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初高中英语衔接教材


句子成分及结构 一:句子成分由词或词组充当, 英语的基本成分有七种 主语 (subject) 、 谓语 (predicate) 、 宾语 (object) 、 表语 (predicative) 、 定语 (attribute) 、 状语(adverbial),补语(complement) 。 (1). 主语 S 主语 (Subject) 是一个句子所叙述的主体,一般位于句首。表示

句子说的是什么人或什 么事。但在 there be 结构、疑问句(当主语不是疑问词时)和倒装句中,主语位于谓语、 助动词或情态动词后面。主语可由名词、代词、数词、不定式、动名词、名词化的形容 词和主语从句等表示。例如: 1.During the 1990s, American country music has become more and more popular. 名词 2.We often speak English in class. 代词 3.One-third of the students in this class are girls. 数词 4.To swim in the river is a great pleasure. 不定式 5.Smoking does harm to the health. 动名词 6.The rich should help the poor. 名词化的形容词 7.When we are going to have an English test has not been decided. 主语从句 8.It is necessary to master a foreign language。it 为形式主语,不定式为真正的主语 (2). 谓语 (V) 谓语 (Predicate) 说明主语所做的动作或具有的特征和状态。动词在句中作谓语,一般 放在主语之后。谓语的构成如下: 1、简单谓语:由一个动词或动词短语构成。如: He practices running every morning. The plane took off at ten o’clock. 2、复合谓语: 由情态动词或其他助动词加动词原形构成。如:

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You may keep the book for two weeks. He has caught a bad cold. 注意:谓语与主语在人称与数方面要保持一致。 (3)表语 (P) 表语(Predicative)用以说明主语的性质、特征、状态与身份,它一般位于系动词之后。表 语一般由名词、代词、形容词、数词、 副词、不定式、动名词、分词、介词短语及表 语从句表示。例如: 1.Our teacher of English is an American.(名词) 2.Is it yours?(代词) 3.The weather has turned cold.(形容词) 4.The speech is exciting.(分词) 5.Three times seven is twenty one?(数词) 6.His job is to teach English.(不定式) 7.His hobby is playing football.(动名词) 8.The meeting is of great importance.(介词短语) 9.Time is up. The class is over.(副词) 10.The truth is that he has never been abroad.(表语从句) 注意:系动词(Linking verb)用于连接主语和表语,说明主语的状态,性质特征和身份 等。 1)状态系动词用来表示主语状态,只有 be 一词,例如: He is a teacher. 2) 持续系动词用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况或态度, 主要有 keep, remain, stay, stand, 例如: He always keep silent at meeting. 3)感官系动词主要有 feel, smell, sound, taste, 例如: This kind of cloth feels very soft. 4)变化系动词表示主语变成什么样,主要有 become, grow, turn, fall, get, go, come, run. 例如: He became mad after that. 除此之外,还有 prove, turn out, appear, seem 等。 The rumor proved false. His plan turned out a success。 (4)宾语 (O) 宾语(Object)表示动作的对象或承受者,一般位于及物动词和介词后面。例如: 1.They visited an exhibition yesterday.名词
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2.The heavy rain prevented me from coming to school on time. 代词,动名词 3.How many dictionaries do you have? I have five. 名词,数词 4.They helped the old with their housework yesterday. 名词化形容词,名词 5.He pretended not to see me. 不定式 6.I enjoy listening to popular music. 动名词 7.I think(that)he is fit for his office. 宾语从句 宾语种类: 1)双宾语(间接宾语 O+直接宾语 O) Lend me your dictionary, please. He gave me a book yesterday. 2)复合宾语(宾语 O+宾补 C) 1. They elected him their monitor. 名词 2.They painted their boat white. 形容词 3.Let the fresh air in. 介词 4.You mustn’t force him to lend his money to you. 不定式 5.We saw her entering the room. 动名词 6.We found everything in the lab in good order. 介词短语 7.We will soon make our city what your city is now. 从句

以上几种是句子的必要成分,不可缺少,否则句子意义就不完整。句子除了必要成 分外,还可以有定语,状语,同位语和插入语。
(5)定语 修饰,限制,描述或补充说明名词或代词的词、短语或从句称为定语(Attribute)。 1.Guilin is a beautiful city.(形容词) 2.China is a developing country; America is a developed country.(分词) 3.There are thirty women teachers in our school.(名词) 4.His rapid progress in English made us surprised.(代词) 5.Our monitor is always the first to enter the classroom.(不定式短语) 6.The teaching plan for next term has been worked out.(动名词) 7.He is reading an article about how to learn English.(介词短语) 8.Farmers who saw us stared at us as if we are walking skeletons. (定语从句) (6)状语 修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子,说明动作或状态特征的句子成分。从情况,时间, 处所,方式,条件,对象,肯定,否定,范围和程度等方面对谓语中心进行修饰或限制,状语一 般由副词充当,也可由名词,介词短语,非谓语动词,从句等充当。 1.Light travels most quickly. 副词及副词性短语
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2.He has lived in the city for ten years. 介词短语 3.He is proud to have passed the national college entrance examination. 不定式 4.He is in the room making a model plane. 分词短语 5.Wait a minute. 名词 6.Once you begin, you must continue. 状语从句 9 种状语种类如下: 1. How about meeting again at six? 时间 2.Last night she didn’t go to the dance party because of the rain. 原因 3.I shall go there if it doesn’t rain. 条件 4.Mr Smith lives on the third floor. 地点 5.She put the eggs into the basket with great care. 方式 5. She came in with a dictionary in her hand. 伴随 6.In order to catch up with the others, I must work harder. 目的 7.He was so tired that he fell asleep immediately. 结果 8.She works very hard though she is old. 让步 9.I am taller than he is. 比较 (7)同位语(Appositive)对前面的名词或代词做进一步的解释,通常由名词、数词、 代词或从句担任,如: This is Mr. Zhou, our headmaster. We students should study hard. We all are students. (8)插入语(Parenthesis)对一句话做一些附加的解释,通常有 to be honest , I think (suppose, believe---)等,如: To be frank, I don’t quite agree with you. 二:英语句子的基本结构可以归纳成五种基本句型及其扩大、组合、省略或倒装。 掌握这五种基本句型,是掌握各种英语句子结构的基础。 1: S V (主+谓) 2: S V P (主+系+表) 3: S V O (主+谓+宾) 4: S V o O (主+谓+间宾+直宾) 5: S V O C (主+谓+宾+宾补) 基本句型一:S │ V (不及物动词) 1. The sun │ rose. 2. Who │cares?
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3. What he said │does not matter. 4. They │talked for half an hour. 5. The pen │writes smoothly 此句型的句子有一个共同特点,即句子的谓语动词 都能表达完整的意思。这类动词叫做不及物动词, 后面可以跟副词、介词短语、状语从句等。 基本句型二:S │V(是系动词)│ P(表语) 1. This │is │an English-Chinese dictionary. 2. The dinner │smells │good. 3. He │fell │in love. 4. Everything │looks │different. 5. He │is growing │tall and strong. 6. Our well │has gone │dry. 7. His face │turned │red. 基本句型 三: S V O (主+谓+宾) 此句型句子的共同特点是:谓语动词都具有实义,都是主语产生的动作,但不能表达完 整的意思,必须跟有一个宾语,即动作的承受者,才能使意思完整。这类动词叫做及物 动词。 S │V(及物动词)│ O(宾语) 1. Who │knows │the answer? 2. He │has refused │to help them. 3. He │enjoys │reading. 4. He │said │"Good morning." 5. He │admits │that he was mistaken. 基本句型 四: S V O O (主+谓+间宾+直宾) 有些及物动词可以有两个宾语。这两个宾语通常一个指人(间接宾语);一个指物(直接宾 语)。 S │V(及物)│ O(多指人) │ O(多指物) 1.She │ordered │herself │a new dress. 2. He │brought │you │a dictionary. 3. I │showed │him │my pictures. 4. I │told │him │that the bus was late. 5. He │showed │me │how to run the machine. 基本句型 五: S V O C (主+谓+宾+宾补) 此句型的句子的共同特点是:动词虽然是及物动词,但是只跟一个宾语还不能表达完整
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的意思,必须加上一个补充成分来补足宾语,才能使意思完整。 S │V(及物)│ O(宾语) │ C(宾补) 1. They │painted │the door │green. 2. This │set │them │thinking. 3. They │found │the house │deserted. 4. He │asked │me │to come back soon. 5. I │saw │them │getting on the bus. 三:Practice makes perfect. (一) 选择句子结构 a,S V b, S V P c,S V O d,S V o O 2. She smiled.______ 3. I have a lot work to do._____ 4. His job is to train swimmers._____ 5. He noticed a man enter the room._____ 6. Please look at the picture._____ (二).指出下列句子划线部分是什么句子成分: ? 1. The students got on the school bus. ? 2. He handed me the newspaper. ? 3. I shall answer your question after class. ? 4. What a beautiful Chinese painting! ? 5. They went hunting together early in the morning. ? 6. His job is to train swimmers. ? 7. He took many photos of the palaces in Beijing. ? 8. There is going to be an American film tonight. ? 9. He is to leave for Shanghai tomorrow. ? 10. His wish is to become a scientist. ? 11. He managed to finish the work in time. ? 12. Tom came to ask me for advice. ? 13. He found it important to master English. ? 14. Do you have anything else to say? ? 15. To be honest,your pronunciation is not so good. ? 16. Would you please tell me your address? ? 17. He sat there, reading a newspaper.
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e,S V O C

