是焰火的声音。 It sounds like there is something wrong with the fax machine. It beeps all the time.传真机听起来好像有点问题。它不停在嘟嘟响。 4 We had to different classrooms for different classes. 我们上不同的课得去不同的教室。 在很多西方国家的中学里,学生并不总是固定在同一个教室上课。 不同的课程在不同的教室进行,学生必须去不同的教室上不同的课。 5 We also had different students in some classes, so it was a struggle for me to remember all the faces and names. 上某些课的时候,班上的同

学也不一样,所以对我来说记住所有人的面孔和名字可是一件难事。句 中 struggle 是名词,意思是“难事” 。如: It was a real struggle for Jack to get ready in such a short time. 杰克要在这么短的时间内作好准备真是不容易。 6 I found that the homework was not as heavy as what I used to get in my old school.我发现这里布置的家庭作业不像我以前在原来学校时那么 繁重。 (1)短语 used to 的意思是“过去常常,曾经” 。如: What a beautiful town it used to be! Now there are so many factories and so much pollution.这座小镇早先是多么美丽!现在工厂很多,污染很 严重。 (2) 在 what I used to get 中, what 用作 get 的宾语 ,相当于 the homework that.

7 I usually went to the Computer Club during the lunch break ,so I should send e-mail to my family and friends back home for free. 午饭休息时间我常去电脑俱乐部,这样我就可以免费给国内的家 人和朋友发电子邮件了。句中 back home 用作定语,修饰 my family and friends;for free 是状语,意思是“免费” 。 8 Cooking was really fun as I learnt how to buy, prepare and cook food . 当我学会如何买菜、配菜和做菜的时候,我发现烹饪真是乐趣无 穷。句中 fun 用作形容词,意为“有趣的” 。如: I enjoyed the show very much ,it was really fun.我很喜欢这场演出, 非常有趣。 10 Upon finishing his studies ,he started travelling in China .学习一结 束,他就开始游历中国。句中 Upon finishing his studies 相当于 as soon as he finished his studies。如: Upon entering the room ,she sat down and began to read . 她一进房间 便坐下来看书。 11 When he returned to Britain two months ago ,he brought back from China many interesting books ,dictionaries ,paintings and photos .两个月前 他回到英国,从中国带回了很多有趣的书籍、字典、图画和照片。句 中 many interesting books ,dictionaries ,paintings and photos 是动词 brought 的宾语。 12Our club is much more than just music .我们的俱乐部不只是播放 音乐。句中 more than 的意思是“不仅仅,不只是” ,表示还有更多其他

内容。如: Mr. Robert is more than our teacher .He is a friend .罗伯特先生不只 是我们的老师,他还是我们的朋友。 13 When parents come to visit the school and talk to the teachers ,we often play songs sung by students ,and we also give messages to inform the parents of events such as outing and school plays .每逢家长来访、与老师 交谈的时候,我们常常播放一些由学生们自己演唱的歌曲。我们还会 广播一些通知,告诉家长们有关诸如远足、校内戏剧表演之类的活动 讯息。 句中动词 inform 的意思是 “通知” , 常用短语为 inform somebody of /about something。如: Please inform us of any changes in the address . 如果地址有任何变 化,请通知我们。 14 I chose an old tree and gathered everyone under it before I read .朗 诵前,我选了一棵老树,把大家都聚集在树下。句中 gather 是及物动词, 意为“召集、使聚集” 。 gather 也可用作不及物动词,表示“聚集” 。如: In the evening ,we gathered around the fireplace and talked about what had happened during the day .晚上,我们聚在壁炉旁,谈论白天发生的事情。 Unit 2 1 Yes, I can’t wait to surprise the boys! 是呀,我迫不及待地要给儿 子们一个惊喜呢! 词组 can’t wait to do something 表示“迫不及待地要做某事” 。如 Dad says he’s bought me a new bike .I can’t wait to go home and see

it. 爸爸说他给我买了一辆新自行车。我迫不及待地要回家看看。 2 Suddenly the door opens and a soccer ball flies through the room. 突然,门开了,一只足球飞了进来。英语中,剧本说明通常用一般现在 词。 3 But, but …you weren’t supposed to come home until tomorrow! 可 是、可是…你们应该明天才到家的呀! 句中 be supposed to 的意思是“ (按照规定、习惯、安排等)应该” 。 如:You are supposed to hand in your homework next Tuesday morning. 你 应该下周二早上交作业。 4 The money for dog food is gone, but Spot looks like he is starving! 用来买狗食的钱不见了,可是小斑点看上去都饿坏了! (1) 句中 be gone 表示“用完了,不在了” 。如: I need to buy something to drink .All my water is gone. 我得买点东西喝。 我的水都喝光 了。 (2)短语 look like 表示“似乎,好像” ,后常接名词,有是也接从 句,常见于口语。如: It looks like a tiger. 它看上去像一只老虎。

They don’t look like they’re trying their best. 他们看上去好像并未 全力以赴。 5 Daniel has his arms crossed and looks upset. 丹尼尔双臂抱在胸 前,看起来很不高兴。 句中 have one’s arms crossed 意为 “双臂交叉 (抱在胸前) ” ; have something done 表示“让??处于某种状态” 。如

Greg has his eyes shut and is sleeping. 格莱格闭着眼睛,正在睡觉。 6 Then they won’t be mad any more. (解释)之后他们就不会再生 气了。句中 mad 意为“生气,大发雷霆” 。如: Kelly got really mad with Richard for not doing the washing up. 理查 德没洗碗,凯莉因此很生气。 7 Maybe , but now that the has been so rude to us ,I feel like we 也许吧,可是既然他对我们那

have to punish him or he won’t respect us.

么粗鲁无礼,那我觉得我们有必要教训教训他,要不然他不会尊重我们 的。词组 now that 的意思是“既然;由于” 。词组 feel like 的意思是“想 要” ,一般后接名词、代词或动名词,有时也接从句。如: When I felt like talking, they were ready to listen. 当我想讲话的时 候,他们都乐意听。 I feel like some cola. 我想喝一点可乐。 9 Many teenagers feel lonely ,as if no one understands them and the changes they are going through. 很多青少年感到孤独, 好像没有人理解他 们以及他们正在经历的变化。 (1)句中 as if 引导一个状语从句,意思是“好像” ,相当于 as though。如: I felt as if/though my heart would burst with joy. 我觉得自己高兴得 心花怒放。 (2)词组 go through 的意思是“经历” 。如: He was going through a difficult time them. 当时他正经历一个困难

时期。 10 Along with these physical changes ,there come many psychological changes. 与这些生理变化同时而来的,还有很多心理上的变化。句中 along with 表示“与??一起,除了??以外(还) ” 。如: Several years ago ,she come to this city along with her elder sister. 几 年前,她和她的姐姐一起来到这座城市。 11 Boys and girls tend to be difficult in this regard. 男孩和女孩在之 方面往往有所不同。短语 in this regard 的意思是“在这方面” ,其中 regard 是名词。如: I have nothing further to say in this regard. 在这方面我没有其他要 说的了。 12 They may badly want and need their parents` love ,yet feel distant; the may want to be part of the group ,yet desire independence. 他们或许迫 切需要父母的关爱,却又感觉疏远;他们或许想要成为团体的一员, 却又渴望独立。本句是并列复合句,由分号连接。两个并列分句中分 别由 yet 连接两个互相矛盾的意思,充分体现了青少年特殊的矛盾情 感。句中 badly 的意思是“非常” 。如: Planes landed at the airport ,carrying badly needed food and medicine. 载有急需食物和药品的飞机在机场着陆了。 13 The good news is that these kinds of growing pains do not last. 好 在这些成长的烦恼并不会持久。句中 last 作不及物动词用,意思是“持 久” 。 其实 last 还可用作及物动词, 其基本意思是 “持续, 维持, 够用??

(时间) ” 。如: He is making a big effort now ,and I hope it lasts . 他正在努力,希望 他能持之以恒。 We have got enough food to last (for) five days. 我们有足够的食物, 能吃五天。 14 In the end everything turns out OK--the teenager becomes a healthy adult ,and this period of change and challenge is traded for the change and challenges of group-up life. 最终一切都会好起来——青少年

成长为健康的成年人,而青春期的变化和挑战则转变为成人生活中的种 种变化和挑战。句中 trade 的表示“交换” 。如; Can I trade my chocolate for your ice cream? 我可以用巧克力换你的 冰激凌吗? Unit 3 1 I used to go the gym three times a week, but I don’t work out any more. 我以前常去健身房,一周三次,可我现在不同去锻炼了。 短语 work out 意思是“锻炼” 。如: She works out regularly to keep fit. 为了健身,她经常进行锻炼。另 外,work out 还有“解决(问题) ,计算出(总额) ”等意思。如: It is too hard for a junior high student to work out such a difficult math’s problem. 对于一个初中学生来说,解这么复杂的一道数学题是非 常困难的。 2 I’m now in hospital recovering from liver failure. 我现在住院了,

患的是肝衰竭,正在恢复中。名词 failure 的本意是“失败” ,在这里表 示“ (脏器)衰竭” 。如: Heart failure is a serious medical condition. 的病理状况。 3 we shouldn’t be ashamed of the way we look, should we? 我们不应 该为自己的外表感到羞愧,不是吗?这是一个反意疑问句。短语 be ashamed of 意为“感到难为情,感到羞愧” 。如: Being unable to answer that question is nothing to be ashamed of。 回 答不了那个问题没有什么可难为情的。 4 I think you look great as you are, and you’re a wonderful person. 我 觉得你目前这个样子看上去就很棒,而且你是一个非常优秀的人。句中 as you are 的意思是“像你现在的样子” 。如: I am short and thin but I run fast. I hope they will accept me as I am. 我又矮又瘦, 但是我跑得很快。 我希望他们能够按我现在的样子接受我。 6 Healthy eating along with regular exercise is probably the only way to become fit. 健康的饮食加上经常锻炼也许是变得健康的唯一途径。句 中 to become fit 作定语,修饰 the only way。如: This is the safest way to deal with the problem. 这是解决问题最稳 妥的方案。另外,还可以说 a way of doing something. 如: Healthy eating along with regular exercise is the only way of becoming fit. 7 Diets are useless in the long term , yet approximately 20% of 心脏衰竭是一种严重

teenagers yet they have tried going on a diet and skipping meals to control their weight. 从长远角度来看,节食并不能秦效,然而有大约 20%的青 少年称,他们曾尝试过节食或者有时不吃饭,以控制自己的体重。本句 是一个并列复合句。连词 yet 后面是表转折意思的分句。分句中 yet 后 面是一个省略了的宾语从句, skipping meals 与并列, 作 tried 的宾语; their weight.是目的状语。 短语 in the long term 的意思从是 “从长远角度来看。 ” 如; The agreement may cause many argument in the long term. 从长远来 看,该协议可能会引起很多争议。 8 Water helps keep your system clean. 水有助于保持人体内部系统 清洁。单词.help 后的不定式中 to 可以保留,也可以省略。如: I helped him (to) look for his key.我帮他找钥匙。单词 keep 后可接 “宾语十宾主补足语”的结构,宾主补足语常为形容词、名词、介词短 语等。如: I `m crossing my arms like this because it keeps me warm. 紧紧抱双臂是因为这样能够保暖。 We need to keep the matter a secret. 此事我们要保密。 他们把她 我这样

They kept her in hospital for a more detailed examination. 留在医院,以进行更详尽的检查。

9 Walking and riding your bike count, and so do school sports. 和骑自行车就算,校内体育活动也算。


(1)这里 count 是不及物动词,意思是“计算在内,看作是(运

动) ” 。另外,count 作不及物动词还有“重要,有价值”的意思。如: Every point in the game counts. 比赛中的每一分都很重要。

(2)句中的 so do?是一个倒装结构,意为“??也一样” ,主 要用于说明前面所说的情况同样适用于后面的人或物。助动词 do 也可 换成 does/did/is/am/are/was/were/can/could 等。如: John is very energetic, and so is his elder brother William. 非常充沛,他的哥哥威廉也是如此。 10 When you sleep, your body prepares you for the day to come. 觉的时候,你的身体就帮你为下一天作好准备。 (1)词组 prepare somebody for something 的意思是“使某人 为??作好准备” 。如: This course aims to prepare students for their studies abroad. 旨在帮助学生为去国外学习而作准备。 (2)句中 to come 作定语,修饰 the day,意为“接下来的,未来 的” 。如: Nobody knows exactly what will happen in the years to come. 人准确地知道未来的岁月里会发生什么事。 11 If you follow the suggestions above, you will look and feel much better in no time at all! 好得多,感觉棒得多! (1)句中 above 作后置定语,该词也可作前置定语。上名可以 改写成:If you follow the above suggestions ,you will look and feel much 如果你能遵循以上建议, 用不了多久你就会气色 没有 本课程 睡 约翰精力

better in no time at all! (2)短语 in no time 的意思是“立刻,马上” 。如: In no time at all ,the whole sky was lit up. 整个天空顿时就被照亮 了。 高一上(模块二) Unit 1 1 Boy missing, police puzzled.男孩失踪,警方茫然。这是一个省 略表达(其完整形式为: ) 。新闻标题中常常省略冠词、系动词、助动词 等,使表达简洁,以达到节省版面的目的. 2. Police in America have stepped up their search for a

fifteen-year-old boy who went missing three days ago in Dover, New Hampshire. 美国警方现已加紧对一名15岁男孩的搜索, 该男孩三天前 在新罕布什尔州的多佛市失踪。 (1) 短语 step up 的意思是 “加紧, 加速” 如: We will be stepping up our efforts to prevent further pollution. 污染。 (2) 短语 go missing 的意思是“失踪” ,这里的 go 是系动词。如: Her hair is going grey. 她的头发渐渐花白了。 3 This incident has received great interest due to reports of 我们将加紧努力, 以防止更多

strange lights in the sky and or alien visits around the time the boy disappeared. 该事件引起了公众的极大兴趣,原因是有各种关于男孩失


(1)句中的 due to 是固定搭配,意思是“由于,因为” 。 (2)这里 the boy disappeared 是定语从句,修饰先行词 time,关 系副词 when 被省略了。 4 Justin Foster, a high school student, was last seen Friday night.

人们最后一次看见中学生贾斯廷· 福斯特是在星期五晚上。 本句中 Friday night 作时间状语,前面省略了介词 on。在非正式文件中,特定日期前 的介词 on 有时可省略。如 John will come here (on) the first day of next month. 一号过来。 5 Standing inside were lots of strange creatures with white skin 里面站着许多白皮肤、眼睛又黑又大的奇怪生物。 约翰将于下月

and large black eyes.

本句是倒装句。英语中,当句子的主语比较长的时候,往往使用倒装句 (正常语序应为:Lots of strange creatures with white skin and large black eyes were standing inside). 6 I haven’t seen Justin since. 从那以后我就再没见过贾斯廷。句

中 since 是副词,表示从过去某个时候开始一直到现在。如; He left home three weeks ago and we haven’t heard from him since.. 他三周前离开家,从此杳无音讯。 7 However, since Mrs. Foster thought that Justin was spending the

night with a friend, she assumed that .Kelly was having a bad dream, and sent her back to bed. 但是,福斯特夫人以为贾斯廷在一个朋友家过夜


主从复合句。句中 since 引导原因状语从句,该从句中 thought 后是一个 由 that 引导的宾语从句。主句中 assumed 与 sent her back to bed 是并列 谓语,其中 assumed 后接一个由 that 引导的宾语从句。 8 There’s really no hard evidence that aliens took him. 事实上并

没有确凿的证据证明是外星人劫持了他。 (1)句中 hard 的意思为“确凿的,可靠的” 。 (2)句中 evidence 后接一个由 that 引导的同位语从句,说明 evidence 的具体内容。同位语从句属于名词性从句,通常由 that 引导。 如:The news that our team has won the game is really exciting. 我们队获 胜的消息真是令人兴奋。 9 So, while we have not dismissed the idea, we are looking into 所以, 尽管我们不排除这种想法, 但是我们也

other possibilities as well.

在调查其他的可能性。句中 while 引导让步状语从句。短语 look into 是 固定搭配,意思是“研究,调查” 。如: The police are looking into the case. 11 警方正在调查这个案子。

He reported that they looked like the tracks of a similar creature,

called Bigfoot, which some people believe lives in the forests of the north-west of the USA. 他报告说, 它们看起来像一种北美野人的类似动

物的脚印。有人认为北美野人生活在美国西北部的森林里。本句是主从 复合句。 句中 reported 后接一个由 that 引导的宾语从句; a similar creature, 后面的 called Bigfoot 是后置宾语,其后的 which 引导一个定语从句,修 饰先行词 creature。


Large tracks have also been discovered which some people say 人们也发现过一些巨大脚印,有人称它们属于

belong to the Wild Man.

野人。本句是主从复合句,句中 which 引导一个定语从句,修饰句子的 主语 tracks; 在这个定语从句中, say 后面接一个省略了 that 的宾语从句。 如果将原句拆成两句,则应为: Large tracks have also been discovered. Some people say large tracks belong to the Wild Man. 13 He believed that these creatures are linked to a common 他认为,这 (that)these

ancestor, an animal that lived in Asia some 300,000years ago.

些生物与一个共同的祖先相关联,该动物生活于约30万年前的亚洲。 (1)句中 believed 后接一个由 that 引导的宾语从句;an animal that?是 a common ancestor 的同位语。 (2) 句中 some 300,000years ago 的意思为 “大约30万年以前” ; some 与数词连用时,常用作副词相当于 approximately. Unit2 1 Wish you were here. 如果你在这里就好了。 动词 wish 之后的

宾语从句常用虚拟语气,用过去时表示现在的虚拟,用过去完成时表示 对过去的虚拟,意思是“但愿,要是?就好了” 。如; I wish I were a bird.我要是一只小鸟就好了。 How I wish that I had never met him!我要是从没有和他见过面就好 了。 2 We leave London on 15 July, and we’ll be taking a flight to


, in northern Africa.我们将于7月15日离开伦敦,坐飞机去

北非的摩洛哥。句中 We leave London?用一般现在时表示将来,指按计 划要发生的事情;we’ll be taking a flight?用的是将来进行时, 表示未来 某个时候将进行的事情。 3 You have to wear a helmet and a life jacket for protection, just

in case you fall into the water.作为保护措施, 你得戴上头盔, 穿上救生衣, 以防万一掉进水里。短语 in case 意思是“以免,以防万一” ,常用来引 导条件状语从句。如: I always take an umbrella to work in the rainy season, just in case it case it rains.在雨季,我上班时总是带把伞,以防下雨。 4 We’ll live with the local people in their villages, and eat and

drink whatever they do, including cow’s blood! 我们要跟当地的居民一 起住在他们的村落里,不管他们吃什么、喝什么,我们也一起吃、一起 喝,包括牛血! (1)句中 whatever 的意思是“无论什么” ,引导宾语从句。 (2)肯尼亚和坦桑尼亚的游牧民族马萨伊人(Masais)有喝生牛 血的习惯。 5 we’ll try to get as close as possible to the animals, even though

they’re dangerous, so that we can take some really good photographs.尽管这 些动物很危险,我们还是要试着尽可能地靠近它们,这样我们就能拍到 一些非常棒的照片。 (1)本句中,even though 引导让步状语从句,so that 引导结果

状语从句。这两个状语从句都单独和主句 we’ll try to?the animals 发生 联系,两个从句并不直接关联。 (2)短语 get close to 的意思是“接近” , as ?as possible 的意 思是“尽可能?” 。 6 Mountain climbing can be very tiring, and many people feel

sick as the atmosphere gets thinner, so Colin and I will make sure that we get plenty of rest . 登山会让人觉得非常疲惫,由于空气变得稀薄,很多人

会感到恶心,所以科林和我会确保我们能够得到充足的休息。 (1) 句中 as the atmosphere gets thinner 是原因状语从句, 说明 feel sick 的原因。 (2)连词 so 后面接结果状语从句。 8 The word ‘Shangri-la’ first appeared in a classic novel by James Hilton.“香格里拉”一词源于詹姆斯·希尔顿的一部经典小说。James Hilton(1900-1954) ,著名作家,1933年发表了长篇 小说《消失的地平线》 (Lost Horizon) ,书中描绘了一处充满神秘色 彩的世外桃源——香格里拉。小说出版后大获成功,后来被好莱坞改 编成电影。 9 Hilton described a beautiful kingdom where three rivers joined together ,steep mountains reached to the sky ,and fields of long grass covered the earth. 希尔顿描绘了一个美丽的国度,那里三河交汇,奇峰 高耸,深草如茵覆盖大地。 (1) 句中 where 引导一个限制性定语从句, 修饰先行词 kingdom。

