[PREVIOUS] [NEXT] Part I Structure and Vocabulary Section A Directions:Beneath each of the following sentences, there are four choices marked
A,B,C and D.Choose the one that best completes the sentence. Mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET. (5 points) 1. He is off to Paris again tomorrow. He tells me that, with this journey, he _____ there and back twenty times. A.will be B.will have been C.will go D.will have gone 2. They _____ us willingly but that they happened to be short of hands, too. A.would help B.would have helped C.were going to help D.must have helped 3. _____ is mentioned in some of his stories, the author was brought up in a small village. A.It B.what C.That D.As 4. Most of _____ is on American television are programs designed to appeal to people who go into the supermarkets and buy the products that are advertised on TV. A.which B.that C.whatever D.what 5. The sailor replied in a tone as angrily as _____ , that he had lost his leg abroad in defence of those who did nothing at home. A.they B.them
C.their D.theirs 6. It is far better to do well a bit of work which is well _____ a large fortune. A.worthy to be done than have B.worth doing than to have C.worthwhile to do than have D.worthy of doing than have 7. The studies show that the driver who has consumed an amount of alcohol within the limit is _____ likely to have an automobile accident than the driver who does not take any alcohol. A.not so B.not much C.no less D.no more 8. A convenient way is to set the food on a piece of aluminum oil, _____ to the air for half an hour, and then cover it with a dish. A.let it stay open B.let it stay opened C.letting it stay open D.letting it stay opened 9. _____ for aches, pains and fever, Asprin is now the subject of multiple investigations of its role in treating many more serious complaints. A.Long used B.Being used long C.Having been long used D.It has long been used 10. The students were much encouraged _____ a chance to talk with the Americans in English. A.to get B.given C.to have got D.having got Section B Directions:Each of the following sentences has four underlined parts marked A,B,C and D. Identify the part of the sentence that is incorrect and mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET.(5 points) 11. The king made a promise which (A) he would (B) give the tailor both (C) half of his kingdom and his daughter, but none the tailor had (D) . 12. It is not so much (A) being exempt from faults but (B) having overcome (C) them that is advantage to us (D) .
13. Thus the young man of promise (A) broke not only the promises he had made (B) to himself and others, but what was the worse of all (C) , the heart of his aged father also (D) . 14. I shall finish (A) writing (B) my term paper by the time (C) you come back (D) next week. 15. There is frequently a great interval between knowing (A) how to solve (B) a problem and to get (C) the resources to solve (D) it. 16. A man's (A) dignity does not depend on (B) what (C) he has but (D) on what he is. 17. When (A) Edison died, it was proposed that the American people turned off (B) all power in their homes,streets, and factories for (C) several minutes in honor of (D) this great man. 18. Today, a university education is seen as (A) the right of (B) any capable student rather than the priviledge (C) of (D) the wealthy people. 19. It is time we started (A) to think seriously about the growing (B) shortage of raw materials in the world today and stop (C) this mad destruction of our environment by our throw away (D) society. 20. Metal, the early (A) form of money, can either (B) be exchanged for good, or to be made (C) into (D) tools, weapons or ornaments. Section C Directions:Beneath each of the following sentences, there are four choices marked A,B,C and D. Choose the one that best completes the sentence. Mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET.(10 points) 21. There is a direct flight at 2:00 in the afternoon or a flight at 9:30 in the morning that _____ in Chicago. A.stops by B.stops over C.pulls up D.drops in 22. Charles Ives's music was hardly popular with the broad public at the time it was written.The composer found it _____ impossible to his music performed. A.anything but B.nothing but C.none but D.all but 23. Possessing a car gives a much greater degree of _____ , enabling the driver to move around freely. A.travelling B.movement