1. Please tell us a story._______

? 18. It is our duty to keep our classroom clean and tidy. ? 19. He noticed a man enter the room. ? 20. The apples tasted sweet. (三)翻译下列句子 主谓结构 ( 主语 + 不及物动词 ) 1.你应当努力学习。 2.她昨天回家很晚。 3.那天早上我们谈了很多。 4.会议将持续两个小时。 5.在过去的十年里,我的家乡已经发生了巨大的变化。 主谓宾结构 (主语 +及物动词 +宾语 ) 1.昨晚我写了一封信。 2.今天下午我想同你谈谈。 3.这本书他读过多次了。 4.他们成功地完成了计划。 5.那位先生能流利地说三种语言。 主系表结构 (主语 +系动词+表语 ) 1.我的兄弟都是大学生。 2.冬季白天短,夜晚长。 3.孩子们,请保持安静。 4.树叶已经变黄了。

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5.这个报告听起来很有意思。 双宾语结构 (主语+双宾动词+间接宾语+直接宾语 ) 1 Johnson 先生去年教我们德语。 2. 奶奶昨晚给我们讲了一个有趣的故事。 3. Mary 把钱包交给校长了。 4. Robinson Crusoe 给自己做了一只小船。 5. 我替你叫辆出租汽车好吗? 复合宾语结构 (主语 +动词 + 宾语 + 宾语补足语 ) 1.我们叫她 Alice. 2.我们大家都认为他是诚实的。 3.我们要使学校变得更美丽。 4.每天早晨我们都听到他大声朗读英语。 5.我们不会让她在晚上外出的。 There be 句型 1.今晚没有会。 2.这个村子过去只有一口井。 3 这个学校有一名音乐老师和一名美术老师 4.灯亮着,办公室里肯定有人。 5.恰好那时房里没人。

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初中英语语法 一.名词 I. 名词的种类: 专有名词 国名地名人名,团 体机构名称 Beijing, China II. 名词的数: 1. 规则名词的复数形式:名词的复数形式,一般在单数形式后面加-s 或-es。现将构成 方法与读音规则列表如下: 规则 1 2 一般情况在词尾加-s 以 s, x, ch, sh 结尾的名词后加-es 以-f 或 3 -fe 结尾 的词 4 加-s 例词 map-maps, sea-seas, girl-girls, day-days class-classes, box-boxes, watch-watches, dish-dishes leaf-leaves, thief-thieves, knife-knives, wife-wives, half-halves chief-chiefs, proof-proofs, roof-roofs 个体名词 gun 可数名词 集体名词 family work 普通名词 不可数名词 抽象名词 air 物质名词

变-f 和-fe 为 v 再加-es

以辅音字母加 y 结尾的名词,变 y party-parties, family-families, story-stories, 为 i 加-es city-cities

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以元音字母加 y 结尾的名词,或专 toy-toys, boy-boys, day-days, ray-rays, 有名词以 y 结尾的,加-s 以辅音 一般加-es Henry-Henrys Negro-Negroes, hero-heroes, potato-potatoes, tomato-tomatoes piano-pianos, photo-photos, auto-autos, kilo-kilos, solo-solos zero-zeros/zeroes, volcano-volcanoes/ volcanos radio-radios, bamboo-bamboos, zoo-zoos truth-truths, mouth-mouths, month-months,
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字母加 -o 结尾 的名词 两者皆可 不少外来词加-s

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以元音字母加-o 结尾的名词加-s 以-th 结尾的名词加-s

path-paths,

2. 不规则名词复数:英语里有些名词的复数形式是不规则的,现归纳如下: 规则 1 改变名词中的元音字母或其他形式 2 单复数相同 3 只有复数形式 4 一些集体名词总是用作复数 5 例词 man-men, woman-women, foot-feet, goose-geese, mouse-mice sheep, deer, means, works, fish, yuan, jin, trousers, clothes, thanks, goods, glasses, people, police

部分集体名词既可以作单数 (整体)class, family, crowd, couple, group, government, 也可以作复数(成员) population, team, public, party customs(海关), times(时代), spirits(情绪),

6 复数形式表示特别含义

drinks(饮料), sands(沙滩), papers(文件报纸), looks(外表), brains(头脑智力), greens(青菜)

加-s 表示 7 “某国 单复数同形 人” 以-man 或-woman 结尾的改 为-men,-women 将主体名词变为复数 8 合成 名词 无主体名词时将最后一部 分变为复数 将两部分变为复数

Americans, Australians, Germans, Greeks, Swedes, Europeans Swiss, Portuguese, Chinese, Japanese Englishmen, Frenchwomen sons-in-law, lookers-on, passers-by, story-tellers, boy friends grown-ups, housewives, stopwatches women singers, men servants

III. 名词的所有格: 名词在句中表示所有关系的语法形式叫做名词所有格。 所有格分两种: 一是名词词尾加’s 构成,二是由介词 of 加名词构成。前者多表示有生命的东西,后者多表示无生命的东 西。 1. ’s 所有格的构成:
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单数名词在末尾加’s 一般在末尾加’ 复数名词

the boy’s father, Jack’s book, her son-in-law’s photo, the teachers’ room, the twins’ mother,

