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Lesson 13 基础知识复习-非谓语动词-不 定式、-ing分词、-ed分词


什么是非谓 语动词啊?

“非谓语非谓语”, 就是不是谓语的动词 呗!

那不是谓语 是什么呢?

。。。。 。。


r /> 英语一句话只能有一个主谓结构
如果出现更多动词: ? 加连词(and / but / so…) ? 放入从句

? 变为非谓语动词

The famous doctor helped
the pregnant woman to give birth to a baby last Friday.

主 谓 宾 定 状 补


定 The pregnant woman was helped 状 主补 to give birth to a baby last Friday.


? 在英语中,不作句子谓语,而 具有除谓语外其他语法功能的


非 谓 语 动 词

不定式 to + v
动词的v-ing 过去分词 v-ed

区 别
? to + v 将要发生的

? v-ing
? v-ed

同时发生 被动

非谓语动词的 9 种形式
一般式 完成式

have done
被动 have been done

to do -ing done



be done
to do doing to be done being done

to have to have done been done having done having been done



句子 成分 非谓语 不定式 动词 -ing ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 主语 表语 宾语 补语 定语 状语 同位 语 ? ?


(一)动词不定式: (to)+do,具有名词、形容词、 副词的特征。

主 动 被 动

进行式 完成式

to write to be writing to have written

to be written /

to have been written

否定式:not + (to) do

1)一般式:不定式的一般式所表示的动作与谓语 动词动作同时发生或发生在谓语动词动作之后, 例如:
I’m glad to meet you.
He seems to know a lot.

We plan to pay a visit.
He wants to be an artist.

The patient asked to be operated on at once. The teacher ordered the work to be done.

2)进行式:不定式的进行式所表示的动作与谓 语动词动作同时发生,例如:
The boy pretended to be working hard. He seems to be reading in his room. 3)完成式:不定式的完成式表示的动作发生在 谓语动词动作之前,例如: I regretted to have told a lie. I happened to have seen the film. He is pleased to have met his friend.

To finish the work in ten minutes is very hard. To lose your heart means failure.

动词不定式短语作主语时,常用形式主语it作形 式主语,例如上面两句可用如下形式:
It is very hard to finish the work in ten minutes. It means failure to lose your heart.

Her job is to clean the hall. He appears to have caught a cold. 3)作宾语: 常与不定式做宾语连用的动词有:want, hope, wish, offer, fail, plan, learn, pretend, refuse, manage, help, agree, promise, prefer, 如果不定式 (宾语)后面有宾语补足语,则用it作形式宾语,真正 的宾语(不定式)后置,放在宾语补足语后面,例如: Marx found it important to study the situation in Russia.

I have no choice but to stay here. He did nothing last Sunday but repair his bike.

动词不定式前可与疑问词(what, who, which, where, when, how等,why除外)连用,这种不定式 一般用作宾语,也可用作其他成分如:
He gave us some advice on how to learn English. He didn’t tell us where to go and when to set out.

How to solve the problem is important.

在复合宾语中,动词不定式可充当宾语补足语,如 下动词常跟这种复合宾语: want, wish, ask, tell, order, beg, permit, help, advise, persuade, allow, prepare, cause, force, call on, wait for, invite. 此外,介词有时也与这种复合宾语连用,如:
With a lot of work to do, he didn’t go to the cinema.

有些动词如make, let, see, watch, hear, feel, have 等与不带有to的不定式连用,但改为被动语态时,不定式 要加to, 如:
I saw him cross the road.

He was seen to cross the road.

5)作定语: 动词不定式作定语,放在所修饰的名词或代词后。 与所修饰名词有如下关系: A)动宾关系:
I have a meeting to attend. 注意:不定式为不及物动词时,所修饰的名词如果是地点、 工具等,应有必要的介词,如: He found a good house to live in. The child has nothing to worry about.

We have made a plan to finish the work.

He is the first to get here.

He worked day and night to get the money. She sold her hair to buy the watch chain.

注意不定式放句首时,逻辑主语与句子主语要一 致:
wrong:To save money, every means has been tried.


To save money, he has tried every means.

wrong:To learn English well, a dictionary is needed.