C.mobility D.freedom 24. Memorization which does not include thinking and understanding _____ students being unable to use what has been learnt. A.results in B.centers on C.adjusts to D.refers to 25. Some people say that if the holder of chopsticks pushes them _____ his stomach to even them up instead of tapping them on the table, the chances are he is a coolie. A.on B.against C.at D.to 26. Children going to school must have a chance to _____ excess physical energy; children even more than adults require and enjoy physical exercise and games of all kinds. A.work off B.let off C.play off D.put off 27. Tests have proved that caffeine affects the body by increasing the heart rate and rhythm, which _____ affects the circulatory system. A.in the long run B.in turn C.in return D.as a result 28. Both men and women, nine times out of ten,are firmly _____ of the superior excellence of their own sex. A.asserted B.ensured C.convinced D.conceived 29. Children between the age of 2 and 11 cannot comprehend the difference between commercials and television, so they cannot defend themselves against the _____ techniques of commercial television advertising. A.persuasive B.advisable C.irresistible D.appealing
30. During the 1990s world oil production will approach geological estimates of maximum production _____ , even with rapidly increasing petroleum prices. A.capability B.quota C.potentiality D.capacity 31. It would be very difficult for a library to be without dictionaries and encyclopedea; such reference books are _____ . A.unavoidable B.inevitable C.indispensible D.fundamental 32. To remain competitive in the international market place, U.S. industries have recognized that they must attract the brightest, most _____ young people available. A.committed B.dedicated C.determined D.contributed 33. However dull work may be, it becomes bearable if it is a means of building up _____ , whether in the world at large or only in one's own circle. A.admiration B.vanity C.honour D.reputation 34. Job applicants often developed the suspicion that _____ are set aside for friends and relatives and that advertisements are only put out to avoid this accusation. A.positions B.vacancies C.occupations D.posts 35. But people who read hour after hour or work where the eyes are kept steadily at one focus soon may come to need glasses to correct their _____ . A.vision B.view C.visibility D.perception 36. Anyone who has ridden on a railroad train knows how rapidly another train flashes by when it is travelling in the opposite direction and _____ how it may look almost motionless when it is moving in the same direction. A.meanwhile
B.accordingly C.likewise D.conversely 37. Manufacturing is Canada's most important economic activity. It _____ more than half the value of all Canadian production. A.accounts for B.amounts to C.takes up D.turns out 38. Tests reveal that mother's heartbeat can have a calming effect on the infant. Those who were _____ the heartbeat recording fell asleep in half the time it took for those who were not. A.left to B.exposed to C.faced with D.trusted with 39. Picture what happens when a father _____ his child into the air. The child will probably laugh, enjoying the game. A.casts B.pitches C.tosses D.elevates 40. Once a lighthouse is built, no ship of any nationality can be effectively _____ from the utilization of the lighthouse for navigational purposes. A.isolated B.dismissed C.distracted D.excluded Part II Cloze Test Directions:For each numbered blank in the following passage,there are four choices labelled A,B,C and D.Choose the best one and put your choice on the ANSWER SHEET.(10 points) The Civil War occupies a unique position in American history.No event,not even the Revolution,holds 41 place in the national 42 .Its battles were the bloodiest 43 fought on American soil,and its people were at once the most human and 44 of our heroes.The history of the war includes stories of recruitment,war industries,supplies,military leadership,politics,diplomacy,and civilian morale.It is really not one tale 45 many separate histories,each complex and elusive. The Civil War can,however,be 46 to human scale by the very soldiers who fought in it. 47 had his own history,personal experiences,that reflected in some 48 the larger forces of the war.Although most soldiers left no record of their thoughts and activities 49 the brief notice
received in troop lists,casualty reports,and other public records,some wrote diaries and letters that allow us to observe 50 their personal histories.