(2)这里 reach 的意思是“延伸” ,是不及物动词。如:In my bedroom ,there is a bookshelf that reaches up to the ceiling. 有一个高及天花板的书柜。 10 In this perfect world lived people who had discovered how to 在我的卧室里

stay young forever.住在这个完美世界里的人们知道如何永葆青春。本句 是倒装句。 句中 In this perfect world 是地点状语, lived 是谓语动词, people 是主语,people 后接一个定语从句。当地点状语在句首,而主语部分又 比较长的时候,往往使用倒装句。如; Under the big tree sat a group of children, who were talking and laughing happily. 11 大树下坐着一群孩子,他们尽情地谈笑着。

Three mountains, M eili, Baimang and Haba , which are

covered with snow, tower over the land. 三座白雪覆盖的高山——梅里、 白芒和哈巴——巍峨屹立。句中 tower 是动词,短语 tower over 的意思 是“远高于(周围的人和物) ” 。如: He towered over all other boys in his class.他比班上所有其他男孩都 高。 12 making Below the mountains, the sunshine reflects on the many lakes, them shine like diamonds against the rich countryside.山脚下,阳

光照在星罗棋布的湖面上,使它们在富丽乡村景色的映衬下,如钻石般 闪耀璀璨。句中 making them ?countryside 是分词短语,用作状语,

表示结果;against 是介词,表示“以?为背景,映衬”如: The little red house looks so beautiful against the green woods.那座红

色的小屋在翠绿树林的衬托下显得很漂亮。 13 Sheep, cattle and horses wander on the green grass, and the

surrounding forests are home to many birds and animals.成群的牛羊和马儿 在绿色的草原上徜徉,周边的森林则是众多鸟类和动物的家园。短语 be home to?意为“是?的家园” 。如: As we all know, Africa is home to many kinds of wildlife. 众所周知, 非洲是许多野生生物的家园。 14 In this peaceful land, people live in perfect harmony with

nature, far away from the noise and worry of the outside world. 在这片宁静 的土地上,人们和大自然和谐相处,远离外界的喧嚣和烦恼。 (1)短语 in harmony with?的意思是“与?相和谐” 。如; We must make sure that tourism develops in harmony with the environment.我们必须确保旅游业的发展要与环境相和谐。 (2)句中 noise 和 worry 都用作不可数名词,表达抽象的含义。 15 The best times to visit Shangri-la are spring and autumn when

the temperature is at its mildest.前往香格里拉旅游的最佳时节是春季和秋 季,这两个季节气温最为温暖舒适。短语 at its mildest 中, “ at +形容词 最高级”表示“处于最?的状态” 。如: The park looks at its best in autumn.这座公园在秋天景色最美。 Unit 3 1 By the 1920s,he had become an explorer, searching for the tombs

of the Egyptian kings.到了20世纪20年代,他已成为一名探险家,致

力于寻找古埃及国王的陵墓。句首 By 的意思是“到?的时候” ,表示从 某一更早的时间开始, 直到某个时间为止, 常与完成时态连用; searching for the tombs of the Egyptian kings 是现在分词短语, 用作状语, 表示伴随 状态。 2 In 1922, Howard Carter made his most amazing discovery of all,

in the Valley of the Kings, in Egypt.1922年,在埃及的国王谷,霍华 德·卡特做出了他最惊人的发现。句中的 the Valley of the Kings(国王 谷)是位于埃及尼罗河西岸的皇家陵墓,那里埋葬着埃及“新王国” 时 期(约公元前1567年-公元前1085年)的国王和贵族。 3 `The tomb contained more treasure than any of us had ever seen

before, as well as the mummy of the king` , said Carter.“除了国王的木乃 伊之外,这座陵墓还藏有大量的珍宝,比我们任何人先前所见过的都要 多。 ”卡特说。 (1) 句中 than 是连词,引导表示比较关系的从句。如:

More people attended the party than I`d expected.来参加聚会的人 比我预计的要多。 (2) 词组 as well as 的意思是 “除?之外, 也, 还” , 侧重强调 as well as 之前的部分,如: He grows flowers as well as vegetables.他既种菜也种花。 4 He too visited the tomb, only to catch a high fever the next day.

他去了陵墓,结果第二天氷发高烧。词组 only to do something 用作结果 状语,意为“不料,竟然” 。如:

I hurried to the station, only to find that the bus had just left. 我匆忙赶 到车站,结果发现汽车刚刚开走。 5 Others believe that they were in connection with a mummy’s

curse, as a punishment for those who enter the resting place of the dead.另一 些人则相信这与木乃伊的诅咒有关,是对闯入亡灵安息地的人的惩罚。 (1)本句是主从复合句,believe 后接一个由 that 引导的宾语从 句,those 后接一个由 who 引导的定语从句。句中 as 的意思是“作为” 。 (2)短语 in connection with 的意思是“与?有关联” 。 The police are questioning a man in connection with the incident. 警察 正在审问一名与此事件有关的男子。 6 If breathed in, they can result in illness or even death.一旦被

人吸入,它们就可能导致疾病甚至死亡。 (1) 句中 If breathed in 相当于 If they are breathed in, 由 If 引导的条 件状语从句常用省略形式,如: The medicine is very effective if taken

on time.如果按时服用的话,这药很有效。 (2)短语 result in 的意思是“导致” 。如: His drunk driving

resulted in an accident, causing the death of twelve people.他酒后驾驶导致 了一起事故,造成12人死亡。 7 What is certain, though, is that` the curse of the mummy`

remains a riddle to this day.但有一点可以肯定的是, “木乃伊的诅咒”至 今仍是个谜。句中 What is certain 是主语从句, that 引导一个表语从句。 9 They not only studied all the subjects required to be astronaut,

but also learnt survival skills and about how spaceships and rockets are built. 他们不仅学习成为宇航员所必修的全部科目,还学习生存技巧,以及关 于飞船和火箭制造的所有知识。 (1)过去分词短语 required to be astronaut 用作后置定语,修饰 subject。 (2)句中 how 引导一个宾语从句,充当介词 about 的宾语。 10 Although Yang did not get the best scores on every single test,

it was his high scores on the psychological tests that finally won him the status of China’s first astronaut.虽然杨利伟并非每项测试都得了高分,但 他各项心理测试所得的高分最终为他赢得了中国首位宇航员的身份人。 此句使用了强调句型 (it is/was?that?) 。 句中 win 的意思是 “使获得” , 后接双宾语,如: His behavior won him respect from his friends.他的行为使他获得了 朋友的尊重。 11 His name will go down in history with those of Yuri Gagarin

and Alan Sheppard。他的名字将与尤里·加加林、艾伦·谢帕德一道载 入史册。Yuri Gagarin 前苏联首位宇航员;Alan Sheppard 美国首位宇航 员。句中 go down in history 是固定搭配,意为“载入史册” 。如: He will go down in history as a hero.他将成为流芳千古的英雄。 12 The people of China can be proud of Yang Liwei, and young

people all over the world can look up to him as an example of a man who managed to live his dream.中国人民能为杨利伟而自豪,全世界的年轻人 也会将他视为努力实现梦想的榜样。

(1) 短语 look up to 的意思是“钦佩,尊敬” 。如;He is a great teacher. All his students look up to him.他是一位了不起的老师。他所有的 学生都尊敬他。 (2) 短语 managed to do ?意为“设法做成某事” 。如:I managed to get him on the phone this morning. When I heard his voice, I was so happy. 今早我终于打电话找到了他。当我听到他的声音的时候,我实在 是太高兴了。短语 try to do?虽然也有“设法做某事”的意思,但不一 定成功。如: I tried to get you on the phone this morning ,but you were not it. 今早 我打电话找你,但你不在家。 (3) 短语 live one’s dream 的意思是“实现某人的梦想”如: He wanted to be a champion athlete when he was young .Now, after winning an Olympic medal, he has lived his dream. 他从小就想成为一名 冠军运动员。现在,他已经赢得了一枚奥运奖牌,实现了自己的梦想。 高一下(模块三) Unit 1 1 As Polly observed the passengers on the train, she had a feeling that she was being watched by a tall man in a dark overcoat. 当波莉打量地铁车 厢里的乘客时,她感觉有个穿着黑色大衣的高个男人一直在看着她。句 中 as 用作连词, 意为 “当?的时候” , 引导时间状语从句。 主句中 feeling 后接一个由 that 引导的同位语从句,对 feeling 加以详细说明。 2 Now she wanted to run, but fear held her still. 现在她则想跑开, 可

恐惧让她挪不动脚步。句中 hold 的意思是“使保持某种状态” ,后常接 形容词或副词,作宾语补足语。如; Could you hold the door open for me, please?请替我把门拉着,好 吗? It took three strong men to hold him down.三个身强力壮的男子才把 他给按住了。 3 Polly found herself staring up at the face of an old man with a beard. 波莉抬头看去,发现是一位长着络腮胡子的老人。短语 find oneself?的 意思是“发现自己(做某事或处于某种状态) ” ,后常接现在分词或介词 短语,指没有意料到的事或状态。如 I suddenly found myself doing all the work alone.我突然发现自己独 自一人在做所有的工作。 When he came to ,he found himself in hospital.他苏醒过来时,发现 自己躺在医院里。 4 Thank you so much for coming to my aid.非常感谢您帮忙。句中 aid 是名词,短语 come to one’s aid 的意思是“来帮助某人” 。如: She had an accident and was trapped in her car ,Luckily two passers-by came to her aid.她出了交通事故,被困在车里。幸运的是有两 个过路人向她伸出了援手。 5 It gives me the chance to pay back the help that people give me when it’s sunny.这给了我一个机会,来回报晴天时人们给我的帮助。本 句是主从复合句,句中 the help 是 pay back 的宾语,其后是由 that 引导

的定语从句,该从句中还包含一个由 when 引导的时间状语从句。短语 pay back somebody/something 的意思是“ (向某人)偿还(某物) ;回报” 。 如:I `ll pay you back tomorrow.我明天还你钱。 She is thinking about how to pay back the support from her friends. 她在考虑如何回报朋友们的支持。 7 In a scientific study , doctors asked 20 men and 20 women to keep their hands in very hot water for as long as possible while breathing in different smells.在一项科学研究中,医生让20位男士和20位女士闻 不同的气味,同时将手尽可能长时间地放在很热的水中。句中 while 引 导时间状语从句, 从句的完整形式为 while they are smells 。 8 In the main type ,the shark attacks you because it mistakes you for a fish ,but when it tastes human flesh it decides to give up and swims away. 在主要的情形中,鲨鱼攻击你是因为它把你错当成了鱼,但当它 发觉是人肉的味道时,就会决定放弃并游开。本句是并列主从复合句, 连词 but 连接两个复合句。在第一个复合句中,because 引导一个原因状 语从句; 第二个复合句中, when 引导一个时间状语从句。 句中 mistake? for?的意思是“把?错当成?” 。如:You must be mistaking me for my younger sister.你一定是把我错当成我妹妹了。 动词 taste 在句中的意思是 “辨别出 (某种食品饮料的气味、 味道) ” , 作及物动词。如:She could taste tomato in the soup.她尝出汤里有西红柿 的味道。另外,taste 也可用作不及物动词,意为“有?味道” 。如:This breathing in different

dish tastes too sweet.这道菜太甜了。 9 In the second type ,the shark pushes you with its nose to find out if you are fit to be eaten ,and then bites you if it thinks you are. 在第二种情 形中,鲨鱼会用鼻子推搡你,以弄清你是否适合被食用,如果它觉得 适合,便会咬你。本句中有两个 if,第一个 if 引导的是宾语从句,作 find out 的宾语; 第二个 if 引导的是条件状语从句, 其完整形式应为 if it thinks you are fit to be eaten。 10 He rolls up the paper and puts it into a small case ,and then reaches into a cage and gets a bird.他把纸片卷起来,放进一个小盒子里, 然后伸手探入一个笼子,捉出一只鸟来。 (1) 词组 reach into 的意思是 “将手伸进?” 。 如: Paul reached into his pocket to get his cell phone. 保罗把手伸进口袋拿手机。 (2)这里的 case 是指容器之类的东西(箱子、盒子等) 。如: Henry put the violin back into its case carefully.亨利小心翼翼地将小提琴 放回琴盒里。 11 Though it may seem hard to believe ,the bird the officer uses is the same bird often seen in public parks-the pigeon.虽然这似乎令人难 以置信,但那名军官所用的鸟儿和我们常在公园里看到的一种鸟是 同样的——鸽子。句中 though 引导一个让步状语从句,其中 it 指代 主句的内容。主句中 the officer uses 是定语从句,修饰主语 the bird, 而 often seen in public parks 是过去分词短语, 用作 the same bird 的后 置定语。

12 Pigeons appear to have a compass inside them that tells them which way is north.鸽子体内似乎有一只罗盘, 告诉它们何处是北。 句中 that 引导定语从句,修饰先行词 compass,在该从句中,tell 后接双宾 语,直接宾语是由 which 引导的宾语从句。这里的 appear 是连系动词, 相当于 seem,意思是“好像,似乎” 。如:Mary appears to be hesitating about this matter.在这件事上,玛丽似乎还在犹豫。 Unit 2 1 Before the middle of the 5th century ,people in Britain all spoke a language called Celtic.公元5世纪中叶以前,不列颠所有的人都说一种叫 凯尔特语的语言。凯尔特语(Celtic)指古代居住在不列颠和欧洲大陆西 部的凯尔特人(Celts) 所说的语言。 2 Then two Germanic groups from the European mainland-the

Angles and the Saxons-occupied Britain. 然后,来自欧洲大陆的两个日曼 部族-盎格鲁人和撒克逊人-占领了不列颠。盎格鲁人和撒克逊人(统 称为 Anglo-Saxons) 的祖先来自欧洲大陆, 是古代日耳曼人的部落分支, 公元5世纪至6世纪占领不列颠,他们讲的语言构成了古英语的基础。 3 The most important contribution was from the Normans, a

French-speaking people who defeated England and took control of the country in 1066.最大的贡献来自于讲法语的诺曼人,他们于1066年 击败英格兰并控制了这个国家。句中 a French-speaking people 是 the Normans 的 同 位 语 ; who 引 导 一 个 定 语 从 句 , 修 饰 people 。 这 里 contribution 的意思是“贡献,推动作用” 。如:

This new technology will make a great contribution to development of this industry.这项新技术将对该行业的发展起到极大的推动作用。 4 However, the Norman Conquest did not affect English as much

as the Angles and the Saxons` victory about 600 years earlier, which led to Old English replacing Celtic.然而,诺曼征服对英语的影响并不及约60 0年前盎格鲁人和撒克逊人的胜利对英语的影响,那声胜利导致古英语 替代了凯尔特语。句中 which 引导一个非限制性定语从句,先行词为 victory。这里 lead to 的意思是“导致” 。如: The news led to a great panic in the village.这消息在村里引起了极 大的恐慌。 5 Even though the Normans spoke French for the entire 250 years

they ruled England, French did not replace English as the first language.尽管 诺曼人在统治英格兰的整整250年间一直讲法语,但是法语并没有取 代英语成为第一语言。本句是主从复合,Even though 的意思是“尽管, 虽然” ,引导让步状语从句,该从句还包含一个定语从句,即 they ruled England,修饰 the entire 250 years。 7 Some people are optimistic and believe that this process is good,

while others worry that it may result in language pollution. 有人抱乐观态 度,认为这个过程是好的,而其他人则担心会导致语言污染。这里的 while 并非引导时间状语从句,而是用作并列连词,表转折。句中 worry 后接一个由 that 引导的宾语从句。 词组 result in 相当于 lead to, 意为 “导 致” 。


The Chinese language differs from Western languages in that,

instead of an alphabet, it uses characters which stand for ideas, objects or deeds.汉语与西方语言不同,区别在于它不使用字母,而是用汉字表示 思想、物体和行为。句中 that 引导一个名词性从句,充当介词 in 的宾 语。词组 stand for 在这里意为“代表,象征” ,此外还有“支持,主张” 的意思。如: This symbol stands for good fortune.这个符号象征着好运 May I ask what policy your party stands for? 策? 9 Though these kinds of characters indicate meanings, one of their is that they do not show how they should be pronounced. 请问贵党主张何种政


虽然这些类型的汉字能够表示意义,但是它们的缺点之一是其字形不具 有表音的功能。句首 though 引导让步状语从句,主句中 that 引导一个 表语从句,该表语从句中 show 后接一个由 how 引导的宾语从句。 10 His system used paper with small, raised dots that could be felt

with the fingers.他的方法使用带小凸点的纸张,这些小凸点可以用手指 感觉出来。句中 that 引导一定语从句,修饰先行词 dots。动词 feel 在这 里的意思是“ (用手、足等)摸索” 。如: John felt in his bag for the key, but it was nowhere to be found.约翰在 袋子里摸来摸去找钥匙,但哪儿也找不到。 11 While the students found the soldier’s idea interesting, the

system was too difficult to be of practical use.虽然学生们都觉得士兵的想

法非常有趣,但这一方法太过复杂,并不实用。本句是主从复合句,其 中 While 的意思是 “虽然” , 引导一个让步状语从句。 句尾 of practical use. 意为“实用的” 。一般来说, “of +抽象名词”.相当于形容词,常用作 表语,意为“具有,拥有?” 。如: Today meeting will be of great importance.今天的会议将很重要。 Your advice is of great value to me.你的建议以我很有价值。 Unit 3 1 We are in Italy now, and tomorrow we are visiting Pompeii. 现

在我们在意大利,明天我们将游览庞贝。 (1)庞贝(Pompeii)是古罗 马的一座城市,位于现在的意大利境内,公元79年因火山爆发而被火 山灰掩埋。该古城保存完好,18世纪科学家对该城开始挖掘后,人们 才了解到当时庞贝居民的生活情况。 (2)句中 are visiting 是用现在进 行时表示将来,意为“将参观” ,英语中表示“来” 、 “去”等意义的动 词常可用现在进行时表示将来的动作。如: My uncle is coming to see me tomorrow.我叔叔明天要来看我。 2 Many people were buried alive, and so was the city. 很多人被活

埋了,整个城市也被掩埋。 (1)句中 alive 是形容词,意为“活的” , 用作主语的补语。 (2)句中 so 是副词,意思是“也” ,后接倒装结构。 如: I ignored that possibility. And so did my wife.我忽略了那种可能性, 我 妻子也一样。 3 Today I saw the ancient Roman city of Pompeii so was 2,000

years ago.今天我见到了罗马古城庞贝,它就跟两千年前一模一样。句中

so 用作连词,意为“像?一样” 。如: Tom still feels hopeful about life as he did ten years ago.汤姆仍旧对 生活满怀希望,就像十年前一样。 4 People started to dig in the area for treasure, which caused much

damage.人们开始在这一区域挖掘寻宝,这造成了很大的破坏。句中 which 引导非限制性定语从句,which 指代前面整个主句的内容。 5 When I walked around the city, I saw streets just as they had

been, with stepping stones along the road so you did not have to step in the mud on rainy days!当我在城中漫步时,我看到保持原样的街道,沿路都 有垫脚石,这样下雨天你就不用在泥泞中行走了!本句是主从复合句, When 引导时间状语从句, 主句的主干是 I saw streets, 而 as they had been, 用作方式状语,介词短语 with stepping stones along the road 是 streets 的 定语,连词 so 后接结果状语从句。 6 It turns out that after the ash covered the people who failed to

flee the city, their bodies nearly completely broke down and disappeared, leaving empty spaces in the ash.原来,火山灰覆盖了没能逃离城市的人, 他们的身体几乎全部烧化消失了,史留下火山灰晨的人形空当。本句是 主从复合句,It 是形式主语,逻辑主语是由 that 引导的主语从句。该主 语从句中包含一个由 after 引导的时间状语从句, 此状语从句中还含有一 个由 who 引导的定语从句,修饰先行词 people。分词短语 leaving empty spaces in the ash 充当结果状语。 8 When asked how a statue from distant Greece could have

appeared in China, researchers explained that no doubt this was a result of Alexander the Great`s influence.当被问及来自遥远希腊的塑像怎么会出 现在中国时,研究人员解释说,这无疑是亚历山大大帝的影响所致。本 句是主从复合句,其中 When asked how?是一个时间状语从句,其完整 形式为 When they were asked how?,这里 how 引导宾语从句。主句中 explained 后接一个由 that 引导的宾语从句。 9 In 334 BC, he took his army, now with 42000men,into the