不规则复数名词后加’s the children’s toys, women’s rights, 以 s 结尾的人名所有格加’s 或者’ Dickens’ novels, Charles’s job, the Smiths’ house

表示各自的所有关系时,各名词末 Japan’s and America’s problems, Jane’s and Mary’s 尾均须加’s 表示共有的所有关系时在最后一 词末加’s 表示"某人家""店铺", 所有格 后名词省略 2. ’s 所有格的用法: 1 2 3 4 5 6 表示时间 表示自然现象 表示国家城市等地方 的名词 表示工作群体 表示度量衡及价值 与人类活动有特殊关 系的名词 某些固定词组 today’s newspaper, five weeks’ holiday the earth’s atmosphere, the tree’s branches the country’s plan, the world’s population, China’s industry the ship’s crew, majority’s view, the team’s victory a mile’s journey, five dollars’ worth of apples the life’s time, the play’s plot a bird’s eye view, a stone’s throw, at one’s wit’s end(不知所 措) bikes Japan and America’s problems, Jane and Mary’s father the doctor’s, the barber’s, the tailor’s, my uncle’s

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3. of 所有格的用法: 用于无生命的东西:the legs of the chair, the cover of the book 用于有生命的东西,尤其是有较长定语时:the classrooms of the first-year students 用于名词化的词:the struggle of the oppressed 二.冠词 冠词分为不定冠词(a, an),定冠词(the),和零冠词。 I. 不定冠词的用法: 1 指一类人或事,相当于 a kind of A plane is a machine that can fly.
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2 3 4 5

第一次提及某人某物,非特指 表示“每一”相当于 every,one 表示“相同”相当于 the same

A boy is waiting for you. We study eight hours a day. We are nearly of an age.

用于人名前,表示不认识此人或 A Mr. Smith came to visit you when you were out 与某名人有类似性质的人或事 That boy is rather a Lei Feng. A couple of, a bit, once upon a time, in a hurry, have a walk, many a time This room is rather a big one.

6 用于固定词组中 用于 quite, rather, many, half, what, such 之后 用于 so(as, too, how)+形容词之 后

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She is as clever a girl as you can wish to meet.

II. 定冠词的用法: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 表示某一类人或物 用于世上独一无二的事物名词前 表示说话双方都了解的或上文提到过 的人或事 用于乐器前面 用于形容词和分词前表示一类人 表示“一家人”或“夫妇” 用于序数词和形容词副词比较级最高 级前 The horse is a useful animal. the universe, the moon, the Pacific Ocean Would you mind opening the door? play the violin, play the guitar the reach, the living, the wounded the Greens, the Wangs He is the taller of the two children.

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用于国家党派等以及江河湖海,山川 the United States, the Communist Party of 群岛的名词前 用于表示发明物的单数名词前 在逢十的复数数词之前,指世纪的某 个年代 China, the French The compass was invented in China. in the 1990’s I hired the car by the hour. He patted me on the shoulder.

11 用于表示单位的名词前 12 用于方位名词,身体部位名词,及表 示时间的词组前
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III. 零冠词的用法: 1 专有名词,物质名词,抽象名词,人名 地名等名词前 名词前有 this, my, whose, some, no, each, every 等限制 季节,月份,星期,节假日,一日三餐 前 表示职位,身份,头衔的名词前 学科,语言,球类,棋类名词前 与 by 连用表示交通工具的名词前 以 and 连接的两个相对的名词并用时 表示泛指的复数名词前 Beijing University, Jack, China, love, air I want this book, not that one. / Whose purse is this? March, Sunday, National Day, spring Lincoln was made President of America. He likes playing football/chess. by train, by air, by land husband and wife, knife and fork, day and night Horses are useful animals.

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三.代词: I. 代词可以分为以下七大类: 1 人称 主格 代词 宾格 形容词 2 物主 代词 名词性 3 反身代词 4 指示代词 5 疑问代词 6 关系代词 mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves this, that, these, those, such, some who, whom, whose, which, what, whoever, whichever, whatever that, which, who, whom, whose, as one/ some/ any, each/ every, none/ no, many/ much, few/ little/ a few/ a 7 不定代词 little, other/ another, all/ both, neither/ either
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I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them my, your, his, her, its, our, their



II. 不定代词用法注意点: 1. one, some 与 any: 1) one 可以泛指任何人,也可特指,复数为 ones。some 多用于肯定句,any 多用于疑问 句和否定句。 One should learn to think of others. Have you any bookmarks? No, I don’t have any bookmarks. I have some questions to ask. 2) some 可用于疑问句中,表示盼望得到肯定的答复,或者表示建议,请求等。 Would you like some bananas? Could you give me some money? 3) some 和 any 修饰可数名词单数时,some 表示某个,any 表示任何一个。 I have read this article in some magazine. Please correct the mistakes, if any. 4) some 和数词连用表示“大约”,any 可与比较级连用表示程度。 There are some 3,000 students in this school. Do you feel any better today? 2. each 和 every: each 强调个别,代表的数可以是两个或两个以上,而 every 强调整体,所指的数必须是 三个或三个以上。 Each student has a pocket dictionary. / Each (of us) has a dictionary. / We each have a dictionary. Every student has strong and weak points. / Every one of us has strong and weak points. 3. none 和 no: no 等于 not any,作定语。none 作主语或宾语,代替不可数名词,谓语用单数,代替可 数名词,谓语单复数皆可以。 There is no water in the bottle. How much water is there in the bottle? None. None of the students are (is) afraid of difficulties. 4. other 和 another: 1) other 泛指“另外的,别的”常与其他词连用,如:the other day, every other week, some other reason, no other way, the other 特指两者中的另外一个,复数为 the others。如: He held a book in one hand and his notes in the other. Two students in our class failed, but all the others passed the exam. 2) another 指“又一个,另一个”无所指,复数形式是 others,泛指“别的人或事”如:
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I don’t like this shirt, please show me another (one). The trousers are too long, please give me another pair / some others. Some like football, while others like basketball. 5. all 和 both, neither 和 either all 表示不可数名词时,其谓语动词用单数。both 和 all 加否定词表示部分否定,全部否 定用 neither 和 none. All of the books are not written in English. / Not all of the books are written in English. Both of us are not teachers. / Not both of us are teachers. / Either of us is a teacher. 四.形容词和副词 I.形容词: 1. 形容词的位置: 1) 形容词作定语通常前置,但在下列情况后置: 1 修饰 some, any, every, no 和 body, thing, one 等构成 的复合不定代词时 以-able, -ible 结尾的形容词可置于有最高级或 only 修饰的名词之后 nobody absent, everything possible the best book available, the only solution possible the only person awake a bridge 50 meters long a huge room simple and beautiful a man difficult to get on with

2

3 alive, alike, awake, aware, asleep 等可以后置 4 和空间、时间、单位连用时 5 成对的形容词可以后置 6 形容词短语一般后置 2) 多个形容词修饰同一个名词的顺序: 代词 冠词 前的 形容 词 冠词 指示代词 不定代词 代词所有 格 the all both such a this another your
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数词