41.A.any high 42.A.regard 43.A.one 44.A.decisive 45.A.and 46.A.declined 47.A.One 48.A.mode 49.A.between 50.A.closely
B.a high B.response B.once B.confidential B.or B.reduced B.Each B.model B.beneath B.carefully
C.a higher C.reward C.before C.impartial C.but C.extended C.All C.style C.behind C.privately
D.the highest D.registration D.ever D.resourceful D.with D.expanded D.The soldier D.fashion D.beyond D.intimately
Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension Directions:Each of the passages below is followed by some questions.For each question there are four answers marked A,B,C and D.Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each of the questions.Then mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET.(40 points) Passage 1 Who was to blame for starting the Cold War?For nearly a generation after World War II,American historians generally agreed that the suspicious and grasping Soviets were almost solely responsible.This"Orthodox"(正统的)appraisal fitted comfortably with the traditional view of the United States as a God-blessed land with an idealistic foreign policy.But in the 1960s another interpretation began to flower,powerfully reinforced by an objection against what Americans were doing in Vietnam.People who held this view attempted to reverse the orthodox view.They argued that the Soviets had understandably defensive intentions at the end of World War II and that the United States had behaved aggressively and irresponsibly.Some of these critics pointed an accusing finger at Truman.They declared that he had abandoned Roosevelt's conciliatory(调和的)approach and adopted a bulling attitude,emboldened by American's atomic monopoly.The more radical of those people like the Kolkos found the roots of American aggression before Truman's time in long standing policies of economic expansion. In the 1970s a"neoorthodox"interpretation emerged.Historians of this school,like John L.Gaddis,still place most of the blame for the Cold War on the Soviet Union,but they admit that American policies helped worsen the conflict.They also note how the constraints of domestic politics and the miscalculations of American leaders led a nation in search of international security into dangerous Cold War. This historical debate over the origins of the Cold War has compelled the recognition that the United States did have vital interests at stake in postwar diplomacy,and that policymakers pursued those interests with eagerness.But is self-interest necessarily immoral?Is security a one-way street? Can the blame ever be exclusively with one side in a complex international dispute? 51. People of the"orthodox"view placed blame for starting the Cold War on the Soviet Union because _____ .
A.they didn't want America to take sole responsibility B.they supported America in its foreign policy in Vietnam C.they believed that America was always right in its foreign policy D.they could find peace of mind in such a belief 52. By saying that"people who held this view attempted to reverse the orthodox view"(the fifth sentence in paragraph 1),the author means that those people _____ . A.didn't quite agree to the "orthodox"view B.held an opposite view to the"orthodox"one C.considered the"orthodox"view unworthy of notice D.were faithful supporters of the Soviet foreign policies 53. The"neoorthodox"view held that _____ should take responsibility for the Cold War. A.the Soviet Union B.the United States C.neither of those two countries D.both of those two countries 54. In the last paragraph,the author seems to imply that _____ . A.the Soviet Union should take sole responsibility B.the United States should take sole responsibility C.the Cold War wasn't started on one side only D.neither side started the Cold War Passage 2 Does the evidence that the left and right sides of the brain differ somewhat in function have implications for personality differences?There is research indicating that the right hemisphere is linked to negative emotions,to spatial or imagery processing,and to thinking of pure melodies,while the left hemisphere is linked to verbal and mathematical thought and positive emotions.Is it possible that each half of the brain reflects two basic but different dimensions of human capacity?Are some personality differences that involve consistent styles of information processing of reflective thought correlated with a greater activation of the left and right hemispheres? Adults who differ in their initial encoding styles also demonstrate brain wave patterns or eye movement differences that suggest they "favor"one or another hemisphere of the brain during reflective thought.An approach to studying such differences has emerged by examining the direction in which people shift their eyes when trying to reflect on a question or to recall information.Anatomically(从解剖学上来说)the neural pathway from the left eye goes to the right hemisphere of the brain and from the right eye to the left hemisphere.Since our eyes normally shift together,it has been shown that the stimulation of the right brain hemisphere leads to a shift of the eyes to the left and,correspondingly,left hemisphere stimulation shifts the eyes to the right. Studies of persons who show consistent left or right eye shifts when engaged in reflective thought do offer some support for the views.Right shifters(that is,those whose left brain are