Middle East and then Egypt ,defeating every army that stood in his path. 公 元前334年,他率领当时已达4万2千人的军队进入中东,接着是埃 及,兵峰所至,所向披靡。分词短语 defeating every army that stood in his path 在句中作伴随状语, 其中 that 引导定语从句。 词组 stand in one’s path 意为“妨碍,阻拦” ,相当于 stand in one’s way。如: He is quite optimistic and insists on carrying out the plan ,so you`d better not stand in his path.他相当乐观,坚持要实施这项计划,你最好别 阻拦他。 10 Then he turned his eyes east ,and marched all the way to India ,finding victory wherever he went.然后,他又将目光转向东方,长 驱直入印度,所到之处,攻无不克,战无不胜。本句是主从复合句,分 词短语 finding victory wherever he went 用作伴随状语, 其中 wherever he went 是地点状语从句。 11 Philosophy can be thought of as a way of looking at the world around us, or of answering the great questions of life ,such as ‘Why are we

here?’ and ‘What is truth?’哲学可被认为是观察我们周围世界的一种方 式,或是解答人生重大问题的一种方式,如“我们为什么会在这里?” 以及“什么是真理?”句中 think of ?as?的意思是“认为,看作是” 。 I have always thought of Peter as a great scholar.我向来认为彼得是 一位了不起的学者。 12 Finally ,some people had had enough of him ,so they took him to court for questioning the existence of the Greek gods and for corrupting the young people of Athens.最后,一些人对他忍无可忍,于是便把他送上了 法庭,罪名是质疑希腊众神的存在和腐蚀雅典的年轻人。 (1)词组 had had enough of?的意思是“受够了?,对?感到厌烦” 。如; I have had enough of you stupid ideas 我受够了你的馊主意。 (2)词组 take somebody to court for (doing) something 的意思是 “因某人做了某事而将其告上法庭” 。如: He was taken to court for a murder.他因一桩谋杀案而被送上法庭。 高一下 Unit 1 1 A commercial advertisement is one which someone has paid for to advertise a product or service.商业广告是人们为了推销某种产品或服务 而花钱做的广告。 (1) 句中 which 引导一个定语从句,修饰先行词 one。 (2) 短语 pay for 的意思是 “为?付费” 。 如: this time.这次就让我来付饭钱吧。 Let me pay for dinner 模块四

2 PSAs are often run for free ,and are meant to educate people about health ,safety ,or any other problem that affects public welfare.公益广告往 往是免费投放的,旨在就健康、安全或其他影响公共福利的问题教育公 众。 句中 mean 作动词, 在这里的意思是 “打算、 意图” 。 如: Really sorry for the trouble-I didn’t mean to bother you.非常抱歉,给您添了麻烦,我本 不想打扰您的。 词组 be mean to 意为“目的是,旨在” 。如: This software is meant to protect computer from being attacked by viruses.这种软件旨在保护电脑 防御病毒攻击。 3 Even if ad does not lie ,it does not mean it is altogether innocent.即 使一副广告没有撒谎,也并不意味着这则广告就是完全“清白”的。 (1)副词 altogether 在句中意为“完全,全部” ,表示强调。如: was an altogether different situation.那是完全没的情形。 (2)单词 innocent 意为“无罪的,清白的” 。 4 Not all ads play tricks on us though.但并非所有的广告都跟我们玩 花招。 句中 though 是副词,意为“但是。然而” ,常置于句尾。如: This is the third time that Jack has failed the driving test .He is not discouraged ,though.这是杰克第三次没能通过驾驶考试,不过他并不气 馁。 5 When it comes to advertisements, we must all use our intelligence It

and not be a slave to them!谈及广告,我们都必须运用自己的智慧,不要 做广告的奴隶。 句中 when it comes to?的意思是 “当涉及到?, 当谈到?” 。 如: ” When it comes to classical music ,we first think of Beethoven or Mozart. 谈 到古典音乐,我们首先想到贝多芬或莫扎特。 7 The company can then choose the right product to produce, the one that is expected to be most popular with consumers-people who buy and use the product. 然后公司就可以选择生产合适的产品, 即预期会深受消费者 (购买和使用该产品的人)欢迎的产品。 句中 the one 是 the right product 的同位语,that 引导定语从句,修 饰先行词 the one; 破折号后面的 people 是 consumers 的同位语, who buy and use the product 是定语从句,修饰先行词 people。句中 most 之前并 未加定冠词 the, 因此并非最高级, 而是 “极其, 非常” 的意思; most popular 意为“深受欢迎” 。 8 Once the product goes on the market ,its sales fingers-the amount which has been sold-should be reported every day ,so the company can check the progress of their product.一旦产品投放市场, 就应当每天报告它 的销量(已售出的数量) ,以便公司检查产品的销售进度。 句中 so 之后省略了 that,表示目的,意思是“以便” ,后面的从句 中常包含 can could 或 might 等情态动词。如: John raised his voice so (that) everybody could hear him. 约翰提高了嗓门以便大家都能听到。 9 It is important to figure out exactly what you want to tell the

audience and what you are trying to get them to do.重要的是,你得确切弄 清楚想要告诉受众什么,想让他们做什么。 (1) 句首的 it 是形式主语,不定式短语 to figure out?才是真正的 主语;两个 what 引导名词性从句,充当 figure out 的宾语。 (2)句中 figure 用作动词,短语 figure out 的意思是“弄清楚” 。如: It took them a long time to figure out how to start the equipment. 他们花了 好长时间才弄清楚如何启动该设备。 (3)句中 get 意为“使,让” , get somebody to do something 的意

思是“让某人做某事” 。如; I will get my uncle to help check the spelling for me. 我会让我叔叔帮我检查拼写。 10 It is important to always try to appeal to the audience in order to

get them to react a certain way. 为了让受众作出预期的反应,努力去吸引 他们是很重要的。 (1) 句 中 appeal to 表 示 “ 有 吸 引 力 , 引 起 兴 趣 ” 。 如 : The programme 友欢迎。 (2)动词 react 的意思是“反应” 。如: I wonder how they are going to react to my suggestion.我不知道他们对我的提议会有什么反应。 11 There are lots of different ways to get your message across appeals especially to young children.这个节目特别受小朋

when you are putting together an ad campaign.当组织一场广告宣传活动 时,有许多不同的方式可用来传递讯息。 的意思是“将?表达清楚” 。如: 词组 Get something across

John has a way to get his opinion across while using as few words as possible. 约翰能用最简短的语言将自己的观点表达清楚。 12 We want to shock people into realizing that many smokers die

all too soon from illnesses and diseases related to smoking.我们希望警醒人 们,让他们认识到许多吸烟者过早地死于与吸烟有关的疾病。 句中 related to smoking 用作后置定语,词组 all too soon 意为“太 快,过早” 。词组 die from 与 die of 都可表示“死于” ,两者常常可以通 用,比如 die from a disease 与 die of a disease 皆可。 Unit 2 1 As a member of the International Olympic Committee, I am delighted to have been invited to your school to talk to you about the history and significance of the Olympic Games.作为国际奥委会的一名成员,我非 常高兴应邀前来贵校,跟大家谈谈奥运会的历史和重要性。 2 Sing women were allowed to take part in their own competition,

at a separate festival in honor of Hera, the wife of the Greek god Zeus.未婚 女性可以参加她们自己的竞技比赛,比赛在一个专门纪念赫拉(希腊神 话中众神之王宙斯的妻子)的节日举行。 (2) 词组 in honor of 的意思是“为了向??致敬,纪念” 。如: This great monument was built in honor of our national heroes. 这座高大的 纪念碑是为了纪念民族英雄而建的。 3 It was a Frenchman, Pierre de Coubertin, who brought the

Olympics back to life.让奥运会得以重生的是法国人皮埃尔· 德· 顾拜旦。

(1)句中 it was ? who ?是强调句型,强调 a Frenchman, Pierre de Coubertin. (2) 4 Pierre de Coubertin 是 a Frenchman 的同位语。 Afterwards, this young man went on to win the World

Heavyweight Boxing Championship in 1964 and later changed his name to the one we all know, Muhammad Ali 此后, 这个年轻人又赢得了1964 年世界重量级拳击锦标赛冠军,后来他改了名,即众所周知的穆罕默 德·阿里。 Muhammad Ali 5 I am sure the whole of China must have felt proud when Xu

Haifeng won the first gold medal for his country.我相信,当许海峰为自己 的祖国赢得第一枚金牌时,整个中国都为之感到自豪。 句中情态动词 must 后接完成式,表示对过去情况的推测。如:It must have rained last night, for the ground is wet。昨夜一定下雨了,因为 地上是湿的。 6 Deng Yaping, who won four Olympic gold medals is 1992 and

1996, is perhaps the greatest female table tennis player the world has ever seen.邓亚萍也许是世界上最伟大的女乒乓球运动员。她在1992年和 1996年共赢得四枚奥运金牌。本句含有两个定语从句,第一个定语 从句由 who 引导;第二个定语从句(the world has ever seen)前省略了 引导词,修饰先行词 player。动词 see 在这里是拟人用法,表示“经历, 见证” 。如:

The year 1949 saw the founding of the people’s Republic of China. 中华人民共和国于1949年成立。 8 In order for a new sport to be added, another sport must be

dropped. 要增补一个新的运动项目,就必须淘汰一个当前的运动项目。 (1) 短语 In order 后接动词不定式表示目的, a new sport 是不定式 to be added 的逻辑主语。 如: Clearly, in order for thing to be done in time, it is necessary to act quickly.很明显,为了按时把事情做完,有必要迅速 行动起来。 (2) 句中 drop 意为“停止,淘汰,放弃” 。如: I’m going to drop badminton and play soccer instead.我打算放弃羽毛球,改踢足球。 9 Some sports have been added ,such as tae kwon do, which was

first included in the Olympics in 2000.有些运动员得以增补进入奥运会, 比如跆拳道在2000年才首次被列为奥运项目。 10 In2016, rugby and golf, which were earlier played at the

Olympics and then dropped, will be included again, as they are now very popular and played all around the world.橄榄球和高尔夫曾经是奥运项目, 后来被取消,但是2016年这两项运动将重返奥运,因为它们现在非 常受欢迎,在世界各地都有人从事这两项运动。 本句是主从复合句,句中 Which 引导非限制性定语从句,as 引导 原因状语从句。 11 Of course, the goal should not have counted.当然,那个进球本


情态动词 Should 后接完成式,表示对过去情况的说明句中 should not have done 的意思是“本不该” 。如: You shouldn’t have shouted at Oliver. After all, he is only a child.你本 不该冲着奥利弗大喊大叫的。毕竟他只是个孩子。 12 He Eagles went home angry and bitter because they did not win

the tournament.鹰队在联赛上铩羽而归,既恼火又愤愤不平。句中 angry and bitter 用作主语的状语。如: I stepped onto the stage, scared and excited.我走上舞台, 既害怕又兴 奋。 13 The match was tied with minutes to go.离比赛结束只剩几分

钟的时候,还是平局。句中 tie 用作动词,意思是“打成平局,不分胜 负” 。如: Our school basketball team tied with a team from the south. 我校篮 球队与南方的一支球队打成平局。 Unit 3 1 Unlike a film, where a passive audience watches and hears what

is happening on a screen, RealCine puts you into the action and connects with your sense of sight, hearing, smell and touch in active way.电影仅仅让 观众被动地看和听屏幕上发生的事,而 Realcine 与电影不同,它让你参 与到剧情活动中,以一种主动的方式与你的视觉、听觉、嗅觉和触觉联 系起来。 (1)句中 where 引导一个非限制性定语从句, 修饰先行词 film。 由于句中 film 并非指具体的某一部电影,而是指一个抽象的地点,因此

这里只能用关系副词 where, 而不能用关系代词 which。 该定语从句中, 谓语 watches and hears 后接一个由 what 引导的宾语从句。 (2)句中 sight 和 smell 都用作不可数名词,指视觉和嗅觉。 2 Not only will he or she feel every step of climbing Mount

Qomolangma, but the user will also experience the cold, smells, sights and sounds of the surrounding environment; he or she will enjoy a feeling of happiness and a sense of achievement upon reaching the top. 使用者不仅能 感受到攀登珠穆朗玛峰的每一步的艰辛,还能体验到周围环境的寒冷、 气味、景观和声音;到达顶峰时,他们将会享受到一种愉悦感和成就感。 (1)本句分号前面是 not only?but(also)?连接的并列句。由 于 not only 位于句首,故第一个分句使用了倒装语序。 (2)句中 smells 和 sights 都用作可数名词,指不同的气味和景 物。 (3)短语 upon reaching the top 用作时间状语;upon 是介词,

相当于 on,意为“当??的时候,一??就??” 。如: Upon hearing the news that a hurricane was coming ,most of the villagers hurried to safer places.一听到飓风要来的消息,大部分村民都急 忙转移去了更安全的地区。 3 To add to the virtual world of RealCine ,the headsets even have small openings that give out smells to match the environment.给 RealCine 虚 拟世界锦上添花的是,耳机上甚至还有一些小孔,可以释放出与环境相 匹配的气味。句首的动词不定式短语用作目的状语。词组 add to 的意思 是“增添,增强” 。如:

The recent happenings added to the pressure on the organizing committee.最近所发生的事情增加了组委会的压力。 4 In reality, he is disabled and can no longer walk, but he was able to see and touch a lion while still in the convenience of the VR studio. 在现 实中,他因为残疾不能走路,但是借助VR工作室里设备的便利,他能 看见并抚摸一头狮子。 (1)句中 while 引导时间状语从句,该从句中承前省略了主语和谓 语,完整形式为 while he was still in the convenience of the VR studio. (2) 词组 In reality 的意思是“事实上,实际上” 。如:Henry always seems so confident, but in reality he is rather shy.亨利看上去总是那么自 信,但事实上他相当腼腆。 5Teachers could bring history alive by placing students in an ancient town, or they could teach biology by allowing students to experience the world as s whale or a squirrel.老师可以让学生置身于古代的城镇,从而让 历史重现;也可以让学生模拟鲸鱼或者松鼠来体验世界,用这种方式来 进行生物课的教学。 句中 Bring ? alive 的意思是“使??鲜活、生动” 。如 The teacher brought history alive with interesting stories.老师讲述有 趣的故事,把历史课上得有声有色。 6 This kind of urban planning is in the long term cheaper and more

practical, compared with the way most urban planning is done today. 长远来 说,与现在大多数城市规划方式相比,这种城市规划方式更经济、更实

用。 句中 Compared with??是过去分词短语, 用作方式状语; the way 后接一个定语从句。 8 In my opinion, it is about time we had new computers.在我看来, 我 们应该有新的电脑了。 在 It is (about\high) time(that) somebody should did something. 结构中 ,从 句 的谓语 部分 用 一般过 去时 ; 更为正 式的 说 法是 It is (about\high) time(that) somebody should do something。如: It is high time that we should make a budget for the project. 我们该为 这个项目做预算了。 9 Also, we need to buy new keyboards, mousse and monitors,

because many of keyboards have letters missing and some mousses and monitors are not functioning properly.我们还需要买新的键盘、 鼠标和显示 器,因为很多键盘残缺不全,一些鼠标和显示器也不能正常使用。 句中 Mouse 的意思是“鼠标” ,复数形式是 mouse。当 mouse 指“老鼠”时,复数形式为 mice。 10 11 Journey to the Centre of the Earth.《地心游记》 As they were wandering around, they noticed a man sitting

against a tree in the distance---he was at least four metres tall.当他们到处转 悠时,发现远处有一个人背靠树坐着——那人至少四米高。 句中 As they were wandering around 用作时间状语;sitting against a tree in the distance 是现在分词短语,用作宾语 a man 的补足语。介词

against 意为“靠着” 。如:. My dad placed the piano against the wall.我爸爸把钢琴靠墙放着。 12 The time Machine.《时间机器》 (Herbert George Wells,

13 Days and nights zipped by and everything changed before my eyes. A sports car zipped past us.白天、黑夜飞速交替,一切都在眼前变 换。 句中 zip 是动词。表示 “快速移动”的意思。 如;A sports car zipped past us 一辆赛车从我们身边飞驰而过。 此外,zip 用作名词时,本意是“拉链” ,用作动词时,其最常用 的意思是 “拉上拉链” 。 如 Walking out of the house, I zipped up my overcoat because it was freezing outside.出门时,我拉上了大衣的拉链,因为外面 很冷。 高二上 U nit 1 1 I must have sounded very proud of myself after the quiz ,saying 模块五

how easy it was and how I was sure to get a good grade. 考试之后,我一定 是听上去洋洋得意,说考题实在太简单了,我肯定能取得好成绩。 “must have+过去分词”结构表示对过去肯定的推测。如: Jack’s new car must have cost around ?20000. 杰克的新车肯定花费 了大约两万英磅。 2 Afterwards ,I pretended to be cheerful ,but Hannah sensed something was wrong,后来,我假装很开心,但汉娜还是觉察到哪儿有点

不对劲。 (1)动词 pretend 后接不定式作宾语。如: John pretended to be interested in the lecture although he was not. 尽 管约翰对讲座不感兴趣,但还是假装感兴趣的样子。 (2)句中 sense 为动词,后接从句,表示“感觉到,意识到” 。 如: She probably sensed that I wasn’t telling her the whole story.或许她意识 到我没告诉她事情的全部真相。 3 She said that someone must have been spying on us in the washroom, but I didn’t believe her explanation.她说一定是有人在洗手间偷听我们的 谈话,但我不相信她的解释。 句中情态动词 must 后面接完成进行式,表示对过去正在进行的情 况的推测。词组 spy on somebody 的意思是“窥探,暗中监视” 。如: Betty always feels that her neighbors are spying on her.贝蒂总是感觉 她的邻居在暗中监视她。 4 He got annoyed, saying it wasn’t his fault if he couldn’t play as well as me ,and that I shouldn’t talk to him in this manner.他也被惹火了, 说他的 球技不如我不是他的错,还说我不该那样和他说话。 句中现在分词短语作状语。 现在分词 saying 后接了两个宾语从句, 其中第二个宾语从句的引导词 that 通常不能省略。如; Jack said he loved music and that he would do anything to become a musician.杰克说他热爱音乐, 还说为了成为一名音乐家他什么都愿意做。 5 He accused me of some really bad things just to hurt me. 为了伤害

我,他指责我做了一些非常不好的事情。 句中 accuse 的意思是“指责,指控” ,常用于 accuse somebody of something 结构。如: Are you accusing me of lying?你是在指责我说谎吗? 6 I feel really guilty because I made some cruel remarks too ,but I dislike seeing our team lose.我感到很内疚,因为我也说了一些残酷无情 的话,但我不喜欢看到我们队输球。 (1)句中 remark 意为“言论,评论” 。如: The guests made a number of remarks about the service of the hotel.客 人们对这家宾馆的服务作了很多评论。 (2)动词 dislike 意为“不喜欢,厌恶” ,后常接名词或动名词。如: He simply disliked working with me and avoided me whenever possible.他就是不喜欢和我一起工作,只要有可能他总是避开我。 7 Yesterday ,I saw him talking to another boy ,Peter ,and I cannot help wondering if he wants Peter to be his best instead of me. 昨天,我看见 他和另一个男孩彼得说话,我忍不住想他是不是想让彼得取代我做他最 好的朋友。短语 cannot help (doing) something 的意思是“忍不住,情不 自禁” 。如: I could not help laughing when I saw his haircut.当我看到他的发型 时,忍不住笑了。 8 I told my brother about the quarrel, but he said Matthew is just too sensitive and perhaps a little bitter because I can really athletic and good at

football ,and that I had better find another friend.我把吵架的事告诉了我哥 哥,但他说马修只是太敏感,可能还有一点嫉妒,因为我身强体壮,足 球踢得很好,他建议我最好另找一个朋友。 (1)句中 he said 后面是两个并列的宾语从句,第一个是 Matthew is just too sensitive?football,第二个是 that I had better find another friend. 在第一个宾语从句中,还有一个 Because 引导的原因状语从句。 (2)形容词 sensitive 意为 “易生气的; 敏感的” , 后常接介词 to。 如: The girl is very sensitive to other people’s comments.这个女孩对别 人的评价很敏感。 10 Friendships between girls are usually anchored in shared feeling and support, but friendships between boys are based on shared activities or interests.女孩之间的友谊通常建立在共同的情感和互相支持之上,而男 孩之间的友谊则以共同的活动或兴趣为基础。 (1)动词 anchor 的本意是“停泊” ,在句中表示“基于” 。如: Her novels are anchored in everyday experience.她的小说基于对日 常生活的体验。 (2)词组 be based on/upon 的意思是“以??为基础,建立在??基 础之上” 。如: Their friendship was based on/upon each other’s help and support.他 们的友谊建立在相互帮助的支持的基础之上。 11 The qualities that boys and girls consider important in a friend seem to be the same, regardless of the basis of these friendships.无论男孩和