性状形容词

序数 词

基数 词

性质 状态

大小 长短 形状

新旧 温度

颜色

国籍 产地

材料 质地 名 词

second next

one four

beautiful good poor

large short square

new cool

black Chinese

silk

yellow London stone

3) 复合形容词的构成: 1 形容词+名词+ed kind-hearted 2 形容词+形容词 3 形容词+现在分 词 dark-blue ordinary-looking hard-working newly-built 6 名词+形容词 7 名词+现在分词 8 名词+过去分词 9 数词+名词+ed 10 数词+名词 world-famous peace-loving snow-covered three-egged twenty-year

4 副词+现在分词 5 副词+过去分词 II. 副词 副词的分类: 1 时间副 词 地点副 词 方式副 词 程度副 词

soon, now, early, finally, once, recently here, nearby, outside, upwards, above hard, well, fast, slowly, excitedly, really almost, nearly, very, fairly, quite, rather

5

频度副 词 疑问副 词 连接副 词 关系副 词

always, often, frequently, seldom, never how, where, when, why how, when, where, why, whether, however, meanwhile when, where, why

2

6

3

7

4

8

III. 形容词和副词比较等级: 形容词和副词的比较等级分为原级,比较级和最高级。比较级和最高级的构成一般是在 形容词和副词后加-er 和-est,多音节和一些双音节词前加 more 和 most。 1. 同级比较时常常用 as…as…以及 not so(as)…as…如:I am not so good a player as you are. 2. 可以修饰比较级的词有: much, many, a lot, even, far, a bit, a little, still, yet, by far, any, a great deal。 3. 表示一方随另一方变化时用“the more…the more…”句型。 如: The harder you work, the more progress you will make. 4. 用比较级来表达最高级的意思。如:I have never spent a more worrying day. 5. 表示倍数的比较级有如下几种句型: Our school is three times larger than yours./Our school is four times as large as yours./Our school is four times the size of yours. 6. 表示“最高程度“的形容词没有最高级和比较级。如:favourite, excellent, extreme, perfect。
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五.介词 I.介词分类: 1 简单介词 2 合成介词 3 短语介词 4 双重介词 5 分词转化成的介 词 形容词转化成的 介词 about, across, after, against, among, around, at, below, beyond, during, in, on inside, into, onto, out of, outside, throughout, upon, within, without according to, because of, instead of, up to, due to, owing to, thanks to from among, from behind, from under, till after, in between considering(就而论), including

6

like, unlike, near, next, opposite

II. 常用介词区别: 1 2 表示时间的 in, on, at 表示时间的 since, from at 表示片刻的时间,in 表示一段的时间,on 总是与日子有关 since 指从过去到现在的一段时间,和完成时连用,from 指 从时间的某一点开始 in 指在一段时间之后,after 表示某一具体时间点之后或用在 过去时的一段时间中

3

表示时间的 in, after

4 5 6 7 8

表示地理位置的 in, on, in 表示在某范围内,on 指与什么毗邻,to 指在某环境范围之 to 外

表示“在…上”的 on, in on 只表示在某物的表面上,in 表示占去某物一部分 表示“穿过”的 through, through 表示从内部通过, 与 in 有关, across 表示在表面上通 across 过,与 on 有关

表示“关于”的 about, on about 指涉及到,on 指专门论述 between 与 among 的区 between 表示在两者之间,among 用于三者或三者以上的中 别 besides 与 except 的区 别 间 besides 指“除了…还有再加上”,except 指“除了,减去什么”, 不放在句首 with 表示具体的工具,in 表示材料,方式,方法,度量,单 位,语言,声音

9

10 表示“用”的 in, with

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11 as 与 like 的区别

as 意为“作为,以…地位或身份”,like 为“象…一样”,指情 形相似 in 通常表示位置(静态),into 表示动向,不表示目的地或 位置

12 in 与 into 区别 六.动词 I. 动词的时态:

1. 动词的时态一共有 16 种,以 ask 为例,将其各种时态的构成形式列表如下: 现在时 一般 进行 完成 ask / asks 过去时 asked 将来时 shall/will ask 过去将来时 should/would ask

am/is/are asking was/were asking shall/will be asking should/would be asking have/has asked had asked shall/will have asked should/would have asked

完成进 have/has been 行 asking

had been asking

shall/will have been should/would have been asking asking

2. 现在完成时与一般过去时的区别: 1) 现在完成时表示过去发生的动作或存在的状况,但和现在有联系,强调的是对现在 造成的影响或结果,它不能同表示过去的时间状语连用,汉译英时可加“已经”等词。简 言之,利用过去,说明现在。如: I have already read the novel written by the world-famous writer. (已经看过,且了解这本书 的内容) 2) 一般过去时只表示过去发生的动作或状态,和现在无关,它可和表示过去的时间状 语连用,汉译英时可加“过”,“了”等词。简言之,仅谈过去,不关现在。如: I read the novel last month. (只说明上个月看了,不涉及现在是否记住) I lived in Beijing for ten years.(只说明在北京住过十年,与现在无关) 3. 现在完成时与现在完成进行时的区别: 两者都可以表示“从过去开始一直持续到现在”,在含义上如着重表示动作的结果时,多 用现在完成时,如着重表示动作一直在进行,即动作的延续性时,则多用现在完成进行 时。一般不能用于进行时的动词也不能用于现在完成进行时。 I have read that book.我读过那本书了。 I have been reading that book all the morning. 我早上一直在读那本书。 4. 一般将来时的表达方式:
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将来时 1 will/shall+动词原 形 be going to+动词 原形

用法 表示将来发生的动作或存在的状态

例句 My sister will be ten next year. It’s going to clear up. We’re going to have a party tonight. He is moving to the south. Are they leaving for Europe? I was about to leave when the bell rang. The meeting is about to close. We’re to meet at the school gate at noon. The meeting starts at five

2

含有“打算,计划,即将”做某事,或 表示很有可能要发生某事 go, come, start, move, leave, arrive 等 词可用进行时表示按计划即将发生 的动作 表示安排或计划中的马上就要发生 的动作,后面一般不跟时间状语

3

be + doing 进行 时表示将来

4

be about to + 动 词原形

5 be to + 动词原形 表示按计划进行或征求对方意见

6

一般现在时表示 将来

时刻表上或日程安排上早就定好的 事情,可用一般现在时表示将来

o’clock. The plane leaves at ten this evening.

II. 动词的被动语态: 常用被动语 态 1 2 3 4 构成 6 7 8 9 常用被动语 态 过去进行时 现在完成时 过去完成时 将来完成时 含有情态动 词的 构成 was/were being asked have/has been asked had been asked will/would have been asked can/must/may be asked

一般现在时 am/is/are asked 一般过去时 was/were asked 一般将来时 shall/will be asked 过去将来时 should/would be asked

5

现在进行时 am/is/are being asked

10

注 被动语态的否定式是在第一个助动词或情态动词后加 not, 短语动词的被动态不可漏 意 掉其中介副词。固定结构 be
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事 going to, used to, have to, had better 变为被动态时,只需将其后的动词变为被动态。 项 如: Trees should not be planted in summer. / The boy was made fun of by his classmates. Newspapers used to be sent here by the little girl. 汉语有一类句子不出现主语,在英语中一般可用被动结构表示。如: It is believed that… It is generally considered that… It is said that… It is well known that… It must be pointed out that… It is supposed that… It is reported that… It must be admitted that… It is hoped that… 下面主动形式常表示被动意义:如: The window wants/needs/requires repairing. The book is worth reading twice. The door won’t shut. / The play won’t act. The clothes washes well. / The book sells well. The dish tastes delicious. / Water feels very cold. 下面词或短语没有被动态: leave, enter, reach, become, benefit, cost, equal, contain, last, lack, fit, fail, have, appear, happen, occur, belong to, take place, break out, come about, agree with, keep up with, consist of, have on, lose heart 等等 七.情态动词 I.情态动词基本用法: 情态动词 can 用法 能力(体力,智力,技能) 允许或许可(口语中常用) 可能性(表猜测,用于否定句 could may 或疑问句中) 可以(问句中表示请求) couldn’t do may not do 否定式 can not / cannot /can’t do 疑问式与简答 Can…do…? Yes,…can. No,…can’t. May…do…? Yes,…may.