most active)are more analytic in perceptual performance and score higher on measures of verbal concept formation,mathematics scores,and measures of mathematical,scientific,or theoretical interests.Left shifters are more imagery oriented,more inclined to daydream,more creative and aesthetically oriented.Left and right shifters even differ in where they prefer to sit in college lecture halls,with left shifters sitting on the right side and right shifters to the left of the center. 55. The idea that the left and right sides of the brain differ somewhat in function _____ . A.is proved to be unfounded B.has consistent evidence to support itself C.is proved to be true in some cases D.lacks biological evidence 56. Mathematical problem solving activity corresponds to an increase in the activation _____ . A.in the left side of the brain B.in the right side of the brain C.in both sides of the brain D.first in the left and then in the right side 57. According to the findings,a student who often sits on the left side of a lecture hall _____ . A.belongs to the analytical thinking type B.often daydreams in the classroom C.is not capable of creative thinking D.is relatively more imaginative 58. It is proved that _____ . A.different styles of information processing has no effect on people's personality B.differences in personality have something to do with people's problem solving styles C.left shifters are usually the worst students in a class D.right shifters are often the trouble makers in a society Passage 3 John Harold Drake is a man of deep compassion, and has written a book that argues for the cause of children in need of love."Children, Little Children"is an honest book, showing great concern and dissatisfaction with the care for children. The difficult trick of living inside another person's mind and being able to put your reader inside that same mind, is a capability held only by writers of exceptional skill and talent. Mr. Drake has approached the problem by making a 10 year old boy his central character. The boy does not for a moment come across as a real child. Irresponsible parents abandoned him, his grandfather disliked him, he took everything literally, and begged everyone for love. Bret is being used to make a point. His ideas are too poetic, his response too direct, and the contrasts of good and evil too simplistic for real life. He is being manipulated by someone behind the scenery
trying to tell us something. For fifteen years the authors has been dealing with people with psychological trouble at the V.I.T. Neuropsychiatric Institute. He has actively been involved in this field at other institutions for a quarter of a century. This book is a form of acting out, through the character, Bret, the pain of a rejected child. If one understands the book in those terms, one may be willing to believe the imaginary story. If viewed in this light, the exaggerated movements and reactions of the characters became less unbelievable and therefore more meaningful. The excessively poetic passages of description and emotion, seen as stage flats made more colorful than nature in order to look real from afar, are acceptable in a drama wherea they are irritating in a novel. The one sided characterizations insane father, immature mother, mean old grandmother, selfish aunt, cruel neighbours, and totally misunderstood Bret are figures moving across a lit stage to dramatize a message. The true to life ending, without resolution or growth or development, might work on a stage, however, it is contrary to everything a novel should do. Calling the book a novel is the publisher's mistake, the work is more nearly a drama. Perhaps it is one of Mr Drake's psychodramas in print and should so be judged. 59. The author of the passage feels that _____ . A.Mr. Drke's character, Bret, is too unrealistic B.the central character should not be manipulated C.the message conveyed by the characterization is important D.Mr. Drake is not good at writing novels 60. It seems that _____ . A.Bret isn't created for the stage B.Bret is surrounded by a hostile environment C.Bret is too simple minded to be liked by anyone D.Bret himself is indifferent to his environment 61. Mr. Drake _____ . A.is using his book to send a message to people B.does not like his character himself C.does not have a pleasant experience as a child D.is too impersonal in writing the story 62. This passage is most likely to be _____ . A.a drama review B.a novel review C.a comment on lack of parental love or children D.a comment on story writing styles Passage 4 Public officials and candidates for public office routinely use public opinion polls to keep track of what the people are thinking.An important question is the degree to which these polls should guide leaders in their actions.There are arguments for and against the use of polls as