To learn English well, he needs a dictionary.

其前必须加in order 或so as.

She got up in order / so as not to be late for the train.

He arrived late to find the train gone. 常用only放在不定式前表示强调: I visited him only to find him out. C)表原因: They were very sad to hear the news. D)表程度:

It’s too dark for us to see anything.
The question is simple for him to answer.

? 不定式作结果状语的注意点:
1)too…to结构(太…而不能…)含否定意义,其中 的不定式前不可再加not.如: He is too young(不能加not) to join the army. 2)某些形容词在“too…to…”结构中表示肯定,这 类词是:anxious, eager, glad, ready, surprised, willing… She was too surprised to see how angry her father was. 3)在not, never, only, all, but的 “too…to…”结构中, “too”的含义为“very”,不定式没有否定含义。 I’m only too glad to stay at home. It’s never too old to learn.

7)作独立成分: To tell you the truth, I don’t like the way he talked. 8)不定式的省略:保留to省略do动词。 If you don’t want to do it, you don’t need to. 9)不定式的并列:第二个不定式可省略to。

He wished to study medicine and become a doctor.

A: 可以在不定式前加一个由for引起的短语, 来说明不定式表示的动作是谁做的(即逻辑主 语);
? It is easy for the students to read.

? It will be a mistake for us to help you.

B: 下列形容词作表语时,不定式前常加一个 of 引起 的短语来说明逻辑主语,这些形容词(表评价性的, 来说明逻辑主语的性质,特征,属性)是: kind, good, nice, wise, unwise, clever, silly, stupid, foolish, wrong, right, careless, rude, polite等. It’s kind of you to think so much of us. It’s unwise of him to leave home at once. It ‘s wrong of him to speak bad behind others. It’s wrong of the south to break away from the Union.

复合形式的不定式构成否定式(not + (to)

have / be done)时,not 不可置于have或
? She was thought not to have gone(不用to have not gone) to her hometown. ? It is expected not to be taken(不用to be not taken) away until next Monday.



不 定 式

不定式的作用 不定式的时态 不定式的否定形式



I’ve worked with children before, so I know what ___ in my job. B
A. expected B. to expect C. to be expecting D. expects

该题考查疑问词+不定式在句中做宾语的用法。 英语中有一些动词 后可以跟一个疑问词的不定 式做宾语,如: tell, discuss, know, show, learn, decide, wonder, explain…



B The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier, ____ it more difficult.
A. not make B. not to make C. not making D. do not make.

因为主语是the purpose,在(purpose, wish, promise, plan)后常跟不定式故表语 要用不定式,to不能省略,因此构成the purpose is to…not to…do 句型,故选B 。

不定式的时态 I would love _____ to the party last night but I had to work D

extra hours to finish a report. A. to go B. having gone

C. going

D. to have gone

该题考查动词不定式做宾语的用法。Would love(like) to 是 固定搭配,因此B、C、不合题意。Would love+不定式一般 式,表示“想,希望”,而接不定式完成式则表示“原本希 望,而未曾实现”的意思。

Robert is said ____ abroad, but I don’t know what country A he studied in. A. to have studied B. to study C. to be study D. to have been studying 常和不定式完成式连用的动词还有:
Would love, meant, hoped, planned, expected, promised, wish等

例如:I meant to have telephoned you, but I forgot.


C The patient was warned ____ oily food after the operation. A. To eat not B. eating not C. not to eat D. not eat
该题考查不定式的否定式作主补。要注意warn后 跟词方式, ① warn sb. not to do sth. ②warn sb. against doing sth. 该题应该用①结构。两外,not 应放在to之前。

在大多数的动词可接不定式短语做宾补, 只有少数动词(五个看see, watch, notice, observe, look at;三使役make, let, have;二听 listen to, hear等)须接不带to 的不定式做宾补。

(二)-ing分词: 由动词原形+-ING构成, 一般做形 容词用, 还具有动词和名词的特点.

主动 被动 being done



having done having been done

否定式:not + -ing分词

1)一般式:-ing分词的一般式多表示主动的,正 在进行的行为或表示其逻辑主语所承受的行为。 也可用来泛指一个动作,没有特别的时间意义。 例如:
We sat on the high hillock, listening to the old story. Hearing the news, all Chinese people got excited.