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可能,或许(表推测) 祝愿(用于倒装句中) might might not do

No,…mustn’t/can’t. Might…do…? Yes,…might No,…might not. Must…do…?

must

必须,应该(表主观要求) 肯定, 想必 (肯定句中表推测)

must not/mustn’t do

Yes,…must. No,…needn’t/don’t have to.

have to

只好,不得不(客观的必须, 有时态人称变化)

Do…have to do…? don’t have to do Yes,…do. No,…don’t. Ought…to do…? Yes,…ought. No,…oughtn’t. Shall…do…? shall not/shan’t do Yes,…shall. No,…shan’t. should not/shouldn’t do will not/won’t do

ought to

应当(表示义务责任,口语中 ought not 多用 should 将要,会 to/oughtn’t to do

shall

用于一三人称征求对方意见 用于二三人称表示许诺、 命令、 警告、威胁等

should will would

应当,应该(表义务责任) 本该(含有责备意味) 意愿,决心

Should…do…? Will…do…?

请求, 建议, 用在问句中 would would not/wouldn’t Yes,…will. 比较委婉 No,…won’t. do Dare…do…?

dare

敢 (常用于否定句和疑问句中)dare not/daren’t do

Yes,…dare. No,…daren’t.

需要 need 中) used to 过去常常(现在已不再) used

Need…do…? No,…needn’t. Used…to do…?

必须(常用于否定句和疑问句 need not/needn’t do Yes,…must.

not/usedn’t/usen’t to Yes,…used.
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do didn’t use to do

No,…use(d)n’t. Did…use to do…? Yes,…did. No,…didn’t.

II. 情态动词 must, may, might, could, can 表示推测: 以 must 为例。must + do(be)是推测现在存在的一般状态进行;must + be doing 推测可能 正在进行的事情;must +have done 是推测可能已经发生过的事情。 1. must“肯定,一定”语气强,只用于肯定句中。 He must be a man from America. / He must be talking with his friend. / He must have already arrived there. 2. may 和 might“也许”,后者语气弱,更没有把握。可用于肯定句和否定句。 He may not be at home. / They might have finished their task. 3. can 和 could“可能”,could 表示可疑的可能性,不及 can’t 语气强,用于肯定、否定、 疑问句中。 The weather in that city could be cold now. We could have walked there; it was so near.(推测某事本来可能发生,但实际上没有发生) Can he be in the office now? No, he can’t be there, for I saw him in the library just now.(语气 很强,常用于疑问句和否定句中) III. 情态动词注意点: 1. can 和 be able to: 都可以表示能力。但 be able to 可以表达“某事终于成功”,而 can 无 法表达此意。Be able to 有更多的时态。另外,两者不能重叠使用。 2. used to 和 would: used to 表示过去常常做现在已经不再有的习惯,而 would 只表示过去的习惯或喜好,不 涉及现在。 3. need 和 dare 作情态动词和实义动词的区别: 两者作情态动词时常用于否定句和疑问句。其形式为:needn’t/daren’t do; Need/dare…do…? 做实义动词时可用于肯定句,否定句和疑问句。其形式为: need(needs/needed)/dare(dares/dared) to do, don’t(doesn’t/didn’t) need/dare to do 八.非谓语动词 I. 非谓语动词的分类、意义及构成: 非谓语形 构成 特征和作用

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式 to do to be 不定式 doing to have done 现在 分 词 过去 分词 doing 分词 doing having done

时态和语态

否定式 复合结构 具有名词,副词和形容词的 for sb. to do sth. 作用 在句中做主、宾、定、表和 状语 在非 谓语 前加 not 具有副词和形容词的作用 在句中做定、表、宾补和状 语

to be done to have been done

being done having been done done being done having been done

动名词

sb’s doing

具有名词的作用 在句中做主、宾、定和表语

having done

II. 做宾语的非谓语动词比较: 情况 常用动词

只接不定式做宾 hope, want, offer, long, fail, expect, wish, ask, decide, pretend, manage, 语的动词 agree, afford, determine, promise, happen mind, miss, enjoy, imagine, practise, suggest, finish, escape, excuse, appreciate, admit, prevent, keep, dislike, avoid, risk, resist, consider 只接动名词做宾 can’t help, feel like, succeed in, be fond of, object to, get down to, be 语的动词或短语 engaged in, insist on, think of, be proud of, take pride in, set about, be afraid of, be tired of, look forward to, devote oneself to, be worth, be busy, pay attention to, stick to begin, start, like, love, hate, prefer, continue(接不定式多指具体的动作, 两 者 都 可 以 意义相反 意义基本相 接动名词多指一般或习惯行为) 同 need, want, require(接动名词主动形式表示被动意义,若接不定式则 应用被动形式) stop to do 停止手中事,去做另一件事 stop doing 停止正在做的事
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remember/forget/regret to do(指动作尚 未发生) remember/forget/regret doing (指动作已 意义不同 经发生) try to do(设法,努力去做,尽力) try doing(试试去做,看有何结果)

go on to do(接着做另外一件 事) go on doing (接着做同一件事) mean to do(打算做,企图做) mean doing (意识是, 意味着)

can’t help to do(不能帮忙做) can’t help doing(忍不住要做) III.非谓语动词做宾语补足语的区别: 常见动词 ask, beg, expect, get, order, tell, want, wish, 不定式 encourage have, notice, see, watch, hear, feel, let, make 现在分词 notice, see, watch, hear, 过去分 词 IV. 非谓语动词做定语的区别: 区别 与被修饰词往往有动宾关系,一般式表示将 不定式 来,进行式表示与谓语动作同时发生,完成 式表示在谓语动词之前发生 动名词 举例 I have a lot of papers to type. I have a lot of papers to be typed. find, keep, have, feel 动宾关系。 动作已经完成,We found the village 多强调状态 greatly changed. 主谓关系。强调动作正在 I found her listening to 进行,尚未完成 the radio. 主谓关系。强调动作将发 I heard him call me 生或已经完成 several times. 与宾语的逻辑关系及时间 概念 例句

通常指被修饰词的用途,无逻辑上的任何关 Shall we go to the swimming 系 pool?