the basis for policy decisions. Polls can contribute to effective government by keeping political leaders from getting too far out of line with the public's thinking.In a democratic society,the effectiveness of a public policy often depends on the extent of its public support.When a policy is contrary to the public's desires,people may choose to disregard or undermine it,thus making it counterproductive or inefficient.Further,when government pursues a course of action with which a large proportion of the public disagrees,it risks a loss of public confidence,which can have a negative effect on its ability to lead.The Reagan administration,flying high from 1981 to 1985, was brought low in 1986 by public reaction to news of its secret sales of weapons to Iran.The administration had not paid sufficient attention to polls that revealed the deep antagonism Americans still felt toward Iran because the Ayatollah Khomeini's regime had held sixty three American hostages(人 质)in 1979 1981. However,leaders can also do a disservice to the public they represent by using poll results as a substitute for policy judgment."Effective government",as Walter Lippmann wrote,"cannot be conducted by legislators and officials who, when a question is presented,ask themselves first and last not what is the truth and which is the right and necessary course, but What does the Gallup Poll say?" During his presidential term,Jimmy Carter proposed five consecutive inflation fighting programs,changing his plans with each shift in public sentiment without having invested the political capital necessary to get Congress and the country behind any of the efforts .The nation and Carter would probably have been better served by a steadfast commitment to a single course of action. 63. The main idea of the second paragraph is that _____ . A.Reagan lost a lot of support later in his administration B.leaders should learn to win support for their policies C.it is up to the leaders to determine the value of public opinion D.public opinion polls are very important to a democratic society 64. What Walter Lippmann means is that _____ . A.some government leaders can never run the government effectively B.in solving any problem,leaders should first try to find out the public opinion on it C.good leaders should learn to disregard public opinion in policy making D.leaders should take effective decisions based on sound judgment and act on them with determination 65. The Carter example shows that for a leader _____ . A.rational judgment is important in face of unfavorable public opinion B.public opinion is all the more important in difficult time C.it is advisable to ignore public opinion in handling bad economic situations D.it is important to be on good terms with both the Congress and the public 66. Which of the following statements best expresses the main idea of the passage? A.Country leaders should be ready to yield to public opinion. B.Public opinions should be carefully used in policy making.
C.Governmental policies should be made in line with public thinking. D.Public polls are useless unless they are used for policy making. Passage 5 The transplantation of functioning human immune systems into mice was reported by two California research teams in September 1988.The mice should have many important uses in medical science,such as enabling researchers to test treatments against a number of diseases and to study the effects of infectious microorganisms-including the AIDS virus-on the human immune system. Both research groups-at the Medical Biology Institute in La Jolla and at Standford University-started with a special strain of mice that are without an immune system.The La Jolla scientists injected the mice with human B cells and T cells,white blood cells that are major components of the immune system.The cells reproduced in the mice's bodies and migrated throughout the animals'circulatory systems. The Stanford researchers implanted human fetal lival tissues,thymus gland tissues,and lymph nodes,into the mice.In the mice' bodies,the liver cells produced stem cells,which develop into the various kinds of blood cells.The implanted tissues converted the stem cells into B cells and T cells. The mice with immune system transplants by both research teams were fully protected against infectious disease.Ordinarily,mice of the strain used by the scientists die soon after birth unless they are kept in a sterile(无菌的)environment. 67. The purpose of the researches in those two universities was to _____ . A.use mouse blood to treat many diseases B.use human blood to cure sick mice C.find out how human immune system might be affected D.find out if human immune system was similar to that of mice 68. The two researchers were similar in that both research groups _____ . A.had the same objective to their researches B.used the same procedures in their researches C.injected the same kind of blood cells into the mice D.used the same experimental instrument in their work 69. Finally the two researches _____ . A.had quite different findings B.got similar findings C.failed since the mice soon died D.had no particular results 70. Comparedwith Standford University researchers,those in the other university _____ . A.experimented with fewer kinds of blood cells B.used a less advanced method C.employed a more direct method D.got less convincing results