女孩友谊的基础是什么,他们所看重的朋友身上的品质似乎是一样的。 (1) 句中 qualities 后接一个 that 引导的定语从句。 (2)短语 regardless of 的意思是“不管,无论” 。如: The law requires equal treatment for all, regardless of race ,sex or origin.法律要求人人平等,不论种族、性别或出身。 12 I cannot imagine being without it. 我不能想象没有友谊的生活。 动词 imagine 后常接动名词作宾语。如: Can you imagine walking all the way home in the heavy rain?你能想 象冒着大雨一路走回家吗? 13 I ended up returning to the train station and spending the rest of the day in the waiting room.最终我回到火车站,在候车室里过完了这一天。 短语 end up 的意思是“最终处于,最后成为” ,常接动名词形式或介词 短语。如: If you don’t know what you want, you might end up getting something you don’t want.如果你不知道要什么, 那你可能最终得到你并不想要的东 西。 Take a break, John, if you continue working like this, you might end up in hospital.约翰,休息一下吧。如果你继续这样工作,你可能最后会 (累垮)住院的。 14 However, if I had ended our friendship, we would have both learnt nothing.但是,如果当初我终止了我们的友谊,那我们俩会一无所得。本 句是虚拟语气,if 从句中动词用 had done,主句的动词用 would have

done,表示与过去不相符合的情况。如: If you had come yesterday, you would have met him.如果你昨天来的 话,你就见到他了。 Unit 2 1 讨论。 句中 t he floor 的意思是“发言权” 。如; The President then took the floor and answered the journalists` questions.总统随后讲话并回答了记者的提问。 2 First I am talking to you today about the way vast areas of the Then we will open the floor for discussion.之后我们将展开自由

world are damaged by chemical waste。 我今天首先要谈的是化学废物如何 破坏世界上的大片区域。 句中 vast areas of the world are damaged by chemical waste 是定语从 句,修饰先行词 the way。修饰 way 的定语从句可以用关系代词 that 或 in which 引导,也可以省略 that 或 in which。如: To my surprise, the young girl laughs the same way (that\in which) her mother did at her age.令我感到惊讶的是,那小女孩笑起来和她母亲像她 那么大时一模一样。 3 When people think, they of factories, they think of clouds of dirty

smoke or of pipes pouring chemical waste into rivers. 一想到工厂,人们就 会想到污浊的滚滚浓烟或者向河流倾泻化学废物的管道。 主句中的动词 think 后接两个并列的 of 短语作宾语,由 or 连接。第

二个 of 短语中的 pipes pouring chemical waste into 是动名词的复合结构, 由“名词+动名词”构成。在这一结构中,名词通常为动名词的逻辑主 语。如; Do you like the idea of Jack living with us?你喜欢杰克和我们一起住 吗? 4 People often have this belief that development is bad for the

environment, but this does not have to be true. 人们常常认为经济发展对 环境有害,但这不一定是正确的。 (1)句中 that 引导的是同位语从句, 说明 belief 的具体内容。 除 belief 以外,idea, news, question 等名词后面也常接 that 引导的同位语从句。 如: ” Most doctors hold the idea that smoking is harmful to people’s health. 大多数医生认为吸烟有害健康。 (2) not have to 的意思是“不一定,不必” 。如; Though many basketball players are tall, one does not have to be tall to succeed in NBA。虽然很多篮球运动员是高个子,但在NBA获得成功 并不一定要个子高。 5 However, I do agree that we should produce more things from

materials that have been recycled, and less from raw materials, the supply of which is growing smaller and smaller. 但是,我非常赞同我们应该更多地 利用回收材料制造产品,减少原材料的使用,因为原材料的供应正变得 越来越紧张。 句中 do 用作助动词, 表示强调。 动词 agree 后接宾语从句, 该从句中 the supply of which is growing smaller and smaller 是非限制性定

语从句,修饰先行词 raw materials. 6 Asking around, I find many people willing to pay a little higher

price for things that are friendly to the environment.我问过周围的人,发现 许多人都愿意支付稍高一些的价钱来购买环保产品。短语 ask around 的 意思是“四处打听” 。如: I will ask around and see if anyone can help.我要四处打听一下,看有 没有人能够帮忙。 8 Desertification, the name for what happens when land that can be

used to grow crops turns into desert, is a growing world problem.沙漠化是 指能用来种植庄稼的土地变成沙漠这一过程,这是一个日益严重的全球 性问题。 本句主干为 Desertification is a growing world problem;句中 the name 为 desertification 的同位语; 介词 for 后接一个宾语从句 what happens when land that can be used to grow crops turns into desert,其中 when 引导时 间状语从句;定语从句 that can be used to grow crops 修饰先行词 land. 9 China has taken many steps to stop the process of desertification, including encouraging farmers to build fences (which stop wind from blowing the soil away),and providing money for people in dry areas to plant more trees and bushes.中国已采取诸多措施来阻止沙漠化的进程,如鼓励 农民搭建栅栏(这些栅栏能阻止风把土壤吹走) ,以及给干旱地区的人 们提供资金,让他们种植更多的树木和灌木。介词 including 后接两个并 列的动名词短语作宾语,整个介词短语 including?在句中作状语。词组

takes steps 意为“采取措施” 。如; The government plans to take steps to protect wild animals.政府计划采 取措施保护野生动物。 10 As the third longest river in the world, the health of the Yangtze River has raised concern both in China and abroad.作为世界上长度第三的 河流, 长江的环境问题已经引起了国内外的关注。 句中 raise 的意思是 “引 起” 。如; The lack of raw material has raised many doubts about the future of the world economy.原材料的缺乏已经引起很多对未来世界经济发展的疑 惑。 11 This is not good news for the people who rely on the Yangtze River for water .Nor is it good news for the wide range of fish and wildlife that live in or along the river.这对依赖长江用水的人来说是个不好的消息, 对生活 在江中或岸边的大量鱼类和野生生物来说也是个不好的消息。 (1)词组 rely on ?for?意为“依赖??提供??” 。如: Children rely on their parents for food and clothing.孩子们依赖父 母供给衣食。 (2)第二句话以否定词 nor 开头,故使用倒装语序。句中 fish and wildlife 后接一个由 that 引导的定语从句。 (3)这里 range 用作名词,意为“一系列,各种各样” 。如: At the fair, we have a wide range of books and CDs to choose from. 12 It also watches the river and stops the illegal hunting of animals,

which has put the wild animal population in danger.该组织还监视长江,阻 止非法捕捞。非法捕捞已经威胁到野生动物的数量。 (1)句中 which 引导非限制性定语从句,修饰 the illegal hunting of animals (2)句中 put ?in danger 的意思是“把??置于危险之地” 。如: Illegal hunting has put the tiger in danger of dying out.非法捕猎已经使 得老虎濒临灭绝的危险。 13 We still have a long way to go to solve all the problems in regard to Yangtze River.要解决有关长江的所有问题,我们还有很长的一段路要 走。 (1)句中 have a long way to 的意思是“还有很长的路要走” ,表示还 有很多事情需要做,或还需要改进。如: He has a long way to go before he can present the plan to the public. 要 把计划呈现给公众,他还要做出很多努力。 (2)短语 in/with regard to 的意思是“关于” 。如: They are very concerned about the rules in/with regard to training.他们 很关心关于培训的规定。 14 Many people blame this change on gases such as carbon dioxide.许 多人将这一变化归咎于二氧化碳等气体。 句中 blame? on?的意思是 “把??归咎于??” 。如: Whenever something goes wrong, everyone blame it on me.每次出现 什么问题,大家都把问题归咎于我。

15 Although we produce carbon when we breathe, the carbon we produce is much less than that produced by a car. 尽管我们呼吸时产生碳, 但我们排出的碳要比小汽车产生的碳少很多。句中 that 指代 carbon,后 接过去分词短语 produced by a car 作定语。英语中常用 that 来指代一个 不可数名词。如:The weather here is much more pleasant than that in the north.这里的天气比北方舒服多了。 16 Planting a small tree is cheep and easy ,and two decades from now ,when you look at what will have become a large tree ,you will find a sense of satisfaction knowing that you did your part to help solve the problem of climate change. 种植一棵小树很便宜也很简单,但二十年之 后,当你看到它长成大树时,你会有一种满足感,因为你知道自己为帮 助解决气候变化问题尽了一份力。本句是一个并列主从复合句,并列连 词 and 前面是一个简单句,and 后面是一个主从复合句,其中 when 引导 一个时间状语从句, look at 后接一个由 what 引导的宾语从句;现在分 词短语 knowing ?作状语,knowing 后接一个由 that 引导的宾语从句。 Unit 3 1 On the one hand, some scientists point out that if you clone an embryo, you can produce valuable human tissues---such as bone or lung tissue---that could be used to save human lives.一方面,一些科学家指出如 果克隆人类胚胎,你就可以制造出宝贵的人体组织——如骨组织或肺组 织——它们可以用来拯救人类的生命。 本句是个主从复合句,point out 是谓语,在其后 that 引导的宾语从

句中, if you clone an embryo 是条件状语从句, 两个破折号中间的 such as bone or lung tissue 是插入语,that could be used to save human lives 是定 语从句,修饰先行词 human tissues. 2 On the other hand, many people, including some scientists,

disagree and are afraid that, if mankind toys with nature in this way, we may be on our way to producing a real---life Frankenstein’s monster.另一 方面,包括一些科学家在内的许多人持不同意见,他们担心人类如果 如此戏弄自然,可能将制造出一个现实生活中的弗兰肯斯坦怪物。 (1)短语 toy with 的意思是“玩弄,摆弄” 。如: He accused the young man of toying with his daughter’s feelings.他指 责那个年轻人玩弄他女儿的感情。 She just toyed with her food, as she wasn’t really hungry.她只是把食物 拨弄着玩儿,因为她并不饿。 (2)短语 on one’s way to(doing) something 的意思是 “某事即将发生” , to 是介词,后接名词或动名词。如; He is on his way to becoming a famous singer.他离成为一名著名歌手 已经不远了。 3 The first mammal to be cloned successfully from an adult cell

was Dolly the sheep.第一只成功地成年动物细胞克隆出的哺乳动物是多 利羊。 (2)动词不定式短语 to be cloned?用作定语,修饰 the first mammal。 名词前有序数词修饰时,后面常接动词不定式作定语。如:

That was the first play to be performed that year.那是那年上演的第一 场戏。 4 However, some people believe that cloning human embryos with

the intention of destroying them shows no respect for human life.但是,有些 人认为怀着摧毁人类胚胎的意图来克隆人类胚胎是对人类生命的不尊 重。 短语 with the intention of 的意思是“为了,以??为目的或意图” 。 如:He has decided to go abroad to study with the intention of improving his English and finding a better job when he returns.他决定去国外留学,以提 高英语水平,并在回国后找到一份更好的工作。 5 I don’t want to adopt someone else’s child---if I had the chance, I would have a cloned baby right now`.我不想领养别人的孩子——如果我 有这个机会,我会立即要一个克隆儿。 (1)动词 adopt 意为“收养,领养” ,此外也有“采用”的意思。如; Many families have to adopt children because they cannot have a baby of their own.许多家庭因为不能生养孩子只能领养。 They adopted different methods to try to solve the problems.他们采用 不同的方法,试图解决这些问题。 (2)破折号后面的句子为虚拟语气。条件句中一般用过去时,主句中 用“would+动词原形”表示与现在事实相反的情况,即“现在没有机会, 无法有一个克隆儿。 ”如: If I had enough money, I would buy a large house and a beautiful car. 要

是我有足够的钱,我就买所大房子和一辆漂亮的车。 6 While cloning human embryos is not legal in many countries,

some scientists are already pushing ahead with research in order to produce a cloned human baby.尽管克隆人类胚胎在很多国家还不合法,但一些科学 家正在加紧研究,以制造出克隆的人类婴儿。 (1)句中 while 是连词,意思是“虽然,尽管” 。如; While English can be difficult to learn, it is a very useful tool for communication.虽然英语可能学起来有点难,但它是非常有用的交际工 具。 (2)短语 push ahead with 的意思是“推进,推行” 。如; It is hard to push ahead with such an unpopular policy. 这样不得人心的 政策是很难推行下去的。 7 On a personal note, cloning would totally transform my life. 就我

个人而言,克隆将彻底改变我的生活。 句中 on a ….note 的意思是“以??语气,以??论调” 。如; He ended his speech to his employees on a humorous note. 他用幽默的 语气结束了他对员工们的演讲。 On a more serious note, the manager mentioned the accident last month. 经理以更加严肃的语气提到了上个月的事故。 9 nature? Would anyone say that development should be stopped in favor of 难道我们为了保护自然就应该停止经济发展吗?

短语 in favor of 的意思是“有利于;赞同” 。如:

She was willing to change the rules in favour of Mary. 她愿意为了玛丽 而改变规则。 I talked to my friend about it, and he’s in favour of giving up the plan. 我和朋友谈过,他赞同放弃计划。 10 From the point of view of some people, we are only doing what humans have always done, using nature to meet our own needs. 根据有些人 的观点,我们只是在做人类一直在做的事情——利用自然满足我们自己 的需求。短语 meet one’s needs 的意思是“满足某人的要求” 。如; We will buy more computers to meet the children’s needs.我们要买更 多的电脑来满足孩子们的需求。 11 They have not yet seen the effects of the careless use of the environment like many wealthy nations have.他们还没有像许多富裕国 家那样,认识到随心所欲消耗自然资源的后果。 本句为省略句, many wealthy nations have 后面省略了 seen the effects of the careless use of the environment.助动词后面的省略经常出现。如; Tom has learnt a lot from the lecture, just as a lot of students have.就像 许多学生一样,汤姆从讲座中学到了很多知识。 12 It should not be a question of humans winning and nature losing. 这 不应该是人类获胜、自然失败的问题。 句中 human winning 和 nature losing 是动名词复合结构,作介词 of 的宾语。 13 Nowhere is this truer than with genetically modified(GM)food.转基

因食品就是最好的例子。 (1)句中 nowhere….truer…是比较级的形式, 表示最高级的意义。 如; No one in my class works harder than Jack.我们班没有人比杰克更用 功。 (杰克最用功) (2)本句以否定词 nowhere 开头,为倒装语序。 Nowhere could I find a person to help me at that time. 当时我找不到一 个可以帮助我的人。 14 Research has been limited to increasing production profits, rather

than making sure that GM foods are safe,目前的研究只局限于增加生产利 润,而不是确保转基因食品的安全。 句中 rather than 相当于 instead of,连接两个动名词短语。词组 be limited to 的意思为“局限于” ,其中 to 是介词,后可接名词或动名词。 如: Experts point out that this problem is not limited to middle---aged people. 专家指出,这一问题并不限于中年人。 高二上 Unit 1 1 Stand up for your health! 欣赏单口喜剧,促进身心健康! 模块六

标题中的 stand up 是双关语,一层含义指单口喜剧(stand—up)有益 健康,另一层含义为短语 stand up for something 的本意,即“支持,维 护”之意。 2 One favorite type of comedy is called stand-up.有一种深受人们喜爱 的喜剧形式,叫做单口喜剧。

单口喜剧(stand—up comedy 或 stand –up)是单人表演的喜剧节目。 3 There are a variety of different styles of stand—up comedy.单口喜

剧有很多不同的类型。 短语 a variety of 的意思是“不同种类的,各种各样的” 。如: The island has a wide variety of wildlife.这个岛屿有多种多样的野生 动植物。 4 Another comedian points to a video tennis game and says, ` I’ve

been playing tennis every day for a month, I don’t understand why I am not losing weight!`另一个喜剧演员指着电脑网球游戏说: “我每天都打网球, 已经一个月了。我就是搞不懂,为什么体重一点也降不下来呢?” (1)句中 I’ve been playing tennis every day for a month.使用了现在完 成进行时,表示动作从过去开始一直持续到现在,且可能继续下去。 (2)句中 understand 后接一个由 why 引导的宾语从句。 5 While this kind of humor may sound cruel, it usually only works if

both the comedian and the audience have affection for or admire the person being made fun of.这种幽默听起来可能有点刻薄,但通常只有当喜剧演 员和观众都喜欢或者崇拜这个被取笑的对象时,这种幽默才奏效。 (1)句中 while 引导一个让步状语从句,have affection for 和 admire 的宾语是 the person,分词短语 being made fun of 作 the person 的定语。 (2)短语 have(an) affection for 的意思是“喜爱,钟爱” 。如: I have a great affection for Nanjing,我非常喜欢南京。 6 Only a few stand—up comedians have become famous as television

and film performers later on in life, One such person is Billy Crystal.只有为 数不多的单口喜剧演员在之后的生涯中成为走红的影视明星。一个成功 的例子就是比利·克里斯托。 (1)短语 later on 的意思是“后来,过些时候” 。如: Later on, he got a job as a consultant.后来他找了一份咨询师的工作。 (2)句中 such 为形容词,意思是“那样的,这样的。如此的” 。当它 与数词或不定 any、 come、 all 、on 等连用时,常置于它们之后;但 与不定冠词连用时,则置于不定冠词之前。如: There is no such thing as a free lunch.天下没有免费的午餐。 You gave me such a fright! 你吓了我一跳!

7 People around the world enjoy watching him when he hosts the Academy Awards.全世界的观众都喜爱看他主持的奥斯卡颁奖典礼。 8 Each time, he performs his stand—up routine in front of millions

of people when the show is broadcast live on TV.每次主持奥斯卡颁奖典礼 电视直播的时候,他都会在数百万观众面前表演他的单口喜剧节目。 句中 live 为副词, 常用于表示电视、 广播的 “现场直播, 实况转播” , 表示该含义时也可作形容词。如; This evening there will be a live broadcast of the debate.今晚将有这场 辩论赛的实况转播。 9 One reason Crystal has become so famous is that he is very quick

thinking, and is often able to come up with new jokes about the people and things around him.克里斯托之所以如此出名,原因之一就是他思维非常

敏捷,常常能就身边的人或事即兴编排笑话。 短语 come up with 的意思是“想出” 。如: The scientists are trying to come up with a solution to the problem.科学 家正试图找出解决这个问题的办法。 10 Instead of telling the joke he had planned, Crystal made up one. 克里斯托放弃了事先准备好的笑话,编了一个新的。 短语 make up 的意思是“编造,杜撰” 。如: The teacher asked the children to make up a story about a trip to the Moon.老师让孩子们编写一个去月球旅行的故事。 11He hopes to follow in the footsteps of other famous comedians, such as Bob Hope and George Burns。Who lived to be 100 years old and kept working until nearly the end of their lives. 他希望效仿鲍勃·霍普和乔 治·伯恩斯等著名单口喜剧明星,他们都活到了一百岁,并且一直工作 到生命的最后时期。 12 Whatever the reason, research shows that in the end, the English saying, `Laughter is the best medicine`, may be true after all, 不管是什么原 因,研究表明,英语格言“笑是灵丹妙药”到头来可能真的没错。 句中 whatever the reason 用作状语, 后面省略了 is。 英语中在很明确 省略的成分是什么时,可以省略。如: Whatever her faults, I’ll stand by her side,不管她做错什么,我都会支 持她。 14 Of course.(moves over as if to make room for Tony)当然。 (挪了挪, new

好像是要为托尼腾出地方) (1)舞台说明中的 as if to do something 的意思是“好像要做某事” 。 如: 什么。 (2)短语 make room 的意思是 “腾出地方” , 其中 room 是不可数名词。 如:Please move along and make room for the old man.请挪一下,给这位 老人让个地。 15 Mind if I sit down?我坐这儿你们不介意吧? He stopped working, as if to say something.他停下工作,似乎想说

该句为省略句, 常用于口语, 其完整形式: Do you mind if I sit down? 16 I must have forgotten to tell you.我一定是忘记告诉你们了。

句中 must have forgotten 是“肯定忘记了”的意思。 “must+have+过 去分词”结构表示对过去或已经完成动作的肯定判断或推测。如: Karl knows a lot about Star Wars, He must have seen it many times. 卡 尔对《星球大战》很熟悉,他一定看过很多遍了。 17Servant bursts in. next to Queen, empty-handed and looking worried. 仆人冲上舞台,来到王后身边,两手空空,神色焦虑。 词组 burst in 的意思是“闯进” 。如: A stranger burst in, interrupting our meeting.一个陌生人闯了进来,打 断了我们的会议。 Unit 2 1 To some, happiness is being surrounded by family and friends. 对


句中 Being surrounded 是动名词的被动形式,作表语。动名词的被 动形式还可以充当其他句子成分。如; I don’t like being laughed at in public.我不喜欢在公共场合被人嘲笑。 2 To those who have been injured or struggle with a physical disability, happiness can simply mean a day without suffering, or just being alive. 对那 些受伤的人或者是身有残疾的人来说,幸福可能仅仅意味着过一天没有 疼痛的日子,或者仅仅是活着而已。 句中 Who 引导一个定语从句,修饰先行词 those。动词 mean 此处 的意思是 “意味着” , 后接两个并列的宾语: a day without suffering 和 being alive。注意,当动词 mean 的意思是“意欲,打算”时,后接不定式。 如: I meant to go to visit him on my back, but I forgot.我原打算在回来的路 上去看他,但我忘了。 3 I understand that you often use the example of the gymnast Sang Lan to show how people can find happiness even during times of a personal catastrophe.我知道,您经常用体操运动员桑兰的例子来告诉人们,即使 遭遇个人灾难时,也能找到幸福。 句中 times(复数形式)表示“时代,时期” 。如; In ancient times 在古代 in modern times 在现代