现在分 与被修饰词之间是主谓关系,表示动作与谓 the boiling water / the boiled water 词 语动作同时发生 the developing country/the developed country 过去分 与被修饰词之间是被动关系,表示动作发生 词 在谓语动作之前,现已经完成
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the falling leaves / the fallen leaves

V. 非谓语动词做主语和表语的区别: 区别 举例 My dream is to become a 多表示一个特定的具体的将来的动作,做主语时可 teacher. 不定 以借助于 it 把不定式移到句子后面。做表语有时可 To obey the law is important. 式 和主语交换位置,而且意义不变,并且还能用 what (dream, business, wish, idea, 来提问主语或表语。 plan, duty, task 做主语时常 用) 与不定式的功能区别不大,然而它更接近于名词, 动名 表示的动作比较抽象,或者泛指习惯性的动作,有 词 时也可以用 it 做形式主语,做表语时可以和主语互 换位置。 无名词的性质, 不能做主语。 但是有形容词的性质, 可以做表语,多表明主语的特征性质或者状态等, 可被 very, quite, rather 等副词修饰。 分词 现在分词多含有“令人…”之意,说明主语的性质特 征,多表示主动,主语多为物。过去分词一般表示 被动或主语所处的状态,含有“感到…”之意,主语 多是人。 九.定语从句 I. 定语从句起了形容词的作用,在句中修饰一个名词或代词。被修饰的词叫做先行词,引 导定语从句的词叫关系词,他的作用一是放在先行词与定语从句中间起了连接作用,二 是在从句中担当一个成分,并与先行词保持数的一致。 关系词 先行 词 人 从句成 分 主语 例句 Do you know the man who is talking with your mother? 备注 whom, which 和 that 在从句 It is no use saying that again and again. Teaching is my job.

The situation is encouraging. The book is well written. (常见分词有 astonishing, moving, tiring, disappointing, puzzling, shocking, boring, amusing 及其-ed 形式)

who 关系 代词 whom



宾语

Mr. Smith is the person with whom I am 中做宾语时, 常可以省略, working The boy (whom) she loved died in the war.. 但介词提前 时后面关系

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I like those books whose topics are whose 人,物 定语 about history. The boy whose father works abroad is my deskmate. 主语,宾 语 A plane is a machine that can fly. She is the pop star (that) I want to see very much. The book (which) I gave you was worth which 物 主语,宾 $10. 语 The picture which was about the accident was terrible. 主语,宾 语 He is such a person as is respected by all of us. This is the same pen as I lost yesterday. I will never forget the day when we met there.

代词不能省 略,也不可以 用 that

that

人,物

as

人,物

as 做宾语一 般不省略

when 关系 副词 where why

时间 地点 原因

时间状语

可用 on which 可用 in which

地点状语 This is the house where I was born. 原因状语

I can’t imagine the reason why he turned 可用 for down my offer. which

II. that 与 which, who, whom 的用法区别: 情况 1. 先行词为 all, everything, anything, nothing, little, much,等不定代词时。 2. 只用 that 的情 况 no, some, few 等修饰时 3. 先行词有形容词最高级和序数词修饰时 4. 先行词既指人又指物时 5.
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用法说明

例句 1.He told me everything that he knows. 2.All the books that you offered has been given out. ever read. 4.We talked about the persons and things that we remembered. 5.He is the only man that I want to see. 6.Who is the man that is making

先行词被 all, any, every, each, much, little, 3.This is the best film that I have

先行词被 the only, the very 修饰时 6. 句中已经有 who 或 which 时, 为了避免重 复时 1. 在非限制性定语从句中, 只能用 which 指 代物,用 who/whom 指人 只用 which, 2. who, whom 的 在由“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句 情况 中,只能用 which 指物,whom 指人。 3. 先行词本身是 that 时, 关系词用 which, 先 行词为 those, one, he 时多用 who。 III. as 与 which 的区别: 定语从 句 限制性 定语从 句中 区别

a speech?

He has a son, who has gone abroad for further study. I like the person to whom the teacher is talking. Those who respect others are usually respected by others.

例句 He is not such a fool as he looks. Don’t read such books as you can’t understand. They won the game, as we had expected. They won the game, which we hadn’t expected. As is well known, he is a famous film star in the 1980s.

名词前有 such 和 the same 修饰时, 关系 代词用 as,不能用 which

as 和 which 都可以指代前面整个主句。 非限制 性定语 从句中 如果有“正如,象”的含义,并可以放在 主句前,也可以放在后面,那么用 as; 而 which 引导的从句只能放主句后,并 无“正如”的意思。

IV. 限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别: 类别 限制性定语 从句 语法意义及特征 对先行词起修饰限制作用,如果去掉,主句 意思就不完整明确,这种从句与主句的关系 十分密切,写时不用逗号分开。 例句 The accident happened at the time when I left.

非限制性定 对先行词作附加的说明,与主句的关系不十 His mother, whom he loved 语从句 分密切,较松散。从句和主句之间用逗号分 deeply, died ten years ago.
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开,相当于一个插入语,不能用 that 引导, 关系代词做宾语时也不能省略。 十.名词性从句 种类 作用 在复合句中做主语, 相当于名 主语从 词,一般置谓语之前,也可用 句 it 作形式主语,主语从句放主 句之后 that, whether, if, as if, as though, who, 常用关联词 例句 Whether he will come or not doesn’t matter much. Whoever comes here will be welcome. It looks as if it is going to snow. He asked me which team could win the game. You have no idea how worried we are. The fact that he lied again greatly surprised us.

表语从 在复合句中做表语, 相当于名 whose, which, 句 词,位于系动词之后 how, when, 宾语从 在复合句中做宾语, 相当于名 where, why, what, 句 词 放在名词之后(news, problem, 同位语 idea, suggestion, advice, 从句 thought, hope, fact 等) 表明其 具体内容 十一。状语从句 种类 连接词 when, whenever, while, as, before, after, 时间状 语 until, till, by the time, as soon as, hardly…when, no sooner…than, the moment, the minute, immediately, directly, instantly 地点状 语 原因状 语 条件状 语 目的状 语 where, wherever whatever, whoever, wherever

注意点 主句表示将来意义时,从句须用一般 现在时;while 引导的从句中动词一 般是延续性的;until 用在肯定句中主 句动词是延续性的,而否定句中主句 动词为短暂性的。

because, as, since, now that if, unless, once, in case, as long as, on condition that so that, in order that, for fear that

because 语气最强,since 较弱,表示 大家都明了的原因,as 又次之。 从句中动词时态不可用将来时,常用 一般时代替 so that 和 in order that 后常接 may, should, could, would 等情态动词
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结果状 语 比较状 语 方式状 语

so…that, such…that than, as…as, not so/as…as, the more…the more as if, as though, as though, although, even if, even though, as, as if 和 as though 引导的从句一般用 虚拟语气。

让步状 语

no matter what, whatever, no matter who, whoever, no matter which, whichever, no matter how, however, no matter when, whenever

as 在让步状语从句中常用倒装形式; although 和 though 用正常语序,可和 yet 连用,但不可和 but 连用

十二。倒装句 种类 倒装条件 here, there, up, down, in, out, off, away 等 副词开头的句子表示强调 完全 倒装 表示地点的介词短语作状语位于句首 例句 Out rushed the children. Under the tree stood two tables and four chairs. Present at the meeting were 1,000 students. Hardly did I know what had happened. Only then did he realized the importance of English.