The man being questioned doesn’t look like a
thief. The fact of being backed by so many people is a great comfort.

2)完成式: -ing分词的完成式表示的动作发生

Having broken up with his girlfriend, he dated with another girl.

Having been dumped by his girlfriend,
he dated with another girl.

Saying so much is useless. Taking part in the matriculation for postgraduate is probably the turning point of my life.

-ing分词短语作主语时,常用形式主语it作形式 主语,例如上面两句可用如下形式:
It is useless saying so much
It is probably the turning point of my life taking part in the matriculation for postgraduate.

It‘s no good talking to him. 和他谈话是没有用的。 It is useless telephoning him. 给他打电话没用。 He is not willing to come. 他不愿意来。 It‘s worth making an effort. 努力一下是值得的。 There is no saying when it will stop raining. 无法断定这场雨什么时候会停。 There is no joking about such matters. 这种事开不得玩笑。

2)作表语:(此时已被完形容词化,可被very, rather等修饰,可有比较等级。)
Seeing is believing.

The story of his life sounds very interesting.

3)作定语:(表示某种持续性,一般置于名词 之前,带附加成分时置于名词之后。)
He is a young man with pleasing manners. The working conditions there have been improved. She ran to the dying soldier / the soldier dying from a terrible wound.

背 (-ing作定语)

a drawing board 画板 a sewing machine 缝纫机 a swimming pool 游泳池 a waiting room 候车室 a dining car 餐车

a driving permit 驾驶许可证
a singing competition 歌咏比赛

a walking stick 手杖

I wouldn’t mind waiting for another ten minutes. Do you find living by the sea very pleasing?

有些动词后面的宾语可以是-ING分词也可以 是动词不定式的动词或短语。
Having finished the exercises, we went on to learn the
new words in the next unit.

Though it was raining heavily, they went on working.

背 appreciate 感激 keep 保持 dislike 嫌恶 enjoy 喜欢 practice 练习 feel like 意欲 include 包括 suggest 建议 avoid 避免 consider考虑 resist抵制 escape 避免 mind介意 finish 完成 forgive 原谅 miss 逃过

admit 承认 put off 推迟 delay 耽搁 mention 提及 excuse 原谅 fancy想不到 risk 冒险 give up 放弃

imagine 设想

cannot help 情不自禁


放弃延期悔失去,坚持欣赏实践成; 注意原谅避反对,考虑要求不自禁;



attempt(尝试), begin, can’t bear (不能承受),
cease(停止,终止), continue, deserve (应受,

该得), endure (忍受), forget, go on, hate,
intend, like, love, need, neglect (忽视),

omit(遗漏;省略;删去), plan, prefer,
propose(提议,建议), regret (悔恨,遗憾),

remember, start , stop, try等。

remember / forget / regret
regret to do★对即将要做的事表示遗憾

regret doing★对所做的事感到后悔
remember to do ★讲的是将来的事,表示“不要忘记” remember doing ★讲的是过去的事,表示“记起来” forget to do★忘记要做某事 forget doing★忘记以前曾做过的事 I remember meeting her somewhere before. Do remember to meet her at the station tomorrow.

? She reached the top of the hill and stopped _ C on a big rock to see the rising sun.

A. to have rested
C. to rest

B. resting
D. rest

You were brave enough to raise objections at the meeting. Well, now I regret D that. _ A. to do B. to be doing

C. to have done

D. having done


like / love / hate
? to do 表示特定的、具体某一次的行为

-ing 表示抽象的无时间意义的行为

? We love having a swim in the sea every afternoon. ? We’d love to have a swim in the sea this afternoon.


stop / go on
? to do 去做另外一件事 -ing 停止或继续做原来的事

? ?

The women went on working though it was already very dark. The women went on to work after they had their lunch.


? to do 极力去做。。。 -ing 试一试。。。

? ?

Try putting some salt in the soup. It will taste better, I think. He tried to put all the things into the bag, but couldn’t.