Part IV English Chinese Translation Directions:Read the following passage carefully and then translate the underlined sentences into Chinese.(15 points) Immediately after the Civil War,however,the diet began to change.(71) Rail transportation increased the supply and improved the quality of the milk that reached urban centers;cold storage and refrigerator cars made possible the greater consumption of fresh vegetables,fresh fruits,and fresh fish;and commercial canning extended the range of appetizing and healthful foods. Subsequently food statistics indicated an increased consumption of dairy products,fresh fruit,fresh vegetables,sugar and syrups,coffee,tea,cocoa,and spices.Decreased consumption was shown for meats,potatoes,and grain products. (72) By and large,the American diet continued to reflect a considerable reliance upon animal products,rather than on grains,which meant that a relatively large acreage was required to feed the American pulblic. Whereas a grain and fish diet,such as in Japan,requires only a quarter of an acre high yield cropland and no pasture per capita,the American diet requires about two and a half acres of cropland and ten acres of pasture per capita.Also it indicated a shift toward the so called protective foods,toward those high in vitamins and proteins.(73) This change was greatly furthered by governmental food inspection(the Pure Food and Drug Act was passed in 1906),by the increasing use of mechanical refrigerators in the 1920's and 1930's and of freezers for frozen food during recent decades. In the years after World War I a food revolution took place that was reminiscent of the one that occured after the Civil War.The output of the food manufacturing industry quadrupled from 1900 to 1940.(74) In that interval,as we have mentioned earlier,home canning gave way to commercial canning,and the labor of housekeeping was lightened. Fortunately most of the major dietary changes that have taken place since the middle of the nineteenth century have resulted in better nutrition for the population.In part,these shifts have taken place because of a preference for new foods rather than old,but in part,they have been made because the new foods were advocated by nutritionists.Apparently American dietary customs were not so deeply ingrained as to prevent change in the interests of better health.(75) Possibly one factor that has contributed to the readiness of Americans to accept new foods or food preparations is the general familiarity most have with a variety of regional dishes coming from many different lands. Within a small area in New York City or San Francisco,one can find restaurants specializing in French,Italian,German,Turkish,Arabian,or Chinese cuisine.And at a Chinese resturant in the United States the chef and waiter are as likely as not to be Oriental. Part V Writing(15 points) Directions: A.Title:AGED PEOPLE TEND TO LIVE ALONE B.Time Limit:40 minutes C.Word limit:no less than 150 words (not including the given sentence) D.Your composition should be based on the OUTLINE below and should end the first paragraph with the given sentence:Why do aged people tend to live alone? E.Your composition must be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. OUTLINE: 1.Present situation
2.Possible reasons 3.My comment
研究生入学考试模拟英语试题讲评: [词汇与结构] [完型填空] [阅读理解] [英译汉] [写作]
Part I Structure and Vocabulary Section A 1. (B) "他明天去巴黎,加上这次,他就去了 20 次了."根据句意,应用将来完成时态.句中有 back 一词,故选 D 不合适. 2. (B) 此句是含蓄虚拟语气句,含蓄虚拟条件为:if they hadn't happened to be short of hands,….故 应选 B. 3. (D) As 在句子中是关系代词,引导非限定性定语从句,其先行词是整个主句.which 也具备这种语 法作用, 但只能放在主句之后; as 既可置于主句前, 而 插入主句中, 又可置于主句后. 请参见 1995 年考研试题(8),1993 年考题(26). 4. (D) what 引导名词从句,起名词作用,做介词宾语.句意为:"美国电视中大部分节目都是用来吸 引人们去超市买那些在电视上做广告的产品." 5. 6. (A) 选 they, 因为后面是一个省略了的句子…as angrily as they(replied). 从句是 replied 的宾语. that (B) to have a large fortune 与 to do well a bit of work…是并列不定式. 另外, worth, worthy, worthwhile 在用法上的区别是:1)worth 是介词,后接动名词或名词,形成介词短语.接动名词时,与主语是 动宾关系,其形式是主动的,意义是被动的.如:The book is worth reading.2)worthy 是形容词, 置于 be 动词后或名词后面, 做后位修饰语, 其结构是: worthy of doing sth., be worthy to be done. be 3)worthwhile 是形容词, 要与形式主语 it 并用: is worthwhile to read the book.worth 和 worthy 都 It 不能用于这种结构. 7. (D) no more…than…,"不比……更……".此句意为:"研究表明:喝了酒但不过量的司机可能出 车祸,不喝酒的司机也同样可能出车祸." 8. (C) 分词做伴随情况状语,形容词 open 在短语中做补语,表示状态,不用过去分词.所以 D 不正 确. 9. (A) B 和 C 之所以错, 主要是由于 long 的位置不对, 应为: Being long used; Having long been B: C: used.句子前半部分是状语,故 D 也不对.由此可见 A 是唯一可接受的选择. 10. (C) 句中不定式表示原因:"学生们有机会与美国人用英语交谈,很受鼓舞."所以应用不定式完 成式.如果句子用的是一般现在时 are,那么选 A 是对的. Section B 11. (A)错 应将 which 改成 that,that 从句是 promise 的同位语,不能用 which 引导. 12. (B)错 应改成:as.此句用的是 not so much…as 结构. 13. (C)错 worse 是比较级形式,所以应接 than all.