强调表语,置于句首,或为保持句子平衡 never, hardly, scarcely, seldom, little, not until, not 等表示否定意义的副词放于句首 only 和修饰的状语放于句首

部分 not only…but also 连接并列的句子,前倒 Not only does he know French, but also 倒装 后不倒 he is expert at it.

neither…nor…连接并列的句子, 前后都倒 Neither do I know it, nor do I care about 装 it.

so…that, such…that 中的 so 或 such 及修饰 So busy is he that he can not go on a 的成分放于句首时前倒后不倒 holiday.

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as 引导的让步状语 so, neither 或 nor 表示前句内容也适用于另 外的人或事。 用于表示祝愿的祈使句中 省略 if 的虚拟条件 十三。虚拟语气 类别 与现在事实 相反 用法

Child as he is, he has learned a lot. He can play the piano. So can i. May you be in good health! Were I you, I would not do it in this way.

例句 If he were here, he would help us.

从句动词:过去式(be 用 were) 主句动词:should/would/could/might+动 词原形 从句动词:had+过去分词

If 引导的 条件从句

与过去事实 相反

主句动词: should/would/could/might+have+过去分 词 从句动词:过去式 / should+动词原形 /

If I had been free, I would have visited you.

与将来事实 相反

were+不定式 主句动词:should/would/could/might+动 词原形

If it should rain tomorrow, we would not go camping. They are talking as if

as if 引导的状语从句中动词用过去式或过去完成式 其它状语 从句 in order that / so that 引导的状语从句中动词用 can / could / may / might / would 等+动词原形 demand, suggest, order, insist 后接的从句中动词为 should+动词原形 宾语从句 wish 后的从句中分别用过去式,过去完成式和

they had been friends for years. Turn on the light so that we can see it clearly. He suggested that we not change our mind. I wish I could be a

should/would+动词原形表示与现在, 过去和将来情况相 pop singer. 反 主语从句 在 It is necessary / important / strange that…, It is It is strange that such

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suggested / demanded / ordered / requested that… 等从句 a person should be 中,谓语动词用 should+动词原形 It is time that…句型中动词用过去式或 should+动词原形 our friends. It’s high time that we left.

其它句型 would rather 所接的从句中动词用过去式或者过去完成 I would rather you 中 式 stayed at home now.

If only 句型中动词常用过去式或者过去完成式, 表示强 If only our dream had 烈的愿望 come true!

初中英语重点词组 (一)由be构成的词组 1)be back/in/out 回来/在家/外出

2)be at home/work 在家/上班 3)be good at善于,擅长于=do well in 4)be careful of 当心,注意,仔细 5)be covered with 被……覆盖

6)be ready for 为……作好准备 7)be surprised (at) 对…感到惊讶 8)be interested in 9)be born 出生 10)be on 在进行,在上演,(灯)亮着 11)be able to do sth. 能够做……can do sth. 对…感兴趣

12) be afraid of害怕…… be afraid to do sth. 不敢做…… be afraid that…恐怕…… 13)be angry with sb. 生(某人)的气 14)be pleased (with) 对感到高兴(满意) 15)be famous(well-known) for 以……而著名
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16)be strict in sth./with sb. (对工作、对人)严格要求 17)be from 来自……=come from 18)be hungry/thirsty/tired 19)be worried 担忧 20)be (well) worth doing (非常)值得做…… 21)be in (great) need of (很)需要 22)be in trouble 处于困境中 23)be glad to do sth. 很高兴做…… 24)be late for ……迟到 25)be made of (from看不出原材料) 由……制成 26)be satisfied with 对…感到满意 27)be free 空闲的,有空=have time 28)be (ill) in bed 卧病在床 饿了/渴了/累了

29)be busy doing sth.忙于做…… be busy with sth. (忙于……) (二)由come、do、get、give、 go、have、help、keep、make、look、put、set、send、take、turn、play等动词构成词组 1)come back 回来

2)come down 下来 3)come in 进入,进来 4)come on 快,走吧 5)come out出来 6)come out of 从……出来 7)come up 上来 8)do one's lessons/homework 做功课 9)do more speaking/reading 多做口头练习/朗读 10)do/try one's best 尽力 11)do some shopping (cooking, reading, cleaning)买东西(做饭菜,读书,大扫除) 12)do morning exercises 13)do eye exercises 做早操

做眼保健操
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14)get up 起床 15)get everything ready 把一切准备好 16)get ready for (=be ready for) 为……作好准备

17)get on (well) with 与…相处(融洽) =get along … with 18)get back 返回 19)get rid of 除掉,去除 20)get in 进入,收集 21)get on/off 上/下车 22)get to 到达=arrive at/in=reach

23)get there 到达那里 24)give sb. a call 25)give a speech 给……打电话 作报告

26)give a lecture (a piano concert)作讲座(举行钢琴音乐会) 27)give back 归还,送回 28)give…some advice on 给…一些忠告 29)give lessons to 30)give in 屈服 31)give up 放弃 给……一次机会 给……上课

32)give sb. a chance

33)give a message to…给……一个口信 34)go ahead 先走,向前走,去吧,干吧 看电影

35)go to the cinema 36)go to bed

睡觉(make the bed 整理床铺)

37)go to school (college) 上学(上大学) 38)go to hospital 去医院看病

39)go over 过一遍,复习 40)go fishing /skating /swimming/shopping 去钩鱼/滑冰/游泳/买东西 41)go home (there) 回家去(去那儿) 42)go out for a walk 外出散步

43)go on (doing) 继续(做同一件事)
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44)go on with one's work 继续某人的工作 45)go upstairs/downstairs 46)(the lights) go out 上/下楼

(灯)熄了

47)have a lesson (lessons)/ )have a meeting 上课/开会 48)have a football match (basketball match) 举行一场足球(蓝球)赛 49)have a try 试一试 50)have a good/wonderful time 玩得很高兴=enjoy oneself 51)have a lecture (a piano concert)听讲座(听钢琴音乐会) 52)have a report (talk) on 听一个关于……的报告

53)have a glass of water (a cup of tea) 喝一杯水,(一杯茶) 54)have breakfast/lunch/supper 吃早饭/午饭/晚饭

55)have a meal (three meals) 吃一顿饭(三餐饭) 56)have a dinner 吃正餐 57)have bread and milk for breakfast 早饭吃面包和牛奶

58)have a headache = have got a headache 头痛 59)have a fever 发烧 60)have a cough (have a cold) 咳嗽(感冒) 61)have a look (at) 看一看…… 62)have a rest (a break) 休息一会儿(工间或课间休息) 63)have a talk 谈话 64)have a swim/walk 65)have sports 游泳/散步

进行体育锻炼

66)have a sports meeting开运动会 67)have something done让人(请人)做…… 68)have a test/an exam 测验/考试

69)have an idea 有了个主意 70)had better (not)do sth. 最好做……(最好不要做……) 71)help sb. with sth./ help sb. do sth. 在……方面帮助…… /帮助……做 72)help oneself to some chicken/fish/meat 73)help each other 互相帮助
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请随便吃点鸡/鱼/肉

74)keep up with

跟上……,不落后于…… 保持沉默/安静 使…一直做……

75)keep silent/quiet 76)keep sb. doing sth.