Times are hard for Susan. She lost her job two weeks ago.苏珊的日子 很难熬。她两周前失业了。 4 By the time she competed in the gymnastics tournament at the New York Goodwill Games, she had been a junior gymnast for eleven years.到参

加纽约友好运动会的体操锦标赛时,桑兰已经是一名有着十一年经历的 体操小将了。 Goodwill Games 友好运动会。介词 By 意为“到??时间为止” ,常 与完成时态连用。如: By the rime he realized his view was wrong, he had nearly finished his essay.到他意识到自己的观点是错误的时候,他已经差不多写完论文了。 5 In 1998, a small accident during one of her practice vaults at the Goodwill Games could have cost her future happiness.1998年在友好运 动会上进行跳马练习时的一个小事故,可能把她未来的幸福化为泡影。 (1)句中 could have done 表示过去可能发生的事情并未发生。如; You could have been more careful in the quiz. You made too many mistakes.你本可以在考试中更仔细的。你犯了太多的错误。 (2)动词 cost 后接双宾语,表示“使??付出(代价) ” 。如: His rude behavior cost him his job 他的粗鲁行为让他付出了失业的代 价。 6 Everyone who saw her ,from nurses to famous visitors like Leonardo DiCaprio from the film Titanic ,who went to see her in the hospital to cheer her up ,all said she was in good spirits.见过她的每个人,从医院的护士, 到前往医院探访、 给她鼓励的名人, 如主演 《泰坦尼克号》 的莱昂纳多· 迪 卡普里奥等,都说她精神状态很好。 (1)本句为复合句; 句中第一个 who 引导限制定语从句, 第二个 who 引导非限制定语从句,all 是 everyone 的同位语。

(2)句中 spirits 为复数形式,意思是“精神状态,情境,心境” 。如: The coach spoke to the team and told them they must keep their spirits up.教练跟队员谈话,告诉他们必须打起精神。其他用到 spirits 的短语 还有:in high spirits 意为“情绪高昂” ; in low/poor spirits 意为“情绪低 落” ; raise somebody’s spirits 意为“鼓舞某人的情绪” 。 8 I feel caught between what I want, what my parents want and what my basketball coach wants.在我的意愿、父母的意愿和篮球教练的意愿之 间,我感到左右为难。句中 feel caught between 的意思是“在??之间 感到左右为难” 。如: I felt caught between further study and looking for a job. 我在继续深造 和找工作之间左右为难。 9 It feels like allocating adequate time for each is just not practical. 要给 每件事分配足够的时间, 似乎是不切实际的。 句型 it feels like?意为 “似 乎,感觉好像??” 。本句 like 后接一个表语从句,allocating 分词短语 充当从句的主语。如: We just met a couple of days ago, but it feels like we’ve known each other for a lifetime.我们几天前才认识,但感觉好像认识了很久。 10 My whole life was still ahead of me. At that point in my life, I could have done anything or become anyone.我整个的生活还都在前面等着我。 在人生的那个阶段,我本可以做任何事、成为任何人。词组 ahead of 的 意思是“在??的前面;比??先进” 。如: She spent all night thinking about the future that lay ahead of her. 她整

夜都在思考她的未来。 She was always well ahead of the rest of the class.她在班上总是遥遥 领先。 11 All I had to do was go to school and spend a few hours studying when I came home.我要做的事就是上学,以及回家后再学习几个小时。 句中 I had to do 为定语从句,修饰先行词 all; go to school 是动词不定 式作表语,省略了 to。当主语部分有实义动词 do 时,作表语的不定式 常省略 to。如; What I hope to do now is go home and have a good rest. 现在我想要做 的就是回家好好休息一下。 12 When I imagine my future ,I see myself successful in my job and surrounded by my family.想象自己的未来,我看到的是自己工作成功、身 边有家人陪伴的情景。句中谓语动词 see 后接复合宾语结构,myself 为 宾语, successful in my job 和 surrounded by my family 是两个并列的宾语 补足语。注意,过去分词作宾语补足语时,与宾语之间是被动关系。如; The speaker raised his voice in order to make himself heard by the audience in the back.演讲者提高了声音,以便让后面的观众听到他讲 话。 13 No one will be sad because humans will have learnt to fix many of the problems that affect us now, like war, pollution and hunger.没有人会感 到忧伤,因为到那时人类将学会解决目前还困挠着我们的许多问题,如 战争、环境污染和饥荒。

(1) 句中 will have done 是将来完成时,表示到将来某一时间已经完 成的动作。如: By the end of next week, they will have planted 300 trees.到下周末, 他 们将已经种植了300棵树。 (2)动词 fix 在这里意为“解决(问题) ” 。如; He fixed the problem within three minutes. He was really outstanding! 他只用了不到三分钟就解决了问题。他确实了不起! 14 Then families will be able to spend the maximum amount of their precious time enjoying each other’s company and the minimum amount of time doing housework.这样, 每个家庭就可以最大限度地将宝贵时间用于 和家人相伴,而花最少的时间来做家务。句中 company 是不可数名词, 意思是“陪伴” 。如; It’s a pleasant evening in the company of my family and friends.这是一 个愉快的夜晚,有家人和朋友陪伴。 15 We have to work so hard at school, and when we try to take time to relax, there is always someone telling us things we should be doing or learning.我们在学校必须刻苦学习,当想要抽空放松一下时,总有人告 诉你应该做这个、应该学那个。现在分词短语 telling us things 用作 someone 的定语; things 后接一个定语从句,省略了引导词。 Unit 3 1 Hi, Ma Li , I `m Waled from Brunei.嗨, 马莉,我是来自文莱的瓦利 德。

2 So what other things do you do in your country that are different from other countries , Waled? 瓦利德,那你们国家还有哪些事情的做法与别

的国家不一样呢?句中 that 引导的是定语从句,修饰先行词 things。 3 Well, you know in many countries people point with their first finger. 嗯, 你知道, 在很多国家人们用食指来指东西。 句中 first finger 意为 “食 指” ,又称为 index finger。 4 Many foreigners have trouble getting accustomed to it.许多外国人很 难适应这种做法。 (1)短语 have trouble (in) doing something 的意思是 “做某事有困难” , 也可以说 have difficulty (in) doing something;其中 trouble 和 difficulty 都为不可数名词。如: As a newcomer, Peter had trouble understanding the local customs.作为 新来者,彼得很难理解当地的习俗。 (2)短语 get/become/be accustomed to 的意思是“习惯于??” ,后接 名词或动名词。如: He soon became accustomed to getting up early to study English.他很 快习惯了早起学英语。 5 For example, I have fond childhood memories of Bonfire Night, but my American friends are not familiar with that particular festival.例如: 我有 童年时篝火节的温馨回忆,但我的美国朋友对那个特别的节日竟然不太 了解。 Bonfire Night 篝火节

7 Taboo or not taboo—that is the question! 个问题!

禁忌, 是或不是——这是

To be not to be, that is a question.生存或毁灭,这是个问题。 8 The breaking of a taboo is usually upsetting or embarrassing for the person concerned and the people around him or her. 违反禁忌通常会使相关 的人及其周围的人感到生气或尴尬。 句中 concerned 是形容词,用作后置定语,修饰 person,意思是“相 关的” 。如: I’d like to thank everyone concerned for making the activity run so smoothly.我要感谢使本次活动得以顺利进行的所有相关人士。 9 In Thailand and other parts of South—East Asia, the normal greeting is a slight bow with the hands pressed together.在泰国和东南亚的其他一些 地区,通常的打招呼方式是双手合十并微微鞠躬。 过去分词 Pressed 本意是“压” ,作 bands 的补足语。短语 with the hands pressed together 的意思是“双手合十” 。如; We saw her praying hard, with eyes closed and hands pressed together. 我们见到她在努力地祷告,双眼紧闭,双手合十。 10 They dislike it when people do not look at the cards, so remember not to just put them in your pocket without looking.他们不喜欢人们不看名 片,所以要记住,不要看都不看就把名片塞进口袋。 句中 dislike 是及物动词,it 是形式宾语,真正的宾语为 when 引导 的从句。可以把 dislike it when ?作为一个句型来记,意思是“不喜

欢??” 。类似的用法还有(not)like it when…,(not)love it when?等。如; I don’t like it when my younger brother follows me around.我不喜欢 我弟弟到处跟着我。 11 Tour 1—Inuit Experience。线路1——因纽特体验游。 12 Tour2—Aborigine Adventure 线路2——澳大利亚土著历险游。 Aborigine 澳大利亚土著人 (Kooris)古利人

13 New Zealand is home to the Maoris.新西兰是毛利人的家园。 14 You will stay with a family in their wooden house in the area of

Rotura.你将住在罗吐鲁阿地区一户人家的木屋里。 15 They are known as the Plains Indians, as they live on the plains. 他 们被称为“平原印第安人” ,因为他们生活在平原上。 (Plains Indian) 平原印第安人 Unit 4 1 I am pleased to have this chance today to talk to you about the United Nations, or the UN, as it is more often referred to.我很高兴今天有 机会跟大家谈谈联合国,联合国也叫UN——这个名称更常用。 (1)短语 have a chance to do something 的意思是“有机会做某 事” ,chance 用作可数名词,表示“机会,良机”的意思。如; My company gave me the chance to study abroad.公司给了我这个出 国学习的机会。 2 I feel very honored to have been able to take on this role.能够担当 这个角色,我感到很荣幸。短语 take on 意思是“承担(责任) ,担当” 。

No one wanted to

take on the challenge---it was just too dangerous.

没有人愿意接受这个挑战,这太危险了。该短语还有“呈现”的意思。 Since 1978, my home town has taken on a new look. 自1978年以 来,我的家乡呈现出新的面貌。 3 With the help of these armies and other worth organizations, the UN assists the victims of wars and disasters.在这些军队和其他一些可敬的组 织的协助下,联合国为战争及灾难的受害者提供援助。 句中 assist 用作及物动词,意思是“帮助,援助,协助” ;assist 常用结构有 assist somebody in\with something 以及 assist somebody in doing something,一般用于书面语中。如; He assisted his father in the project.他协助他父亲做项目。 He assisted us in setting up the new company 他帮助我们成立了新公 司。 4 Such programmers can transform people’s lives by giving them the ability to provide for themselves and their families 这些项目可以改变人们 的生活,使他们有能力为自己和家人提供生活所需。 短语 provide for somebody 的意思是“为某人提供生活所需” 。如; The woman had to work hard to provide for her five children. 这位妇 女不得不努力工作以抚养她的五个孩子。 5 There are lots of worthwhile programmers like this under the umbrella of the UN that have helped millions of people across the world. 在 联合国的管理体系中还有很多此类的重要的项目,它们已经为全世界数

以百万计的人提供了帮助。 (1)句中 that 引导的是定语从句,修饰先行词 programmes (2)形容词 worthwhile 意为“重要的,值得花时间(或金钱、努力 等)的” 。如: It’s worthwhile to spend money developing high-quality products.花 钱研制高质量产品是值得的。 (3)短语 under the umbrella of 的意思是“在??体制中;在??保 护下” 。如: The two departments combined under the umbrella of the new government. 在新政府的体制下那两个部门进行了合并。

The company is under the umbrella of the government。 那家公司得到 政府的庇护。 6 One of the goals is to ensure that clean water is available to everyone, as in many places water is not safe to drink unless it is boiled.目标 之一是保证每个人都能够喝到干净的水,因为在很多地方把水煮沸后才 能放心饮用。 句中动词不定式 to ensure 作表语,ensure 后接一个由 that 引导的 宾语从句;as 用作连词,表示原因,引导原因状语从句。 8 Arrived here to find everything was in chaos. 到达这里后发现一切 都是乱糟糟的。 (1)短语 in chaos 的意思是“杂乱,混乱,纷乱” 。如: The house was left in chaos by the thieves.窃贼把屋子弄得一片狼

藉。 (2)动词不定式 to find 作结果状语。如: He came back home only to find a cat in the kitchen.他回到家,竟发 现厨房里有只猫 9 We also gave children shots to stop them dying from diseases. 我们 还给孩子们打针,让他们不致死于疾病。 句中 Shot 的意思是“注射” 。如“” Tom had a fever, and the doctor gave him a shot.汤姆发烧,医生给他 打了一针。 10 The situation is very different here, as are the problems. 这里的情 形很不一样,存在的问题也不同。 句中 as 为连词,意为“正如,就像” ,引导一个方式状语从句。 Mathematics is very important to me, as is English. 对我来说数学很 重要,就像英语一样。 11 One of the health problems is that people who need to take medicines regularly cannot get hold of them in a disaster such as this. 有关健 康的问题之一是,在这样的灾难中,那些需要定期服药的病人无法得到 药品。 短语 get hold of 的意思是“得到,抓住” 。如: Where can I get hold of some stamps? 呢、 The baby got hold of the newspaper and began to tear it. 婴儿抓住报 我从哪儿可以弄到一些邮票

纸,开始撕了起来。 12 Meanwhile, in the rest of the city, shelter and access to food and clean water are big problems.同时,在这座城市的其他地区,住所、食物 和干净水的供给都是大问题。 句中 access 用作名词,有“接近(或使用)的权利,机会;通道, 门路”等意思。如: The library enables students to have access to good books. 图书馆使 学生有机会阅读好书。 The only access to the village is by boat.通往那个村子唯一的途径就 是船。 13 It reminded me of my time in Sudan, where several Doctors without Borders staff were attacked as people tried to get the food.这使我想 起了在苏丹的那段时间,当时人们哄抢食物,有好几名无国界医生组织 的工作人员受到了攻击。 (1)短语 remind somebody of 的意思是 “使人想起, 提醒某人” 。 如; He reminds me of his father.他使我想起了他的父亲。 14 When I think back to all the experiences that I have had around the world since joining Doctors without Borders, I feel that I have been very lucky to be able to help others and do something worthwhile.回想起我加入 无国界医生组织以来在世界各地的所有经历,我觉得我自己非常幸运, 能够帮助别人做一些有价值的事情。 (1)句中 when 引导时间状语从句, 其中 experiences 后接一个由 that

引导的定语从句。主句中 feel 后接一个由 that 引导的宾语从句。 (2)词组 think back to 的意思是“回想起” 。如; He couldn’t help smiling when he thought back to the cheerful gathering with his friends. 他回想起和朋友们的欢聚,不由得微笑起来。 15 I think I can’t change the whole world, but I `m proud that I can help here and there, and make a difference to people’s lives. 我知道我无法 改变整个世界,但我很自豪,因为我能处处给人们提供帮助,改变他们 的生活。短语 make a difference 的意思是“产生差别,有影响,起作用” 。 Exercise can make a big difference to your state of health.运动能对你 的健康状况起到很大的作用。 高二下模块七 Unit 1 1 John Logie Baird constructed the first color TV in 1928, but it was

not until 1938 that the first color TV programme was broadcast. 约翰·洛 吉·贝尔德于1928年制造出第一台彩色电视机,但直到1938年 第一个彩色电视节目才播出。 (1)句中 but 后面的 it was not until 1938 that?是强调句型,对时间 状语 not until 1938 加以强调。 (2) 句中 construct 的意思是“制造” 。如: His brother spent a month learning how to construct a model plane. 他 弟弟花了一个的时间学习如何制造飞机模型。 2 They also make TV accessible to people who live far away from

cities , and satellite dishes can often be seen distributed throughout the countryside and remote areas.它们也使远离城市的人们可以收看电视,在 农村和边远地区经常可以看到卫星天线。 (1) 句中 accessible 的意思是“可使用的,可接近的” 。如; Medicine should not to place where it is accessible to children.药品不 应该放在儿童容易拿到的地方。 (2) 句中 distribute 的意思是“散布,分布” 。如; This kind of tree is widely distributed in our country.这种树在我国分 布很广。 3 However , most people still benefit from satellite TV , as local TV

companies broadcast the signals they get from satellite receivers to the population living nearby.然而,大多数人仍然受益于卫星电视,因为当地 的电视公司把从卫星接收器接收到的信号播送给附近的居民。 (1)句中 as 引导一个状语从句,在此从句中, they get from satellite receivers 是定语从句,修饰前面的 the signals。 (2) 短语 benefit from 的意思是“从??中受益” 。如: Many children in the area benefit from the books he donated. 这个地 区的许多孩子从他捐赠的图书中受益。 4It all began in 1877, when Thomas Edison made the first recording of a human voice on his invention the record player.一切始于1877年,这 一年托马斯·爱迪生用他发明的留声机第一次录制了人的声音。名中 when 引导非限制定语从句, 在此从句中 the record player 是 his invention

的同位语。 5The first record player had to be wound up by hand and only played records that were two minutes long.最早的留声机必须手摇上发条, 而且只 能播放两分钟长的唱片。句中 wind up 的意思是“上发条” 。如: He reminded his wife to wind up the clock.他提醒妻子给钟上发条。 7They then vote on whether they will accept it.然后他们投票决定是 否接受它。句中 vote 的意思是“投票,表决” 。如: Since we disagree on the matter, let’s vote on it.既然大家在这件事上 有不同意见,那就表决吧。 8Since the Amish value seeing each other face to face, they oppose having telephones in their houses.因为阿曼门诺派教徒重视彼此面对面交 流,所以他们反对在住宅里装电话。 (1) 句中 value 用作动词,意思是“珍视,认为??有价值” 。如: They valued the friendship between them very much.他们很珍视彼此 间的友谊。 (2)动词 oppose 的意思是“反对,抵制” 。如: This project will be strongly opposed by the local people.这个项目将 遭到当地居民强烈反对。 9There is something important about being together and sharing life that cannot be found over a telephone wire. 在一起并分享生活,其中蕴藏 着某种重要的东西,而这种东西是无法通过电话线获得的。句中 that cannot be found over a telephone wire 是 定 语 从 句 , 修 饰 先 行 词

something ,但被 important about being together and sharing life 隔开。类 似的结构如: They bought a present for their father which cost 200 dollars. 他们为 他们的父亲买了一份价值200美元的礼物。 10For example, no matter what the circumstances, when the phone rings, everything stops so that the call can be answered.例如, 无论在什么情 况下,当电话铃声响起时,为了接电话,一切都得停下来。 (1) 句中 no matter what 引导让步状语从句,其完整形式为 no matter what the circumstances are。 (2)句中 circumstances 的意思是 “情况, 环境” , 常用复数形式。 如: Under normal circumstances, nobody would sign such an unfair agreement.通常情况下,没人会签署这样的不公平协议。 11In one study, girls average 80 text messages a day , and boys average 30 . 在一项研究中, 女孩平均每天发80条短信, 男孩平均每天 发30条短信。句中 average 用作动词,意思是“平均为” 。如: Readers of this age group can expect to average about 300 words per minute.这个年龄段的读者平均阅读速度有望达到每分钟300词左右。 12 Meanwhile , real relationships are often sacrificed , and whatever

personal peace one has is destroyed whenever the phone rings.同时,真正的 关系往往被牺牲了,每当电话声响起时,个人拥有的任何宁静都会被打 破。 (1) 句中 whatever personal peace one has 是主语从句,而 whenever

the phone rings 是状语从句。 (2)动词 sacrifice 的意思是“牺牲,献出” 。如: Don’t sacrifice your health for money.不要为了金钱而牺牲你的健 康。 13Maybe we should rid ourselves of modern technology and return to simpler times.也许我们应该摆脱现代技术,回归更为简单的时代。词组 rid ?of?的意思是“使??免除??,使??摆脱??” 。如: We want to help rid the team of this pressure.我们想要帮助团队从这 压力中走出来。 Unit 2 1Neaely 3500years ago, people chewed on leaves or drank a kind of tea made from leaves possessing a special chemical to reduce body pains and fever.将近3500年前, 人们咀嚼一种含有特殊化学物质的树叶或饮用 由这种树叶制成的茶,以减轻身体疼痛或退烧。 (1)句中 made from leaves 是过去分词短语, 用作 a kind of tea 的后 置定语;possessing a special chemical 是现在分词短语,用作 leaves 的后 置定语。 (2) 动词 possess 的意思是“拥有,具有” 。如: The province possesses rich mineral resources.该省拥有丰富的矿藏。 2The first trails of this medicine took place in 1899, when the company Hoffmann worked for began distributing the medicine in powder from to physicians to use with patients.对此药进行的首批试验发生在18

99年,当时霍夫曼供职的公司开始将这种药以粉末形式分发给医师, 在病人身上使用。 (1)句中 when 引导非限制性定语从句。 该定语从句中又包含了一个 定语从句,即 Hoffmann worked for ,修饰先行词 the company。 (2)句中 trail 的意思是“试验,试用” 。如; The new medicine went through a number of medical trails before it was mass-produced.该新药在批量生产之前经过了多次医学试验。 (3)短语 in…form / in the front of…意为“以??形式” 。如:

Nowadays, many books are available in electronic form.如今, 很多书 都有电子版。 3Not only has aspirin proved vital for reducing fever and helping stop pain, but there are also other things that aspirin can help with.阿司匹林不仅 被证明对于退烧、止痛必不可少,而且还有其他用途。 (1)句中 not only 位于句首,其所在的分句要用倒装结构,but also 后的分句不用倒装。如: Not only did the poor man lose his job, but he was also sent to prison. 这个可怜的人不仅丢了工作,而且还被送进了监狱。 (2)句中 that aspirin can help with 为定语从句,修饰前面 other thing。 (3) 形容词 vital 的意思是“极其重要的,必不可少的” 。当它作表 语并后接从句时,从句中的谓语要用“(should)+动词原形”的形式。如: It is vital that every piece of equipment (should) be checked

before the experiment 实验之前检查所有设备是至关重要的。 4 Lawrence Craven, a doctor from the USA, introduced the idea in 1953 that aspirin had the potential to reduce the risk of heart attacks, because it helped the blood circulate better.美国医生劳伦斯·克雷文 在1953年提出一个观点, 即阿司匹林可能有助于降低心脏病发 作的风险,因为它能改善血液循环。 句中 a doctor from the USA 是 Lawrence Craven 的同位语; 而 the idea 后接一个由 that 引导的同位语从句, 说明 the idea 的具体内 容,两者被时间状语 in 1953 隔开,在此同位语从句中,because 又 引导一个原因状语从句。 5 It astonished him to see the bacteria surrounding the mould dead , which meant that the mould had killed them.令他十分惊讶的

是, 他发现这种霉周围的细菌都死了, 这意味着这种霉杀死了它们。 句中的 it 是形式主语;分词短语 surrounding the mould 用作 the bacteria 的后置定语,dead 用作 the bacteria 的补语;which 引导 非限制性定语从句,指代前面提到的事实,即霉周围的细菌都已经 死亡。 6 Fleming tried this mould out on another bacterium and found that it killed the bacterium too.弗莱明将这种霉用在另外一种细菌上 做试验,发现它同样杀死了那种细菌。 短语 try something out on 的意思是“在??上试验某物” 。 The drug has not been tried out on humans yet.这种药物尚未进

行过人体试验。 7 If penicillin had not been available, many people would have died from sickness or even small wounds.如果没有青霉素,很多人会 死于疾病,甚至很小的伤口。本句使用了虚拟语气,表示与过去事 实相反的假设。如: If we had found him earlier, we could have saved him. 要是我们 早点找到他的话,我们就可以救活他。 9 There is evidence that acupuncture began during the Stone Age , when stone tools called bian (砭) were used to press areas of the body。有证据表明,针刺疗法始于石器时代,那时一种叫“砭”的 石器被用来按压身体部位。 句中 that 引导一个同位语从句,补充说明前面 evidence;在 此从句中 when 又引导了一个非限制性定语从句 the Stone Age. 10 Some people have also used acupuncture to treat smokers , alcoholics and people who are addicted to drugs. 有些人也用针刺疗 法来治疗吸烟者、酗酒者以及吸毒者。句中 addicted to 的意思是 “对??上瘾,成瘾” 。如: The boy is addicted to computer games and often skips school. 这个男孩玩电脑游戏成瘾,经常逃学。 11 One theory explaining this phenomenon suggests that acupuncture blocks pain signals from reaching the brain.一种解释这 一现象的理论认为,针刺疗法使疼痛信号无法到达大脑。

(1)句中 explaining this phenomenon 为 theory 的后置定语。 此处 suggest 的意思是“提出” ,而非“建议” ,所以 that 引导的宾 语从句无需使用虚拟语气。 (2) 名 词 phenomenon 的 意 思 是 “ 现 象 ” ,其复数形式 phenomena。如: As a foreigner, he could not understand some of the cultural phenomena in this country.作为外国人,他无法理解这个国家的一 些文化现象。 12Another theory relates acupuncture to the production of chemicals in the body which reduce pain. A lot of people now subscribe to these theories.另外一种理论则将针刺疗法和人体内减 痛化学物质的产生联系起来。现在很多人认同这些理论。 (1)动词 relate 在句中的意思是 “联系” , 短语 relate … to…的 意思是“把??与??相联系” 。如: We may discover something new if we relate all these ideas to each other. 如果把这些观点相互联系起来,我们或许能发现新东 西。另外 relate 还有“讲述”的意思,一般用于正式语体。如: The host related the whole event to the audience in a vivid way. 主持人绘声绘色地向观众讲述了整个事件。 (2)词组 subscribe to 在这里的意思是“同意,支持” ,通常用 于正式文体中。如: The President subscribed to the idea that the welfare system

should be improved. 总统赞同社会福利制度应加以改进的看法。 其 实,subscribe to 最常用的意思是“定期订购,订阅” 。如; I have been subscribing to this magazine for years.多年来, 我一 直订阅这份杂志。 Unit 3 1 With the touch a button or the click of a mouse, a student will find abundant information from the largest libraries and museums in the world at his or her command.一名学生轻按键盘键或点击鼠标, 就能从世界上最大的图书馆和博物馆找到大量信息,加以使用。 短语 At somebody’s command 的意思是“受某人支配” 。 He has two assistants at his command.他有两名助手听他调遣。 2 What is more, people who are disabled and must stay in their homes can correspond and communicate with others around the globe who have similar interests.此外, 身有残疾而必须待在家里的人也能 (通过因特网)与全球各地趣味相投的人们通信、交流。 (1)句中 who are disabled and must stay in their homes 和 who have similar interests 均为定语从句,修饰各自的先行词 people 和 others;而 around the globe 是 others 的后置定语。 (2)短语 what is more 意为“更有甚者,更为重要的是” 。如: The house is a good bargain. What is more, it’s located near your office.这房子很便宜。更重要的是,它在你办公室附近。 (3)动词 correspond 在句中的意思是“通信” ,可与 with 搭配

使用。如: Has he been corresponding with her since he went abroad?他出 国后一直和她通信吗? 另外,Correspond 还有“与??一致,符合”的意思,可与 to\with 搭配使用。如: His report did not correspond to\with what I knew.他的报告和 我所知道的不符。 3 Without the Internet, these people would have fewer avenues to meet people.如果没有因特网,这些人与别人交往的途径就会更 少。 (1)介词短语 without the Internet 相当于由 if 引导的非真实条 件句(if there were no Internet),所以本句谓语动词使用了虚拟语 气。如: Without the computer, we couldn’t have finished this task sp quickly.要是没有计算机,我们是无法这么快完成这项任务的。 (2)名词 avenue 本义为“大街,林荫道” ,但在这里的意思是 “途径,手段” 。如: They are exploring every avenue to raise money to help the disabled 我们在探索一切办法,以筹集资金帮助残疾人。 4 The main drawbacks of the Internet I will address today are that it has too much information that has not been evaluated for accuracy, and that it is transforming the way people spend their time.

我今天所要谈及的因特网的主要缺点是网上有太多未经核准的信 息,以及它正改变人们使用时间的方式。 (1) 本句的主语是 the main drawbacks of Internet I will address today,其中 I will address today 是定语从句, 修饰等待词 drawbacks。 谓语动词 are 后接两个由 that 引导的表语从句。第一个表语从句 中, information 后接一个由 that 引导的定语从句,第二个表语从 句中,the way 后面也接一个定语从句。 (2)句中 address 用作动词,意思是“探讨,解决” 。如; Your letter does not address my question.你的信并没有解答我 的问题。 作动词时,Address 还有“向??演讲(或讲话) ”的意思。 The Defence Minister will address the journalists this afternoon。国防部长将在今天下午向记者发表讲话。 5 In2003, eBay, a famous website where people buy and sell things, said that 70 per cent of their problems were with people who sold things that did not exist, or who lied about the products they were selling.2003年,著名的购物网站 eBay 称,该网站70%的麻 烦与那些贩卖子虚乌有的东西或就所售产品撒谎的人有关。 句中 A famous website where people buy and sell things 是 eBay 的同位语;said 后接由 that 引导的宾语从句;该宾语从句又 包含两个由 who 引导的定语从句,均修饰先行词 people. 6 This study shows that people who spend too much time on the

Internet tend to withdraw from the people and the world round them. 这项研究显示,在网上花费太多时间的人有离群避世的倾向。句 中 withdraw 的意思是“脱离(社会) ,不与人交往” 。如: After her father died, the girl withdrew from others and often stayed alone.在她父亲去世后,这个女孩不与人交往,常常独自待 着。 此外,withdraw 还有“撤退”和“还款”的意思。如: His brother has decided to withdraw from the match. 他哥哥已 决定退出比赛。 The young man withdrew all his money to help those children who survived the earthquake.那个年轻人取出所有的钱帮助那些在 地震中幸免于难的儿童。 8 Let’s start by looking at the two services you can choose between to assist you in your search: search engines and subject directories.让我们先看看搜索时可选择的两种服务: 搜索引擎和主 题目录。 该句中 you can choose between 是定语从句 ,修饰 two services。注意,介词 between 不能省略。 9 This means that the information has never been checked —it could be reliable, true information or false information written by a person without qualifications or someone who dies not have solid facts.这意味着(搜到的)信息从未被核实过——它可能是可靠、

真实的信息,也可能是由没有资历的人或没有掌握确凿事实的人 撰写的错误或虚假信息。 (1)句中 reliable, true information 和 false information 并列,用 作 be 的表语。过去分词短语 written by…. 为 false information 的 后置定语。 (2) 句中 solid 意为“可靠的” 。如: The police have got solid evidence to prove Jack is guilty of murder.警方掌握了可靠证据,证明杰克犯有谋杀罪。 10 If you are not sure about the information you find, consult other web pages to confirm it.如果你对找到的信息感到不确定,那 就查阅其他网页来确认它。动词 consult 在句中的意思是“查阅, 参看” 。如: If you still feel puzzled, why don’t you consult the dictionary? 如果你还是感到困惑的话,为什么不查看字典呢? 11 When you are finished, you should always acknowledge

where you got your data by attaching a list of the websites you got your information from 当你写完报告时, 你总是应该附上你获取 信息的网站列表,表明你所获资料的来源。 (1)句中 finished 用作形容词, 表示 “已完成某事” , 这里 when you are finished 相当于 when you have finished writing your report. (2) 动词 acknowledge 此处意为“承认,声明” 。如: Alice acknowledged that she did not have the required

qualifications.艾丽斯承认她并不具备所要求的资历。 该词还有“感谢”的意思。如: The official acknowledged the support of local companies.这位 官员对当地企业的支持表示感谢。 Unit 4 1 They pick up and drop off people at different stops on the route.它们在沿途不同的站点上下客。 短语 drop off 的意思是“让??下车” 。如; Please drop me off at the bank.请让我在银行下车。 该短语还有“下降”和“打瞌睡”之意。如: The number of students is dropping off because of the low birth rate.由于出生率低,学生人数在下降。 Some people dropped off during the boring lecture.有些人在听 这场枯燥的讲座时打瞌睡。 2 However, most trains to London only went to the outer city limits, because building railway tracks into the city would have damaged many old buildings.但大部分通往伦敦的火车只到外伦敦 的边界,因为在市区修建铁路会损坏许多古建筑。 (1)句中的 building railway tracks into the city 是动名词短语, 在 because 引导的原因状语从句中作主语。 该原因状语从句中使用 了虚拟语气,相当于 if railway tracks had been built into the city, it would have damaged many old building.

(2)句中 outer city 指的是外伦敦

(Greater London) (City of

London) (Inner London) (Outer London) 3 Sixteen years later, in 1884, the Metropolitan Railway Company and the Metropolitan District Railway linked up and provided underground service in the middle of the city 。十六年后的 1884年,大都会铁路公司和大都会区铁路公司联合,为城市 中部地区提供地铁服务。 短语 link up 的意思是“联合,连接” 。如; The two organizations linked up to hold a charity event.两家机 构联合举办了一场慈善活动。 4 These new ways of digging accelerated the pace of the London Underground’s development.这些新的隧道挖掘方法加快了伦敦地 铁发展的步伐。 句中 accelerated the pace of 的意思是 “加快??的步伐” 。 如: The conference accelerated the pace of economic recovery.这次 会议加快了经济复苏的步伐。 5 Travelling on these lines was not convenient, though as each line was possessed by a different company, and many were very far from each other.然而搭乘这些线路并不方便, 因为各条线路属于不 同的公司,而且许多线路之间相距甚远。 (1)句中 though 为副词,意思是“不过,可是,然而” 。如; They lost the game . They had tried their best though.他们输了

比赛。可是他们尽力了。 (2)句中 as 引导原因状语从句。如: As I was not familiar with this city, I hired a guide.因为我对这 座城市不熟悉,所以我雇了个向导。 6 Having seen the situation, a wealthy American businessman, Charles Yerkes, undertook improving the system in 1902 by obtaining ownership of the many different lines and setting up the Underground Electric Railways Company of London.看到这种情况,一名叫查尔 斯·耶基斯的美国富商于1902年承担起了改善地铁系统的工 程,他买下许多不同的地铁线,创立了伦敦电力地铁公司。 分词短语 Having seen the situation 作时间状语, 表示 see 这个 动作发生在主句的谓语动作 undertake 之前。如: Having finished his homework, the boy went out to play football. 男孩做完作业后就出去踢足球了。 7 The last line added was the Jubilee Line, which was opened in 1979 in honour of the twenty—fifth anniversary of Elizabeth II becoming the queen.最后增加的一条线路是朱比利线,于1979 年开通,以庆祝伊丽莎白女王二世登基25周年。 (1)过去分词 added 用作 line 的后置定语;which 引导非限制 性定语从句; in honour of… 用作目的状语,其中 Elizabeth II becoming the queen 是动名词复合结构,充当 of 的宾语。 (2)在英文中,jubilee 有“周年”的意思。 (silver jubilee)2


(golden jubilee)50周年

9 There are many flights to Dalian, and the city has good air connections with most large cities in China, but you need to make reservations in advance.有很多航班飞往大连, 大连与中国大多数大 城市之间都有航线,但你得提前订票。 句中 reservation 的意思是“预订” 。如; You need to call the restaurant and make a reservation. 你得给餐 馆打电话预订座位。 10 The number of road accidents and the deaths arising from those accidents has increased over the past year,在过去的一年里, 道路事故及由此造成的死亡人数均有所增长。 (1)分词短语 arising from those accidents 用作 the deaths 的后置 定语。 (2)词组 arise from something 的意思是“因某事而产生,由某 事而引起” 。如: There are more and more family problems arising from lack of communication.因缺乏交流而引起的家庭问题越来越多。 11 Recently the number of people fined for speaking on their mobile phones while driving has increased by 30 per cent.近来,因驾 车时用手机打电话而被罚款的司机人数增长了30% 句中过去分词短语 Fined for speaking on their mobile phones while driving 用作 people 的后置定语, 其中 while 引导时间状语从

句(完整形式应为 while they are driving)。 12 Carrying more than a light load on your bicycle makes it more difficult to control. This lack of control is an invitation to accidents.用自行车带上重物使得车子难以控制,而缺乏控制就会 诱发事故。 句中 invitation 的意思是“诱因,鼓励” 。如; Such a sharp comment is an invitation to a bitter argument.如此 尖刻的评论会诱发激烈的争论。

模块八 Unit 1


1 Why else would many films adapted from them be successful? 还有,为什么许多根据经典文学作品改编的电影可以大获成功 呢? 句中 else 作副词,常用于疑问句之后,表示“其他,另外” 的意思。如; Where else can I get this software? 弄到这个软件? 2 In 1995, an award-winning film based on Jane Austen’s novel Emma came out.1995年,一部根据简·奥斯丁的小说《爱玛》 改编的获奖影片问世。 3 Three years later, in 1998, a modern adaptation of Charles 我还能从其他什么地方

Dickens’s novel Great Expectations appeared in cinemas.三年后的1 998年,根据查尔斯·狄更斯的小说《远大前程》改编的现代 版影片在影院上映。 4 Pip’s sister often abuses him, but Joe is a kind and simple man who would rather doe than see any harm come to Pip. 皮普的姐姐经 常辱骂他,但乔却是一个淳朴、善良的人,他宁愿死也不愿意看 到皮普受到任何伤害。 句型 Would rather do… than do…的意思是“宁愿??也不 愿??” 。如; I would rather die than betray my principles.我宁愿死,也不愿 背弃我的原则 6 Robert Burns, Scotland’s supreme literary hero, was born in Alloway , Scotland in 1759.苏格兰文学巨匠罗伯特· 彭斯于175 9年出生在苏格兰的阿洛韦。 7 Burns belonged to a group of poets(including John Keats and William Wordsworth) called the Romantic poets, The Romantic Movement started around 1780 and lasted until about 1830. 彭斯属于 一个被称为“浪漫主义诗人”的诗人团体(包括约翰·济慈、威 廉·华兹华斯) 。浪漫主义运动始于1780年左右,大约持续至 1830年。 (1) (the Romantic Movement):浪漫主义运动 (2)John Keats,1795---1821) 约翰· 济慈 (‘Ode to a nightingale’)

《夜莺颂》 (Endymion)《安迪密恩》 (3) William Wordsworth, 1770—1850) 威廉·华兹华斯(The Excursion)《漫游》 (Lyrical Ballads)《抒情歌谣集》(The Prelude). 〈序曲〉 8 Poetry is usually full of symbols, and ‘A Red, Red Rose` is no different.诗歌通常充满意象, 《一朵红红的玫瑰》也不例外。 英语中常用 No different 表示“并无不同” 。如: Mary is no different from any other teenage girl 玛丽与其他十 多岁的女孩并无不同。 9 With the line ‘O my Luve’s like a red, red rose’, he compares the girl he loves to a red rose.在“啊,我的爱人像一朵红红的玫瑰” 中,他把他所爱的姑娘比作一朵红玫瑰。句中 Compares… to?表 示“把??比作??” 。如: Life is often Compared to a river or a dream.人生常常被比作是 一条河流或是一场梦。 10 A Red,Red Rose。 《一朵红红的玫瑰》 Unit 2 1 Just imagine performing such an opera in the Forbidden City-there could not be a more awesome setting! 想一想在紫禁城上 演这样的一个歌剧--- 没有比这更好的. 英语中否定词与比较级连用,常常有最高级的含义。如; No one in our class studies harder than John does.我们班没有

人比约翰学习更用功。 2 This means that few men would dare to ask for her hand in marriage.这意味着几乎没人胆敢向她求婚。 句中 dare 用作实意动词,后接不定式时, to 既可以保留, 也可以省略(尤其口语中) 。如: Nobody dared to challenge his authority.没人敢挑战他的权威。 David did not dare argue with his boss.戴维不敢和他的老板争 辩。 另外,dare 也常用作情态动词,后接不带 to 的动词不定式。 如: He daren’t tell his father the bad news.他不敢将这坏消息告诉 他的父亲。 3 However, although he would like to, he cannot break his promise and must allow Turandot to do as she wishes.但是, 虽然他很 想收回这一允诺,但又不能食言,只能让图兰朵按照自己的意愿 行事。 句中 Although he would like to 是状语从句;to 后面省略了 break his promise,以使行文简洁。如: I did not want to walk all the way to school, but I had to , because of the flat tyre.我也不想一路走到学校的,可是车胎没气 了,我只好走。 4 The story then takes on a classic love triangle between Calaf, Turandot and Liu。故事随后演绎了发生在卡拉夫、图兰朵和柳儿

之间的经典三角恋情。 短语 Take on 是“呈现(某种特征、外观等) ”的意思。如: In the past 10 years, great changes have taken place in this city, making it take on a new look.在过去的十年里,这座城市发生了很 大的变化,呈现出崭新的面貌。 5 Calaf`s father and Liu have been seen accompanying Calaf, so Turandot seizes Calaf`s father and Liu, and demands that they tell her Calaf`s name or they will be beaten.有人曾看见卡拉夫的父亲和柳 儿陪着卡拉夫,因此图兰朵把卡拉夫的父亲和柳儿抓了起来,命 令他们说出卡拉夫的名字,否则就要拷打他们。 动词 Demand 后接从句时,从句的谓语动词常用“should+动 词原形” ,should 可以省略。如: They demanded that their needs (should) be satisfied,他们要求 满足他们的需要。 7 The album included the song ‘The Sound of Silence’, which was a number one hit on the pop charts.这张专辑里收录了《寂静之 声》 ,这首歌是在流行音乐排行榜上排名第一的金曲。名词 hit 通 常指成功而风行一时的事物(如电影、音乐、图书等) ,或走红的 人(如演员、歌手、作家等) 。如: His newly published novel is a great hit.他新近出版的小说引 起了轰动。 8 While the blues was popular as musical format it lacked

variety and was too sad and slow to dance to.尽管蓝调音乐非常受 欢迎,但作为一种音乐形式,它缺少变化,而且太伤感,节奏太 慢,不适合跳舞时伴奏。 句中 While 引导让步状语从句。主句使用了 too…to…结构。 句尾的 dance to 中 to 用作介词,表示“随着??的节奏” 。. 9 Thus, from the blues ,there sprung up a faster ,livelier kind of music called jazz.于是,从蓝调音乐发展出一种更轻快、更活泼的 音乐形式,叫做爵士乐。短语 spring up 的意思是“突然兴起,迅 速出现” 。如: New theatres and arts centres sprang up all over the country. 新 的剧院和艺术中心在全国各地纷纷出现。 10 Only one musical act has sold more records.只有一个音乐 组合曾卖出更多的唱片。句中 act 用作名词,意思是“表演者,表 演组合” 。如: They are one of the most popular acts in China.他们是中国最 受欢迎的组合之一。 11With sales of more than 1 billion records, the British pop group known as the Beatles was the supreme rock and roll band of the 1960s.拥有超过 10 亿张的唱片销量,英国流行组合甲壳虫乐队是 20 世纪 60 年代首屈一指的摇滚乐队。 Unit 3 1 I was amazed to learn that Picasso had an output of more than