14. (A)错 应改成将来完成式:shall have finished,表示"到下周你回来时我已经完成了学期论文".请 参见 1994 年考题(1). 15. (C)错 应改成:getting,从意义上讲应与 knowing 并列,而不是同 to solve 并列. 16. (B)错 应改成:…depends not on,构成并列结构:…not on…but on…. 17. (B)错 应改成:turn off,表示虚拟. 18. (C)错 应改成: the priviledge, as 在并列或比较结构中, 介词一般不省略. 请参见 1993 年考题(68). 19. (C)错 应用过去式 stopped 表示虚拟,在句中与 started 并列. 20. (C)错 应改成:be made,因为是…can neither be exchanged… nor be made…. Section C 21. (B) stop over,"中途暂短停留";stop by,"顺便访问";pull up,"(使)停下";drop in,"非正式访问", "顺便来访",也可以说 drop by,drop in on sb.,drop over. 22. (D) all but,"几乎","差一点";anything but,"根本不";none but,"只有";nothing but,"只不过", "只有(指物)". 23. (C) mobility:able to be moved easily,"随时可以移动";travelling,"旅行","移动",本句指可移 动性,故 travelling 不甚准确;movement,"移动","运动";freedom,"自由",与句中后半部分的 freely 重复,也不合适.所以 C 为最佳选择. 24. (A) result in,"结果是","导致";center on,"以……为中心";adujst to,"调整";refer to,"指的是". 25. (B) against 此处的意思是:"挨","靠","依",其他几个介词都不能用在本句中. 26. (A) work off,"排除","消除",如:He usually works off his drowsiness by taking a brisk walk."他经 常用轻快的散步来消除瞌睡."let off,"放(炮)","免除(责任,任务)";play off,"假装","冒充", "再赛以决定胜负";put off,"推迟". 27. (B) in turn,"反过来";in the long run,"从长远观点看";as a result,"结果";in return,"作为回报". 本句讲的是咖啡因使心率加快,而心率加快又会影响循环系统疾病,谈论"心率和循环系统疾病的 关系及相互作用",不仅仅是结果,所以 B 是最佳选择. 28. (C) convince sb. of sth.,"使某人确信某事";assert,"断言","宣称",不用 assert sb. of sth.这一结 构;ensure"保证","确保";conceive of,"想象","构思". 29. (A) persuasive,"劝导性的","劝诱性的";advisible,"适当的","可取的";irresistible,"无法抵 制的","不可抗拒的",这个词不能用来修饰 technique,语义上不通;appealing,"有感染力的", "吸引人的",不是 technique of advertising 本身是否吸引人,而是说它的"劝诱性"吸引人,使得人 们相信它说的是事实而去买广告上宣传的产品.所以选 A 为最佳.