? to do 打算做。。。(想要做某事) -ing 意味着。。。(意味着要有一个结果)


If you think that treating a woman well means always _ her

permission for things, think again. A. gets B. got C. to get

D. getting


begin / start / continue
? 后面接-ing分词或动词不定式短语时语义基 本相同。


They started discussing / to discuss the problem at once.


She signed the papers without reading them over first. She is above doing such things.

-ing分词作介词宾语中,表示征询意见常用“How about…?”, “What…about?”
How about going there? What about having a concert?

用于表示感觉(see, watch, hear, feel, smell,

notice, observe, find, discover, )、致使(have,
get, leave, keep, set)等动词后。如:
They kept the lights burning all night long.
I must say I don’t like to hear you talking like that.

see, watch, hear, feel, notice
? -ing 主动, 正在做... do 主动, 动作过程 done 被动
A ? They knew her very well. They had seen her _ up from childhood. A. grow B. grew C. was growing D. to grow

? I’ve heard him C about you often. _
A. talked B. talks C. talk D. to talk

see watch hear + sb./sth. + feel notice

do 被动句还原to doing done

? I saw two boys fight with each other. ? Two boys were seen to fight with each other.

have make let get leave do 被动句还原to + sb./sth. + doing done

My mother makes me learn English every day. I am made to learn English every day.

try Note:
? 有的动词接-ing分词和不带to的不定式短语做宾语

? She saw them running upstairs. 她看见他们在往楼上跑。 (表示正在进行的行为-行为的某一段) ? She saw them run upstairs. 她看见他们跑上楼去了。




Coming into the room, I found him laughing.

Having got a headache, I didn't come to the concert.

Knowing anything about it, I will tell you all.

D)表示方式:所表动作与谓语所表动作同时发生, ing分词前可加when, while等连词,可放句首或句末。
He listened to the music radio while reading.

E)表示让步:-ING分词常常由although / though,
even if/though, unless等连词引入,一般放句首。
Even if coming by taxi, I will arrive in at least 45 minutes.

F)表示结果:置于句末,前面要加so, thereby,
thus, hence(因此)等表示结果的副词。
He worked day and night, making himself near sighted. He wished to travel all over the world, thereby studying customs of other countries.

Two of them were busy making paper flowers.

9)用于“with(out) + 名(代)词+ -ing分词短语”
I won’t be able to go on holiday with my mother being ill. You can’t do anything bad without anybody


-ING分词前可带物主代词(如my, your, his等)和

名词的属格(如Wang Qing‘s等, 作宾语时,还可
? Her / Mary’s helping like this won’t do you any

? I don’t like their / the boys’ / them / the boys

running about in the house.

高中阶段有一些固定的动词-ing形式短语,如generally speaking, judging from...,considering..., talking of...,

种动词-ing短语可当作一个插入语。 Generally speaking, boys are more interested in science than girls.一般说来,男孩比女孩对科学更感兴趣. Judging from his accent, he must come from Canada.从他的口音看,他一定来自加拿大.

Considering how poor he was, we decided to let him attend the concert for free.考虑到他是多么的穷,我 们决定让他免费听音乐会。
Supposing it rains, what will you do?假使下雨,你会怎 么办呢?

复合形式的-ing分词否定式 (not + being / having done ) 时,not 不可置于having或being之后。如:
? Not having read ( 不用having not read ) the book, she didn’t know who David was.

? Who believed his excuse for not having come ( 不用having not
come ) yesterday?

? Not being helped ( 不用being not helped ) by anybody, she’s
sure about his success. ? She was happy at not being laughed ( 不用being not laughed ) by the grown-ups.

-ing 形式

European football is played in 80 countries, ___ it the most popular sport in the world. A A. making B. makes C. made D. to make
Making it the popular sport in the world为现 在分词短语作结果状语,这类分词短语常放在句 子的后面。如: His parents died, leaving him an orphan.


-ing分词的用法 One learns a language by making mistakes and B ___ them. A. correct B. correcting

C. corrects

D. to correct
by making mistakes and correcting




____ a reply, he decided to write again. C
A. Not receiving C. Not having received B. Receiving not D. Having not received

复合形式的-ing分词否定式 (not + being /

having done )时,not 不可置于having



How about the two of us ____ a walk down the C

A. to take

B. take

C. taking D. to be taking

用“How about…?”, “What…about?”