77)keep one's diary 记日记 78)make a noise (a lot of noise, much noise, noises)吵闹(十分嘈杂,响声) 79)make a living 谋生 80)make sb. do sth. 迫使某人做……

81)make faces (a face)做鬼脸 82)make friends (with)与……交朋友 83)make a mistake (mistakes)犯错误 84)make room/space for 给……腾出地方

85)make a sentence (sentences)with 用……造句 86)make a fire 生火 87)be made in 在……地方制造 88)look out of (outside) 往外看(看外面) 查字典

89)look up a word (in the dictionary) 90)look up 往上看,仰望

91)look after 照管,照看,照顾=take care of 92)look for 寻找 93)look like 看上去像 94)look fine/well/tired/worried 95)look out 当心,小心 看起来气色好/健康/疲劳/忧虑

96)look around 朝四周看 97)look at 看着……

98)put on 穿上(衣服),戴上(帽子),上演(戏剧) 99)put up 建造,搭起,挂起,举起,张帖 使进入,输入

100)put into

101)put one's heart into 全神贯注于 102)put…down… 把……放下 103)put…into… 把……译成
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104)regard …as… 105)set up

把…当作…看待

竖起,建起

106)set off 出发,动身 107)set out 出发 为……树立榜样

108)set an example to

109)send for 派人去请(叫) 110)send out 放出,发出

111)end up 把……往上送,发射 112)take one's advice 113)take out 听从某人劝告

拿出,取出

114)take down 拿下 115)take place 发生 116)take a walk/rest 散步/休息

117)take it easy 别紧张 118)take sth. with sb. 随身带着 带某人去伦敦度假

119)take sb. to London for one's holidays 120)take care of=look after

关心,照顾,保管 看一看(最后看一眼)

121)take a look (a last look) at 122)take an exam 参加考试

123)take away 拿走 124)take back 收回,带回

125)take hold of 抓住…… 126)take off 脱下(衣,帽,鞋等)拿掉

127)take (an active) part in (积极)参加(活动) =join in 128)take photos 拍照 服药 乘公共汽车/火车/船

129)take some medicine 130)take a bus/train/boat

131)turn on 开,旋开(电灯,收音机等) 132)turn off 关上(电灯,收音机等) 133)turn…into… 变成
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134)turn to

翻到,转向

135)turn down (把音量)调低 136)play basketball 打篮球,football 踢足球,volleyball 137)play games 做游戏 弹钢琴(拉小提琴) 打排球

138)play the piano (the violin) 139)play with snow 140)play a joke (on) 玩雪

对……开玩笑

(三)由其他动词构成的词组(1) 1)think over 仔细考虑 think about考虑 2)arrive at/in a place 3)eat up 吃完,吃光 到达某处

4)enjoy doing sth. /like doing sth. 喜欢做某事/喜欢干某事 5)find out 发现,查出(真相等)

6)finish off 结束, 吃完,喝完 7)stop doing sth. 8)stop to do sth. 停止做某事 停下来去做某事

9)hold a meting 举行会议 10)hold up 11)hurry up 举起 赶快,快点

12)enter for 报名参加 13)langht at 14)be used to 15)used to 嘲笑 习惯于

过去常常

16)wake…up 唤醒 17)work out 算出

(四) 动词词组(2) 1)ask for 向……要……,请求 2)ask for a leave 请假 3)pay for 付……的款 4)wait for 等候
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5)thanks for 为……感谢 6)apologize to sb. for sth. 为某事向某人道歉 7)leave…for 8)fall off 跌落 9)catch a cold 着凉,伤风 赶上 赞成,同意某人的意见 把……装满 告诉某人某 离开……去……

10)catch up with 11)agree with sb. 12)fill……with

13)tell sb. about sth.

14)talk about 谈论…… 15)worry about 担忧……

16)run after 追赶,跟在后面跑 17)read after 跟……读 18)smile at 19)knock at 对……微笑 敲(门、窗)

20)shout at 对……大喊(嚷) 21)throw away 扔掉 22)work hard at 努力做……

23)wait in line 排队等候 24)change…into… 25)hurry into… 26)run into… 变成

匆忙进入 跑进

27)hear of 听说 28)think of 认为,想起 29)catch hold of 抓住 30)instead of 代替…… 31)hand in 交上来 卧病在床 收到……来信

32)stay in bed 33)hear from

34)at once 立刻
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35)at last 36)at first

最后 起先,首先

37)at the age of… 在……岁时 38)at the end of… 在……结束的时候; 在……的尽头 在……之初

39)at the beginning of… 40)at the foot of…

在……脚下

41)at the same time 同时 42)at night/noon 43)with one's help 在夜里/中午 在某人的帮助下,由于某人的帮助 在……的帮助下

44)with the help of …

45)with a smile 面带笑容 46)with one's own eyes 亲眼看见

47)after a while 过了一会儿 48)from now on 从现在起

49)from then on 从那时起 50)for example 例如 51)far away from 远离 从早到晚

52)from morning till night 53)by and by 不久 54)by air mail

寄航空邮件 寄平信

55)by ordinary mail

56)by the way 顺便说 57)by the window 在窗边 58)by the end of… 59)little by little 60)in all 61)in fact 总共 事实上 在某人二十几岁时 到……末为止(时间)

逐渐地

62)in one's twenties 67)in a hurry 匆忙

68)in the middle of 在……中间
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69)in no time (in a minute) 立刻,很快 70)in time (on time) 及时(准时)

71)in public 公众,公开地 72)in order to 为了…… 73)in front of 在……前面 74)in the sun 在阳光下 75)in the end 最后,终于 76)in surprise 惊奇地 77)in turn 依次 78)of course 当然 79)a bit (of) 有一点儿

80)a lot of 许多 81)on one's way (to) 82)on foot 步行,走路 某人在去……的路上

83)a talk on space 一个关于太空的报告 84)on the other hand 85)at/on the weekend 86)on the left (right) 87)on the other side of 88)on the radio 另一方面 在周末 在左(右)边 在……另一边

通过收音机(无线电广播)

89)to one's joy 使……高兴的是 90)to one's surprise (五) 量词词组 1)a bit 一点儿 使…惊讶的是

2)a few 一些(可数),几个…… 3)a little 一些(不可数) 许多

4)a lot of (lots of)

5)a piece of 一张(一片,块) 6)a cup of 7)a glass of 一茶怀 一玻璃杯
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8)a pile of (piles and piles of) 9)a box of 10)a copy of 11)a bowl of 12)a basket of 13)a plate of 14)a bottle of 一盒 一份,一本 一碗 一篮 一盘 一瓶

一堆(一堆堆的)……

15)a basin of 一脸盆 16)a set of 一套 17)a kind of 一种 18)a type of 一种类型的 19)a great deal of 非常多,大量的(不可数名词)

20)a large (great) number of 非常多,大量的(可数复数) 21)a great many 大量,许多(可数名词复数) 22)a different type of 23)a group of (六)其他词组 1)all kinds of 各种各样的 一种不同型号的

一队,一组,一群

2)all over the world/the country 全世界/全国 3)all over 遍及每一部分,浑身 4)all one's life 一生 5)one after another 依次地 少年宫

6)the Children's Palace

7)day after day 日复一日 8)up and down 上上下下 9)the day after tomorrow 后天

10)the day before yesterday 前天 11)the last/past two years (or so) 最近两年(左右) 12)the whole country/the whole world 13)a moment ago 刚才
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全国/全世界

14)just now/then

刚才/那时

15)half an hour's walk步行半小时的路程 16)later on 过后,后来

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