20000 pieces of art. 我惊讶地得知,毕加索一生创作了两万多件艺 术作品。名词 output 的意思是“产量,输出量” 。如: Last year, the output of this factory increased by 50%.去年这家 工厂的产量增长了 50%。 2 He experimented with different styles of painting, but was most famous for his work in Cubism, which often uses acute angles and where the world is represented as being constructed of cubes and rectangles.毕加索尝试过多种不同的绘画风格,但尤以立体派作品 著称。立体派常常运用锐角,在立体派画作中世界被呈现为由立 方体和矩形构成。句中 Cubism 为先行词,后接两个非限制性定语 从句,分别由关系代词 which 和关系副词 where 引导。 3 During our four days in Paris we spent one whole day at the Louvre Museum, where we saw the Mona Lisa, painted by the Italian artist Leonardo da Vinci。 在巴黎的四天当中, 我们花了一整天参观 卢浮宫,在那里我们欣赏了意大利艺术家列奥纳多·达·芬奇创 作的《蒙娜丽莎》 。 4 Besides the works of da Vinci, the Louvre Museum has more than 6ooo other European paintings, ranging from the 13th century to the 19th century. 除了达·芬奇的作品,卢浮宫还藏有六千余件其 他欧洲画家的画作,时间跨度从 13 世纪到 19 世纪。短语 range from ? to?意思是“从??到??” 、 “在??和??之间” 。又 如:

Tiger sharks range in length from 9 to18 feet.虎鲨身长 9 至 18 英尺不等。 She has a lot of hobbies, range from playing chess to canoeing 她有很多兴趣爱好,从下国际象棋到划独木舟。 5 Unfortunately, although van Gogh committed his whole being to painting, he received little reward for his effort. 遗憾的是,尽管 凡·高全身心地投入绘画,他所得到的回报却微乎其微。动词 Commit 在句中的意思是“投身于某事,专心致志做某事” 。如: They committed themselves to the project. 他们全身心投入这 个项目。动词 Commit 还有“犯罪,犯错”和“承诺,保证”的 意思。如: That man was put in prison for committing murder.那个男子因 犯谋杀罪而入狱。 The architect has committed herself to finishing the design within a month.那位建筑设计师承诺在一个月内完成设计。 6 Today, van Gogh’s paintings are worth upwards of millions of dollars each . 今天,凡·高的画每一幅都值数百万美元。短语 upwards of 相当于 over,意思是“超过,在??之上” 。如: A computer of this model costs upwards of $2000.这种型号的 电脑售价在两千美元以上。 8 After his graduation, this project was exhibited in art galleries all over China, making him famous nationwide. 他毕业后, 这个项目

在中国各地的艺术画廊展出,使他闻名全国。句中现在分词短语 making him famous nationwide 用作结果状语。 9 There are many other things that you can use to make unusual pictures, so why not have a go at some of the ideas above and then try out some ideas of your own? 还有许多其他东西可用来制作出与众 不同的图画,那么,为什么不尝试上面的一些点子,再试试你自 己独创的点子呢? (1) 短语 have a go at 意思是“尝试(做某事) ” 、 “企图(做 某事) ” 。如: No matter how difficult it is, he is determined to have a go at the experiment.不论困难有多大,他都决心去尝试一下这个实验。 (2) 短语 try out 在句中的意思为“试验,尝试” 。如: His assistant tried out various approaches to the problem,but in vain.他的助手试验了各种解决问题的办法,但还是徒劳无功。 Unit 4 1 Joining us in the studio are Isabel Rose from the Cannes Film festival, Hanz Muller form the Berlin International Film Festival, Kathy Barnes from the Sundance Film Festival, Maria Bella from the Venice Film Festival, Mike Taylor form the Toronto International Film Festival and Xu Li form the Shanghai International Film Festival. 在 演播室和我们一起的嘉宾有:来自戛纳电影节的伊莎贝尔·罗斯, 来自柏林国际电影节的汉茨· 穆勒, 来自圣丹斯电影节的凯西· 巴

恩斯,来自威尼斯电影节的玛丽亚·贝拉,来自多伦多国际电影 节的迈克·泰勒,还有来自上海国际电影节的徐立。 这是一个倒装句,正常语序应该是 Isabel Rose…and Xu Li from the Shanghai International Film Festival are joining us in the

studio.在英语中, 当句子的主语太长时, 为了保持句子的结构平衡, 往往使用倒装语序,将主语放在句子的后半部分。如: Nearby was the house in which they had lived for more than twenty years.附近就是他们住了二十多年的那幢房子。 2 Kathy, I don’t like to argue, but in defence of the Venice Film Festival, I have to point out that we don’t just have Hollywood film.凯 西,我不想争论,但是我得为威尼斯电影节说句话,我得指出我 们有的不只是好莱坞电影。 短语 in defence of 意思是“捍卫,辩护” ,也可以说 in one’s defence.如: I must in her defence that she works very hard。我必须为她说 句话,她工作十分努力。 3 The initial idea for our festival was hatched back in 1978, when it was known as the Utah\US Film Festival.我们电影节的最早 想法诞生于 1978 年,当时它被称为犹他州/美国电影节。 动词 hatch 的本义是“孵化” ,在句中的引申义为“策划” 。 Have you hatched a plan for her birthday party? 派对想好计划了吗? 你为她生日

4 Redford has acted in and directed many big Hollywood films, but wanted to expose the public to films made outside of the Hollywood system that ordinary people might have no access to otherwise.雷德福曾出演并执导过许多好莱坞大片,但是他希望让 大众接触好莱坞之外的影片, 否则一般人可能无从看到这些影片。 (1) 句中 that 引导定语从句,用作 films made outside of the Hollywood system 的定语。 (2) 动词 expose 在句中的意思为“使接触,使体验” 。如: The trip to the USA exposed him to a completely different culture.这次美国之行让他体验到了一种完全不同的文化。 动词 expose 本义为“暴露,揭露” 。如: The report has exposed the serious side effects of this new medicine.报道揭露了这种新药严重的副作用。 (3)副词 otherwise 的意思是“否则,要不然” 。如; She didn’t mention her troubles to Professor Raskin, who might have helped her otherwise.她没和拉斯金教授提自己的麻烦, 要不然 拉斯金教授或许能帮她。 5 At our festival, Hollywood film are in the minority, while film that are likely to be overlooked at other festivals, for example at Cannes, have a real chance of becoming champions. 在我们的电影节 上,好莱坞电影只占少数,而在其他电影节上(比如戛纳电影节) 可能被忽视的电影却大有夺魁的机会。

短语 in the minority 意思是“占少数” 。如: While the army takes both men and women, women are in the minority.虽然部队征兵男女都收,但女性只占少数。 7 However, he later finds out that his father was a wizard and that his mother was a witch, both of whom were murdered by an evil wizard—the same wizard who gave Harry the scar.但是后来哈利发 现他的父亲是巫师,母亲是女巫,他们都被一个邪恶的巫师杀害 ——也就是给哈利留下伤疤的那个巫师。 句中 finds out 后接两个由 that 引导的宾语从句,而 both of whom 引导非限制性定语从句, whom 指代 his father 和 his mother; 破折号后面的 the same wizard 是 an evil wizard 的同位语。 8 Watching Harry zoom around on a flying broom could make you feel dizzy, and the school sport of Quidditch is fantastic.看着哈利 骑在飞天扫帚上疾驰会让你觉得眩晕,而魔法学校的“魁地奇” 运动则非常精彩。 (1)本句是并列句。在第一个分句中,动名词短语 watching Harry zoom around on a flying broom 用作主语。句中 Quidditch 指 的是小说里虚构的一种体育运动。 (2) 动词 zoom 的意思是“急速移动” 。如: They got into the car and zoomed away.他们上了车,一溜烟地 开走了。 9 J.K.Rowling, the author of the Harry Potter books, approved

the final script of film.哈利· 波特系列的作者J.K.罗琳认可了最终 的电影剧本。 句中 approve 用作及物动词,表示“ (正式)批准,通过,认 可” 。如: The organization committee finally approved the plan.组委会最 终批准了该计划。 另外 approve 还可以用作不及物动词, 常与 of 连用, 表示 “赞 成,同意” 。如: His tutor did not approve of his idea.他的导师不同意他的观 点。 模块九 高中英语 Unit 1 1 Canada is one of the largest countries in the world, second only to Russia, and has always been famous for its fantastic natural scenery。加拿大是世界上国土面积最大的国家之一,仅次于俄罗 斯,素来以其绮丽的自然风光闻名。 (2)短语 second only to…意思是“仅次于??” ,强调某事物 接近最大或最重要等。如: This seaside city is second only to the capital in terms of population.就人中而言,这座海滨城市仅次于首都。 2 Canada has vast areas of wilderness, from the Arctic north, where average winter temperatures are usually minus 20 degrees

centigrade, to the 8,892—kilometer—long border with the USA to the south, which is the longest border in the world not defended by an army or the police.加拿大有辽阔的荒原, 北起北极寒地——那里的 冬季平均气温通常是零下 20 摄氏度, 南与美国毗邻——边境线长 达 8892 公里,是世界上最长的没有军队或警察设防的边境线。 本句是主从复合句, 句中 Where 和 which 分别引导一个非限 制性定语从句。介词短语 from...to…说明地域范围之广。 3 Within this huge country, there are frozen wastes, vast mountain ranges, huge open fields, countless rivers and endless forests.在这片广袤的国土上有冰封的荒原、绵延的山脉、辽阔的 原野、无数的河流,以及无边无际的森林。 名词 Wastes 的意思是“荒原” ,词尾的-s 不能省略。如: The novel is based on his exploration of the western wastes.这 部小说是基于他在西部荒原的探索。 4 Montreal, a port in the province of Quebec, is the second largest city in Canada, and also the second largest French —speaking city in the world, Paris being the largest.港口城市蒙特利尔位于魁北 克省境内, 是加拿大第二大城市, 也是世界上第二大法语城市 (最 大的是巴黎) 。 句中 Paris being the largest 是独立主体结构,表示补充说明, Paris 是分词短语 being the largest 的逻辑主语。如: They are trying their best, everyone working day and night. 他们

正全力以赴,每个人都不分昼夜地工作。 5 There are old buildings, historic churches, narrow streets and alleys, all alongside glass and steel and concrete skyscrapers towering upwards.这里有古老的建筑、 历史悠久的教堂、 狭窄的街道和小巷, 而旁边则矗立着用玻璃和钢筋混凝土盖成的摩天大楼。 句中 Historic 的意思是“历史上著名的,有历史意义的” ,而 形容词 historical 的意思是“ (关于)历史的”试比较“” The country finally gained its independence today, and every citizen would remember this historic moment forever.这个国家今天 终于独立了,每位公民都将永远记住这一历史时刻。 They are trying to find out the historical background of the event. 我们试图弄清这一事件的历史背景。 6 Vancouver has one of the largest Chinese populations in North America.温哥华是北美洲华裔人口最多的城市之一。 句中 Population 用作可数名词,表示某一地区或某一类别的 人口总数。如: The 2010 population study shows that Native American populations in south—west continue to grow.2010 年的人口研究表 明,美国西南部的土著人口在持续增长。 8 It can be an analysis of how teams are placing in the various sports leagues, or a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of different players and their teams.谈话内容可以是分析球队在各项联

赛中的排名, 或是讨论不同运动员和他们所在球队的优势和劣势。 句中 Place 用作动词,意为“排名” ,为不及物动词。表示这 一含义时 place 也可作及物动词。如: Jack was placed fifth in last Saturday’s race.上周六的赛跑中杰 克排名第五。 9 The rest are content to just sit in their cosy armchairs and watch.其他人则仅仅满足于坐在舒服的扶手椅上看比赛。 短语 Be content to do something 表示“满足于,甘愿??” 。 I know he’s at the meeting, but I’m content to wait for him.我知 道他在开会,但我愿意等他。 短语 Be content with(doing)something 表示 “对??满意” 。 如: The boss is content with gaining so much profit with this small investment.这位老板很满意这笔小投资能获得如此多的收益。 10 Many people owe their love of sport to the perfect weather conditions for it.许多人把他们对体育运动的热爱归功于适合体育 运动的完美气候条件。 动词 Owe 的本义是“欠债,欠人情” 。句中短语 owe…to… 的意思是“把??归功于??” 。如: He owes his success more to luck than to ability. 他把成功更多 地归功于运气,而不是能力。 11 The sport that most of the world calls football is known as soccer in Australia, to distinguish it from Australian rules football.世

界大部分地区将足球称作 football, 而在澳大利亚它被称为 soccer, 以区别于澳式橄榄球。 (1) Australian rules football 澳大利亚式橄榄球运动 (2) 短语 distinguish…from… 的意思是“区别,辨别” ,和 distinguish between…and…意思相同。如: Young as she is, she can distinguish between right and wrong. 她 尽管年纪小,但能够明辨是非。 12 Considering Australia’s small population, its outstanding performance at the Olympic Games was really amazing.考虑到澳大 利亚人口相对较少,它在奥运会上的出色表现着实令人惊讶。 句中 Considering 用作介词,意思是“??,鉴于??” 。 Considering your age, you have done quite well in this match.考 虑到你的年龄,你在这场比赛中表现得很好了。 另外 Considering 也可用作连词,后接从句。如: Considering (that) he lacks experience, we plan to send him abroad for training.鉴于他缺乏经验,我们计划送他出国受训。 Unit 2 1 The Roman alphabet is a Greek invention, as is the marathon, a long distance race created in honour of a Greek soldier who ran from Marathon to Athens to report the victory at the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC 罗马字母表是希腊人的发明,马拉松赛跑也 是。 这项长跑比赛是为了纪念一名希腊战士而创立的。 公元前 490

年,他从马拉松一直跑到雅典去报告马拉松战役大捷。 句中 As is the marathon 里的 as 用作连词, 类似的表达还有 as was\were\does\did…等,其意思是“也是如此” 。 The beginning of the story is excellent, as is the ending.故事的 开头很精彩,结尾也是。 2 On top of Acropolis, there are three main temples to Athena, the goddess of the city: the Parthenon, the Erechtheum and the Temple of Athena Nike.在雅典卫城的顶部,有三座主要庙宇祭祀雅典的守 护神雅典娜:帕台农神庙、厄瑞克修姆神庙以及雅典娜胜利女神 庙。 在 Three main temples to Athena 中的介词 to 有“向??表示 敬意”的意思。如: In the south of the square stands a monument to the heroes who died in the war 广场的南边耸立着纪念战争中阵亡英雄的纪念碑。 3 The Acropolis is no different.卫城也是如此。 句中 Different 是形容词, no different 用作表语,意思是“没 什么两样” 。如: Our family is no different from the average family. 我们的家庭 和一般家庭没有什么不同。 4 The last major damage of this kind occurred with the theft of the best sculptures in 1801, when an Englishman, Lord Elgin, cut them off the face of the Parthenon, and took them to London. 最后一

次此类重大破坏发生于 1801 年,许多最精美的雕塑遭窃。当时英 国人埃尔金勋爵把这些雕塑从帕台农神庙的建筑表层切割下来, 运往伦敦。 句中 When 引导非限制性定语从句。介词短语 with the theft of…表示伴随状况。如: With the invention of the rocket, the Space Age began.随着火箭 的发明,太空时代开始了。 5 In 1816, these sculptures were turned over to the British Museum.1816 年,这些雕塑被移交给大英博物馆。 短语 Turn something over to somebody 的意思是 “把??移交 给(他人管理) ” 。如; The old man turned his business over to his son.这位老人把他 的生意交给儿子打理。 6 In a gesture to help preserve history, the Greek government appointed a committee in 1975 to undertake a complete repair of the Acropolis.为表示其帮助保存历史的意愿, 希腊政府于 1975 年任命 了一个委员会来负责卫城的全面修复工作。 (1)句中 gesture 的意思是“姿态,表示” 。如; John invited his new colleagues to the café as a gesture of goodwill.约翰邀新同事喝咖啡,以表善意。 (2)动词 appoint 的意思是“委派,任命” 。如: They appointed Daniel (as)chairman of the committee.他们任命

丹尼尔为委员会主席。 7 The committee is also undertaking important work to educate the public, based on the assessment that the best way to protect the Acropolis is to prevent damage.保护卫城的最好方式是防止破坏, 基 于这一认识,该委员会还在教育公众方面做了重要的工作。 句 中 Assessment 后 接 由 that 引 导 的 同 位 语 从 句 。 名 词 assessment 的意思是“评估,看法” 。如: I was deeply impressed by his assessment of the international situation.他对国际形势的看法给我留下了深刻的印象。 9 In 1616, he was given permission to make a trip to South America to look for gold on behalf of King James.1616 年, 他被允许 代表詹姆士国王去南美洲寻找黄金。 短语 On behalf of 的意思为“代表(或代替)某人” ,有时也 可使用 on somebody’s behalf 这一形式。如: The headmaster cannot be here, so I would like to express my warm welcome to all of you on his behalf.校长无法前来,故我谨代 表他向你们表示热烈的欢迎。 10 The Ming and Qing Imperial Tombs are among the most extraordinary cultural remains to be found anywhere.明清皇陵是世 界上发现的最令人赞叹的文化遗产之一。 句中 To be found anywhere 用作后置定语,修饰名词 cultural remains.如;

This is the best Italian restaurant to be found in this city.这是本 市能找到的最好的意大利餐厅。 11 Adding to the extraordinary beauty of Changeling is the Ling`en Palace, known for its simple design and painted ceiling.陵恩 殿以其简约设计和彩绘内顶而闻名,为长陵更添宏伟与壮丽。 本句是倒装句, 主语是 The Ling`en Palace, 句首 adding to the extraordinary beauty of Changling 在句中作表语;过去分词短语 known for?作定语,对 the Ling`en Palace 进行补充说明. 12 In addition, getting these historic sites recognized by the rest of the world is helpful for preserving and repairing them, as it stresses to everyone their extreme importance and value 另外,使这些历史遗 址得到国际认可有助于保护和修复它们,因为这向世人强调了它 们极大的重要性和宝贵价值。 句中 As 引导原因状语从句; stress 是及物动词, 其宾语是 their extreme importance and value. Unit 3 1 These flags are more than just pieces of cloth sewn together at random with thread.这些旗帜不仅是随意用线缝在一起的几块布。 短语 At random 的意思是“随机地,任意地” 。如: She opened the book at random and started reading,她随手翻开 那本书,开始读起来。 2 Strengthened by the Revolution, France became a different

country,大革命使法国变得强大,成为一个与众不同的国家。 句中 Strengthened by the Revolution 是过去分词短语, 作原因 状语。如: Inspired by his parents, Jo put his heart into music and finally produced his masterpiece.由于受到父母的启发,乔专心于音乐,最 终写出了他的杰作。 3 In s lute to the French and their revolution, many countries have chosen to use the same colours on their flags as the French did. 为向法国人民和法国大革命致敬,许多国家决定在自己的国旗上 使用与法国国旗相同的颜色。 句中 Salute 的本意是“敬礼” ,这里的意思是“致敬,致意” 。 如: In salute to the famous artist, we held a big party, 为了向那位著 名艺术家表示敬意,我们举办了一场盛大的聚会。 4 When the Americans objected to this, the British would not compromise, but increased control over their American instead, taking away many of their rights, and stationing soldiers there in order to make sure that the Americans would obey them. 当美洲人对此表示 反对时,英国人不但没有让步,反而加强了对美洲殖民地的控制, 剥夺了美洲人的许多权利,同时在美洲驻军以确保他们服从英国 的统治。 (1) 短语 object to 的意思是“反对” 。注意 to 为介词,后接