---You were brave enough to raised objections at the meeting.

---Well, now I regret ____ that. D
A. to do b. to be doing

C. to have done

D. having done

在这个句子,-ing分词作动词regret宾语, 且这个宾语时已经做了的事情,用完成时。



17. While shopping, people sometime can’t help ____ into buying something they don’t really need. C
A. to pursue C. being persuaded B. persuading D. be persuaded

在这个句子,-ing分词作动词can’t help宾语, 人通常是被说服去买不必要的东西,故用被动 语态。 can’t help 后面只能接ing分词形式,


通常由动词原形+-ed构成, 不规则变化动 词的ed分词除外。

1、-ed分词的形式 形式:done 表示被动



The excited children were shouting and jumping.

也可置于名词之后,此时多带附加成分,表示被动 的行为。
The time allowed was quite enough.

可被very, too等修饰,可有比较等级。)
He looked more worried than the others.
The glass is broken.

He was amused.
She seemed quite disappointed.

He is greatly discouraged by her refusal of inviting her to the party.
The window remains locked.

accomplished(熟练的, 完成的) astonished(吃惊的, 惊讶的) completed(完全的, 圆满的) confused(混乱的, 慌乱的) devoted(献身…的, 埋头…的) discouraged(受挫的,沮丧的) amazed(惊奇的, 吃惊的) broken(破裂的) complicated(复杂的, 混乱的) crowded(拥挤的) disappointed(失望的) exhausted(筋疲力尽的) amused(有趣的, 好笑的) closed(关闭着的) excited(激动的) deserted(荒废了的) dressed(打扮的) drunk(酒醉的)

frightened(惊惧的, 吓呆了的) fascinated(迷住的) lost(迷失的) puzzled(迷惑的, 为难的) surprised(惊奇的, 意外的) unqualified(不合格的) worried(担心的)

faded(褪色的, 平淡的)
interested(有趣的) known(知名的, 已知的) married(结婚了的) qualified(合格的) unprepared(未准备好的) upset(心绪烦乱的,混乱的) wounded(受伤的)

hurt(伤害的, 痛心的)
inexperienced(无经验的) learned(有学问的) pleased(高兴的) satisfied(满意的) tired(疲劳的) unknown(未知的)

可以带-ed分词作宾补的动词有以下三类: 第一类:see,watch, hear,feel,find,think

I saw the student assembled(集合)in the hall.

He felt his eyes dazzled(眼花)by the bright light.
They found the house burned down to the


第二类:have, get, make, leave, keep等表示“ 致使”意义的动词;
I have my hair cut every ten days.

He was trying to make himself understood.
Please keep us informed of the latest developments.

注意:在“have+宾语+-ed分词”这一结构中,have有 三种不同意义。比较:
We had the problem solved.

She had her arm broken in an accident. 表示“遭受”,一种非有意的行为。 I have not any money left. 表示“有”。


The commander ordered the army unit(to be)reorganized. The viewers wish the serial film(to be) continued.



(When) Seen from a plane, the park looks beautiful.

Seen from a plane, the park looks very small.

(If) Seen from a plane, the park will look more beautiful.

(Though) Seen from a plane, the park can still be seen clearly.

Left alone at home, he found nothing to do and felt so boring.

F)用于“with(out) + 名(代)词+ -ed分词短语” 复合结构:
The year ended with nothing settled / without

anything settled.



The man killing pigs is a butcher(屠夫). The man killed by a tiger was a hunter.

He found the flag falling slowly onto the ground.
He found the flag fallen onto the ground.

过去分词主要考查其在句中作状语、定语、表语和补语的用 法。

C _____ in thought, he almost ran into the car in front of him. A. Losing B. Having lost C. Lost D. To lose
1.该题考查过去分词作状语的用法。动词-ing或过去分 词作状语,其逻辑主语应是主语。 2.“陷入深思”有两种表达法, A. Lose oneself in thought B.be lost in thought,按句子提供的语境可用结构 B.

The Olympic Games, ___ in 776 B.C. did not include A women players until 1912. A. First played B. to be first played C. first playing D. to be first playing

①过去 分词做定语与其修饰词之间是动宾关系且过去分 词表示的动作以完成。

② 现在分词作定语表示动作正在发生,与修饰词是主谓 关系。 ③不定式作定语表示将要发生的动作。 所以A是正确的。First played in 776B.C.=which was first played in 776 B.C.

C Cleaning women in big cities usually get ____ by the hour.
A. pay B. paying C. paid D. to pay

该题考查分词作表语的用法。“to pay sb. by the hour” 计时给某人报酬。此题被动结构作表 语。类似的有:get burnt, get hurt , get wounded.

The managers discussed the plan that they would like to see ___ the next year. C A. carry put B. carrying out C. carried out D. to carry out

该题考查过去分词作宾语补足语的用法。The plan 与carry out 的关系是被动关系。See sth. done 这结构常见的还有watch(notice, observe, have 和make) sth. done.


? 谓语动词/句型的要求 ? 主被动关系(确定语态) ? 时间先后顺序(确定时态)

1. The speaker raised his voice but still couldn’t make himself____ . A. hear B. to hear C. hearing D. heard

2. On afternoon, Mrs Green went to the market, ____ some bananas and visited her cousin. A. bought B. buying C. to buy D. writing

3. --I usually go there by train. --Why not ____ by boat for a change? A. to try going B. trying to go C. to try and go D. try going 4. ____ a reply, he decided to write again. A. Not receiving B. Receiving not C. Not having received D. Having not received

5. How about the two of us ____ a walk down the garden? A. to take B. take C. taking D. to be taking

6. ____ down the radio ---- the baby’s asleep in the next room.

A. Turning

B. To turn

C. Turned

D. Turn

7. Charles Babbage is generally considered ____ the first computer.

A. to invent B. inventing C. to have invented D. having invented
8. ---I must apologize for ____ ahead of time. ---That’s all right. A. letting you not know C. letting you know not B. not letting you know D. letting not you know

9. Rather than ___ on a crowded bus, he always prefers ____ a bicycle. A. ride; ride B. riding; ride C. ride; to ride D. to ride; riding

10. The missing boys were last seen ____ near the river.

A. playing

B. to be playing C. play

D. to play
language came

11. The first textbooks ____ for teaching English as a foreign out in the 16th century. A. having written B. to be written C. being written D. written

12. ---You were brave enough to raised objections at the meeting. ---Well, now I regret ____ that. A. to do b. to be doing C. to have done D. having done

13. The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told

A. not to B. not to do C. not do it D. do not to

14. ---What do you think made Mary so upset? ---____ her new bicycle. A. As she lost B. Lost C. Losing D. Because of losing

15. She can’t help ____ the house because she’s busy making a cake. A. to clean B. cleaning C. cleaned D. being cleaned

16. She looks forward every spring to _____ the flower-lined garden. A. visit B. paying a visit C. walk in D. walking in

17. While shopping, people sometime can’t help ____ into buying
something they don’t really need. A. to pursue B. persuading C. being persuaded D. be persuaded 18. The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier, ____ it more difficult. A. not make B. not to make C. not making D. do not make 19. A computer does only what thinking people _____. A. have it do B. have it done C. have done it D. having it done 20. When I got back home I saw a message pinned to the door ____ “Sorry to miss you; will call later.” A. read B. reads C. to read D. reading

C 1. He gave us some advice on how____ English. A. learning B. learned C. to learn D. learn 2. It ’s a pay day, and they are waiting____. D A. pay B. paying C. paid D. to be paid

3. --- A letter may be too slow.

A ---- Why not ____ a telegram?
A. try sending B. try to send C.to try sending D.trying to send B 4. Our father often told us in the past that _____is believing. A.to see B. seeing C. see D. to be seen 5. Mrs. Smith warned her husband _____ after drinking again and again. A

A. never to drive B. to never drive C. never driving 6. To master a foreign language,______. D
A. a lot of practice is needed C. practice is in need of

D. never drive

B. it needs a lot of practice D. one needs a lot of practice


? 当做考试题目,不看答案自觉完成


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