代词、名词或动名词。如: Most of the committee members object to raising the tax rates. 大多数委员会成员反对提高税率。 (2)现在分词短语 taking away…和 stationing… 在句中用作 伴随状语;station 用作及物动词,意思是“驻扎,安置” 。如: A photographer was stationed at the entrance to the theatre.一位 摄影师被安排在剧院门口。 5 This led to war, and to America gaining its independence. 这引 发了战争,也使美国获得了独立。 动名词 Gaining its independence 作介词 to 的宾语,America 是动名词的逻辑主语。如: We are looking forward to Mary coming to the opening ceremony.我们期待着玛丽来参加开幕式。 6 Each year on 4 July, the USA celebrates Independence Day, when the Stars and Stripes can be seen all over the country, lit by fireworks in the night sky.每年七月四日美国都庆祝“独立日” 。这 一天全国到处都飘扬着星条旗,夜空中的星条旗被烟花照亮。 句中 The Stars and Stripes 指美国国旗, lit by fireworks in the night sky 是过去分词短语作定语, 修饰 the Stars and Stripes. 7 The flag, which is made up of a red band over a white one, is based on a national flag dating back to the 13 th century, which had nine red and white stripes.这面国旗由上红下白的两道彩条组成, 是

以十三世纪的九道红白条的印尼国旗为基础的。 本句含有两个 Which 引导的非限制性定语从句,第二个定语 从句 which had nine red and white stripes 与其先行词 a national flag 之间间隔了分词短语 dating back to… 该短语作定语,修饰 a national flag 意思是“追溯到??” 。如: North of the city stands an old tower dating back to the 16 th century.城北有座古塔,其历史可追溯到十六世纪。 9 Colour is a medium for expressing different feelings, but the meaning of co lour is not consistent across different cultures.颜色是 表达不同感觉的媒介, 但色彩的含义在不同的文化中是不一致的。 形容词 consistent 的意思是“一致的” ,常与 with 连用。如: What the man said was not consistent with their investigation. 那 个人说的与他们的调查不符。 10 In Muslim countries, green is a lucky colour, as it is associated with peace.在穆斯林国家,绿色是幸运色,因为绿色是 与和平联系在一起的。 Unit 4 1 Idioms often use a number of words to represent a single object, person or concept, among other things, and unless you recognize an idiom when it is being used, it is easy to misunderstand what you read or hear spoken.习语常常用一些词代表某一物体、人 物或概念以及其他的一些事物。除非你能识别习语运用,否则你

很容易误解所读到的或听到的内容。 (1)本句是一个由 and 连接的并列主从复合句,在第二个分句 中 ,unless 引导一个条件状语从句, it is easy to…,是主句部分, what 引导的从句作 misunderstand 的宾语。在 what 引导的从句中,过 去分词 spoken 作宾语补足语。如: There was an accident yesterday, but strangely I didn’t hear it mentioned in the company.昨天发生了一起事故,但奇怪的是,我 在公司里没听到有人提起这事。 (2)句中 among other things 的意思是 “除了别的东西; 此外” 。 We will discuss the plan for this project , among other things ,at the meeting next month.我们将在下个月的会议上讨论这个项目的 计划和别的一些事情。 2 A biblical idiom is often an expression that underlines the moral of story and gives the audience a picture to help them understand the story better,圣经习语常常是突出事故寓意的固定表 达方式,给听众或读者一幅图象,以帮助他们更好地理解故事。 动词 Underline 的本意是 “在??下划线” , 这里的意思是 “强 调,突出” 。如: His questions at the press conference underlined his ignorance of the matters being discussed.他在新闻发布会上的提问凸显了他 对所讨论问题的无知。 3 In the dream, a stone flew at the statue and struck it on the feet.

在梦里,一块石头飞向雕像,砸在了它的脚上。 句中 Strike 的意思是“击(中) ,撞” ,表示“击打(中)某 人身体的某部位”时,常用结构为“strike somebody+介词+ the+ 身体部位名称” 。如: ”

The thief struck her hard on the head.小偷猛击她的头。 4 After spending every penny of his money and being reduced to hiring himself out to feed pigs, he realized that he had been a fool and went home.在花光每一分钱之后, 他沦落到为人打工, 替别人养猪。 他意识到自己是多么愚蠢,于是回家。 (1)句中 be reduced to 的意思是“沦为” 。如: He was reduced to begging for a living.他沦落到以乞讨为生。 (2) 短语 hire oneself out 的意思是“打工,受雇于人” ,如: Linda hired herself out as a waitress at weekends.琳达周末出去 打工,当服务员。 6 The White Horse Temple is in Luoyang , Henan province in the central east of China,白马寺在中国中东部的河南省洛阳市。 7 The golden man was almost four metres tall, and there were rays of light coming from his head that lit the entire palace hall. 金人 近四米高,头部闪闪发光,照亮了整个宫殿。 句中分词短语 Coming from his head 和定语从句 that lit the entire palace hall 都用来修饰 rays of light 8 At the time of their arrival, there was no Buddhist temple in

Luoyang or any other place in China, so the emperor invited the monks to stay at Honglu Si, which the emperor used to house foreign visitors.当我们抵达时,洛阳以及中国其他地方都没有佛教寺庙, 因此皇帝邀请僧人住在鸿胪寺,这里是皇帝用来接待外国使臣的 客舍。 句中 House 用作动词,意思是“提供住所” 。如: The government is committed to housing the refugees.政府致力 于为难民安排住所。 9 The White Horse Temple has seen a lot of history.白马寺历史 悠久。本句运用了拟人的修辞手法,see 表示“经历”的意思。如: The last decade saw a rapid development of the Internet.过去的 十年里,互联网快速发展。 10 It has been repaired and has extensions added many times, most often following times of war and disaster,它曾屡经修缮,多次 扩建,这些修缮与扩建通常是在战争和灾难之后。 句中过去分词 Added 为宾语补足语, 分词短语 following times of war and disaster 作时间状语。 11 The White Horse Temple is important to Chinese people and history, and as such, it is one of the first historic buildings that the government listed to receive special state protection.对于中国人民和 中国历史来说,白马寺具有重要意义,正因如此,它被政府列为 首批受国家重点保护的历史建筑。

短语 As such 在这里的意思是“正因为如此” 。代词 such 指 前面的分句(The White Horse Temple is important to Chinese people and history). 高中英语 Unit 1 1 The gravity of the situation shocked Bob Geldof, an Irish musician, so he organized a charity concert called Live Aid to raise money for the victims of hunger in Ethiopia.这一情况的严重性让爱 尔兰音乐家鲍勃· 格尔多夫感到震惊, 因此他组织了一场名为 “现 场援助”的慈善音乐会,为埃塞俄比亚饥荒受难者募集资金。 2 The concert also made the headlines around the world, and put great pressure on politicians and statesmen to do something about the problem of world hunger,音乐会也受到了全世界媒体的极大关注, 这给政客和政治家施加了巨大压力,迫使他们为世界饥荒问题采 取行动。 (1) headline 原指新闻的大字标题, 尤其是指头版头条的标题。 短语 make the headlines 的意思是“成为重要新闻” 。如: The increase of the price of oil made the headlines today.石油涨 价成为今天各大媒体的重要新闻。 (2) 短语 put pressure on somebody 的意思是“给某人施压” 。 The situation puts pressure on the company to improve its products and service.这种情况迫使公司改进其产品与服务。 模块十

3 In wrestling with the dilemma of worldwide hunger, the United Nations set up an agency called the World Food Programme (WFP) in 1963.为了应对全世界的饥荒困境, 联合国于 1963 年成立 了一个名为世界粮食计划署(WFP)的专门机构。 (World Food Programme) 世界粮食计划署 4 Today, some developing countries in Africa, Asia and South America stand at a crossroads.今天,非洲、亚洲和南美洲的一些发 展中国家正处于关键时刻。 句中 Crossroads 的单复数形式相同,意思是“十字路口” 。短 语 at a crossroads 的意思是“ (人生或发展)处于关键时刻,在紧 要关头,面临重大抉择” 。如: His life was at a crossroads after he quit his job.辞职之后, 他的 人生面临着重大抉择。 5 Another way to help a country is through the development of private enterprise along with job training in order to address the problem of unemployment.另一种帮助一个国家的途径就是通过发 展私营经济和职业培训来应对失业问题。句中 address 是动词,在 这里表示“处理,应对”的意思。如: The government needs to address such concerns in a positive manner.政府需要以积极的方式来应对这样的担忧。 6 They are the result of teaching a man to fish so that he can fill his belly for a lifetime.它们是授人以渔的成果,让一个人可以一辈

子填饱肚子。 短语 Fill one’s belly 的意思是“填饱肚子” 。如: Jack is not particular about what the he eats. He is content so long as it fills his belly.杰克对于吃什么不大讲究。只要填饱了肚 子,他就很满足。 8 This should set alarm bells ringing, since the bare fact is that in order for everyone to survive, serious adjustments need to be made in worldwide development.这应该给人们敲响警钟,因为最基本的 现实是,为了让每一个人得以生存,全球发展需做出重大调整。 短语 set alarm bells ringing 的意思是“敲响警钟” 。动词 set 的意思是“使??处于某种状态” 。如: The company’s financial problems have set alarm bells ringing in this industry. 那家公司的财务问题已经在这个行业中敲响了警 钟。 What my teacher said about planning for the future set me thinking.老师所说的关于规划未来的一番话令我陷入沉思。 9 This is a simple idea, but one that is hard to put into practice. 这是一个简单的想法,不过也是一个难以付诸实践的想法。 句中的 One 指代 idea. 短语 put…into practice 的意思是 “将??付诸实施” 。如:. After careful preparation, we put our plan into practice.经过仔 细准备,我们将计划付诸实施了。

10 This is why many people are pushing for the use of alternative energy sources,这就是许多人强烈要求使用替代能源的 原因。短语 push for 的意思是“迫切要求,反复争取” 。如: They are pushing for a quick solution to the problem. 他们强烈 要求快速解决这个问题。 11 The pipes have oil or water inside them, which is heated and sent to the storage tank until needed or used to produce electricity. 管 子里有油有或水,它们先被加热,然后被输送到储能槽里储存备 用,或者被用来发电。 句中 Which 引导非限制性定语从句, until needed 的意思相当 于 until it is needed, 不定式短语 to produce electricity 用作目的状 语. 12 The introduction of programmes like these will hopefully help end the systematic destruction of the environment and see alternative energy promoted around the world. 类似项目的引进有望 帮助结束对环境的蓄意破坏,确保替代能源在世界范围内得到推 广。 此处动词 See 意为“确保”,后接复合宾语结构,过去分词 promoted 作宾语补足语,表示被动。如: Everybody is working hard to see these programmes carried out smoothly.大家都在努力工作,以确保这些项目得以顺利实施。 Unit 2

1 Older Americans are on the move. Throughout the Midwest and the Northeast, people aged 60 and over are packing their bags and heading south along the freeway to states like Florida.美国的老年人 在迁徙中, 在整个中西部和东北部地区, 60 岁及 60 岁以上的老人 正在收拾他们的行囊,沿着高速公路向南行进,到佛罗里达这样 的州去。 (1)短语 on the move 在这里的意思是 “在迁移中, 在行进中” 。 此外,它还可表示“ (经常)变换地点” 。如: This young man likes travelling. He is always on the move.这个 年轻人喜欢旅行,他总是在各地走动。 短语 On the move 还有“非常忙碌”的意思。如: When I got up, my mother was already on the move and had nearly completed all the housework.当我起床时, 妈妈已经忙得不可 开交,而且几乎做完了所有的家务。 2 The national average s only about 12.7 percent, so it not surprising that Florida is known as the oldest place in the USA. 全美 平均比例仅为 12.7%左右,因此佛罗里达州被认为是美国最老的 地方也就不足为奇了。 本句中 The oldest place 指该地区老年人口比例在全美最高。 3 The question is, though, why are so many people retiring and spending their pensions in Florida?但问题是,为什么这么多人退休 后要去佛罗里达,并且把他们的养老金花在那里呢?句中 why 引

导的疑问句作表语。这种直接用疑问句形式作表语的句型可以让 表达更加口语化。如: The question is, how do you work out the directions correctly in the open sea?问题是,在茫茫大海里你怎样正确辨别方向呢? 4 Younger people might like snow and cold, but for people my age, such weather is very tough; snow can turn into ice, which is easy to slip on.年纪轻一点的人可能喜欢雪和严寒,但对我这种年纪的 人来说,那样的天气很难熬,雪会结成冰,很容易使人滑倒。 (1) 本句是一个由分号连接的并列主从复合句。第一个分句 中,but 连接两个并列分句;第二个分句中,which 引导非限制性 定语从句。 (2)不定式短语 to slip on 的逻辑宾语是从句的主语 which (指 ice).如: John is easy to get along with.约翰很容易相处。 5 Recently, there has been a boom in population movements, and according to the national population survey, 12.5 percent of the population moves each year.最近,人口流动激增。根据全国人口普 查,每年有 12.5%的人口在流动。名词 boom 的意思是“激增,繁 荣” 。如: The past 30 years has seen an economic boon in this country.在 过去的三十年里,该国的经济迅猛发展。 6 Across the USA, people are noticing the same thing: young

people are electing to live in cities.在全美范围内,人们都注意到同 样的事:年轻人选择住在城市里。 动词 Elect 后接不定式时,表示“选择(做某事) ” 。如: Increasing numbers of students elect to take a gap year before going to university.越来越多的学生决定在上大学之前先休学一年。 8 They also developed their own language, of which there are now approximately sixty varieties.他们还形成了自己的语言,如今 他们的语言大约有六十种不同的分支。 本句为复合句,Which 引导非限制性定语从句,请注意介词 加关系代词的结构。如: The house in which the Nobel Prize winner lived as a child is now a museum. 这位诺贝尔奖得主在孩提时代住过的房子现在是 一家博物馆。 9 Their main characteristic is that they do not stay settled for a long period of time, and always move no to another place. 他们的主 要特点就是不会在某地长期定居,总是不停地向别处迁徙。 短语 Stay settled 的意思是“定居” 。如: Dan likes travelling around, it is difficult for him to stay settled in any place for long.丹喜欢四处旅行, 他很难在任何地方长时间定 居。 10 They resist making permanent homes, and choose not to become citizens of the countries that they move to. 他们抵制永久落

户安家,不愿成为所在国家的公民。 动词 Resist 的意思是“抵制” ,常接动名词作宾语。如: I cannot resist telling him this secret.我忍不住要告诉他这个秘 密。 11 With their frequent movements, they gained a reputation as thieves, who robbed people, moved away, and were then difficult to find.由于频繁流动,他们得了小偷的坏名声:偷抢别人的东西, 扬长而去,难以抓寻。 英语中 Reputation 既可指好的名声、 名誉, 也可指坏的名声。 Their products enjoy a high reputation and do well on the market.他们的产品享有盛誉,在市场上很畅销。 Jack has a reputation for being lazy.杰克是个出了名的懒鬼。 12 This collision of cultures between Europeans and the Romany led to many nations taking action against them. even

banning Romany groups from entering.欧洲人和罗姆人的这一文化 冲突导致许多国家都采取措施抵制他们, 甚至禁止罗姆族群入境。 (1) 名词 collision 在这里指不同文化之间的冲突。该词还有 “碰撞”之意。如: The driver turned left to avoid a collision with the oncoming car, 司机向左转,以避免撞上迎面驶来的车。 (2)分词短语 taking action against them 是 lead to 的宾语,其 逻辑主语是 many nations。如:

The headmaster finally approved of the boy taking part in the project.校长最终同意那个男孩参加这个项目。 13 The topic of the Romany will continue to be controversial, and the peace between them and many Europeans is tentative at best. 有关罗姆人的话题将会继续引发争议,罗姆人和许多欧洲人之间 的和平充其量只是暂时的。 短语 At best 的意思是“充其量,至多” 。如: At best, I could only finish half of the book today. 我今天最多 只能看完这本书的一半。 Unit 3 1 He hopes that his mother will become healthy again, but this not to be.他希望妈妈恢复健康,但这已经不可能了。 本句是个省略句,This is not to be 后面的表语省略了.可以理 解为 This is not to be the case. 2 He knows the meaning of the scream but—too numb with sorrow to weep—he gives a sideways glance, and then continues to bathe his sister.他知道这声尖叫的含义——但他对悲伤太麻木了以 至于都没有哭泣——他只是向旁边瞥了一眼,然后继续给妹妹洗 澡。 (1)本句是由 but 连接的并列复合句, 两个破折号之间的内容 说明原因。 (2) 短语 give a sideways glance 的意思是 “向旁边瞥了一眼” 。

此外 Sideways 是形容词,而 sideways 也可用作副词,意思是“往 (从)一边” 。如: My car slid sideways on the icy road,在结冰的路面,我的车向 一边滑。 3 Contrary to what through many people think. HIV cannot be spread through mosquitoes, a cough or sneeze, or by merely touching someone with Aids.与许多人所想象的不同,艾滋病毒不会通过蚊 子叮咬、咳嗽、打喷嚏或只是触碰艾滋病人而传播。 句中 Contrary to…的意思是“与??相反” 。如: Contrary to the doctor’s instructions, he went back to work.他没 有听医生的吩咐,又回去工作了。 4 However, since the disease burst on the scene in the 1980s, it has become a serious problem around the world.但是,自从艾滋病在 20世纪80年代突然爆发以来,它已经成为一个严重的全球性 问题。 短语 Burst on the scene 的意思是“突然出现” 。如: Various computer games burst on the scene during the internet boom.在互联网热潮时期,各种各样的电脑游戏出现了。另外,短 语 on the scene 本身“在事发地点,在现场”之意。如: Photographers arrived on the scene just a few minutes later,仅仅 几分钟后,摄影师就到了现场。 5 According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more

than 4 million children have died of Aids, and more than 15 million children have lost their parents to Aids.根据世界卫生组织(WHO) 的统计,已有超过四百万的儿童死于艾滋病,超过一千五百万的 儿童由于艾滋病失去了父母。 短语 Lose somebody to…的意思是“因为??而失去某人” 。 She has just lost her husband to heart failure.她丈夫刚因心力 衰竭去世了。 6 The work of international organizations is even more important when you consider how much more severe the situation could become.当考虑到这一形势会变得有多么严峻时,国际组织 的工作就显得更加重要了。 本句是主从复合句,When 引导时间状语从句;how 引导名 词性从句,用作动词 consider 的宾语。 8 There are three main classes of drugs, each of which has a different effect on the body.毒品有三大类,每一种对身体的影响都 各不相同。 (1)此处 class 表示“种类,类别” 。如: This class of antibiotics causes a bad reaction in some patients. 这类抗生素引起一些病人不良反应。 (2)本句包含一个定语从句,请注意“代词(或名词、数词) + of+关系代词”结构。如: He explained the sentence to me, the structure of which is quite

complex.他给我解释这个句子,句子的结构很复杂。 I bought several books last week, two of which were about Chinese architecture,他上周买了几本书,其中两本是关于中国建筑 的。 9 The side effects of drugs in this class include difficulty sleeping, nervous tension, heart attacks and, in some cases, death.这 一类毒品的副作用包括失眠、神经紧张、心脏病发作,有时甚至 是死亡。 句中 Difficulty sleeping 的意思是“难以入睡,失眠” ,中间 省略了介词 in。如: They had great difficulty (in) persuading the old man to give up smoking.他们很难说服这个老人戒烟。 10 Drugs in this class can decrease the heart rate, make users sleepy and may give users an artificial sense of pleasure —though this effect fades after a time,这一类毒品会降低心率,令吸食者感到困 倦,还可能使他们产生愉悦的幻觉——但这种幻觉一会儿就会消 退。 形容词 artificial 的意思是“虚假的” 。如: Her artificial smile cannot hide her sorrow.她的强颜欢笑掩饰 不了她的悲痛。 11 The last group of drugs can change the way people think and see the world.最后一类毒品会改变人们的思绪和看待世界的方式。

本句中 People think and see the world 是定语从句, 修饰 way。 当 Way 作先行词并在从句中充当状语时, 关系代词可用 That 或 in which,也可省略关系代词。如: Speaking is the key way (that\in which) people communicate.说 话是人们交往的主要方式。 12 Drug abuse often sucks the life right out of a person. 滥用毒 品往往会抽干吸食者的活力。 短语 Suck the life out of…的意思是“吸干??的活力,吞 噬??的生命” 。如: Cancer is sucking the life out of his mother.癌症正吞噬着她母 亲的生命。 13 While they cannot wipe away the stain of the past, they can certainly move forward.尽管他们不能消除过去的污点, 但他们肯定 可以继续向前。 句中 While 引导让步状语从句,意为“即使,虽然” 。短语 Wipe away 在这里的意思是 “消除, 去除” 。 此外, 它还可表示 “ (用 手或布)擦净,抺掉” 。如: She wiped away her tears.她擦干了眼泪。 Unit 4 1 Cybercrime refers to any criminal offence related to the Internet.网络犯罪指任何与因特网相关的犯罪行为。 (1) 名词 offence 的意思是“犯罪行为” 。如:

Drunk driving is a criminal offence.醉酒驾车是一种犯罪行为。 (2) 短语 related to 的

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