30. (D) capacity,"能力","能量",通常用来指 production capacity(生产能力),seating capacity(观众容 纳量), carrying capacity(承载量), transportation capacity(运输能力); capability: power of doing things, "本领", "才能", national defense capabilities(国防能力). capacity 和 capability 在翻译时都可译成"能 力",但 capacity 指生产能力或容纳能力,用于人指接受能力或理解能力;capability 用于人指智力 方面的潜在力量或天赋,用于物指可能性或适应性.potentiality,"潜力";quota,"定额". 31. (C) indispensible,"必不可少的";unavoidable,inevitable,"不可避免的";fundamental,"基本的". 32. (B) dedicated,"具有奉献精神的",与 devoted 同义;committed 也有"奉献","献身"的意思,但一 般习惯上做定语修饰 people;determined,"确定了的","坚决的";contributed,"所贡献的",用在 句中均不合适. 33. (D) reputation,"名声";admiration,"羡慕",不说 build up admiration;vanity,"虚荣",也不能与 build up 搭配使用; honor,"名誉","光荣".admiration,vanity,honor 都不是"建立"起来的.secure admiration, "获得赞美", invite admiration, "引起羡慕", win admiration, "赢得赞美"; achieve(gain, attain)honor,"获得荣誉";gralify(flatter)vanity,"满足(迎合)……虚荣心". 34. (B) job vacancy,"职位空缺";position,"位置","职位","职务";occupation"职业","工作";post, "岗位". 35. (A) vision, "视力", "视觉"; view, "景象", "观点", "眼界"; visibility, "可见性", "显性"; perception, "感觉","洞察力","理解力". 36. (D) conversely,"相反地";meanwhile,"同时";accordingly,"相应地","从而";likewise,"同样". 表示 train flash by 和 motionless 的对比,应用 D. 37. (A) account for,"说明(原因)","(数量上)占".如:The hilly area accounts for a third of the county's cultivated land."丘陵地占该县耕地面积的三分之一."take up,"占(空间,时间)";turn out,"生产", "结果是(to be)";amount to,"相当于","合计".manufacturing amounts to…语义上不合适. 38. (B) be exposed to,"暴露于……","面临","处于……情况(条件)下";be left to sb.,"留给……照 管",be left to do sth.,"剩下……做……";be faced with,"面临";be trusted with,"委托……办". 39. (C) toss 可指"往上抛";cast,"往下撒";pitch,"投","掷";elevate,"升高","上升","抬起"; 40. (D) excluded,"被排除在外";isolated,"被孤立";dismissed, "被开除";distracted,"被分散(注 意力)". Part Ⅱ Cloze Test 短文大意: 短文大意:美国内战(即南北战争)在美国历史上有着独特的地位.这场规模宏大的战争的历史,实际上是 由许许多多独立的个人历史组成的.这些士兵们的个人经历使我们有可能理解南北战争的恢弘画卷.虽然 大多数士兵未留下记录自己言行的只言片语,但有一些人写过日记和家书,使我们能够详细了解他们的个 人历史. 段首句译文:"南北战争在美国历史上有着独特的地位."
41. (C) a higher 紧接段首句,本句具体解释南北战争的"独特地位"--在国民心目中占有最高地位.英语中常以比较 级的否定句来表示最高级的意思,C.a higher 符合文意.如选 A.any high places, B.a high place 或 D.the highest place,则把包括独立战争(the Revolution)在内的一切事件全部否定,不合逻辑,故 A, B,D 均不正确. 42. (A) regard A.regard 意为:"重视","关心","敬重","敬意",在此符合文意.B.response(反应),C.reward(奖 赏),D.registration(登记,注册)均不合题意. 译文:"没有任何事件,甚至独立革命,在国民的心目中占有比它更高的地位." 43. (D) ever 本句动词 fought 是修饰 battles 的过去分词,不能再有主语,故排除 A.one.C.before 做副词时只能 放在动词后面,故排除 C.B.once 与 D.ever 都是副词,但因有最高级形容词 bloodest,故只有 ever 符合文意. 44. (D) resourceful A.decisive(决定性的)一般不用于描写人;B.confidential(保密的,机密的),C.impartial (公正的,不 偏袒的)在此与文意不符也应排除.D.resourceful 意为:"机智的","办法多的",为正确选择. 译文:"它是在美国本土上进行过的伤亡最惨重的战斗,参战的英雄们是最有人情味同时又是最机 智的." 选项用法举例: decisive battle, a "决定性的一仗"; decisive victory, a "决定性的胜利"; decisive factor, "决定因素"; confidential meeting, a "秘密会议"; confidential information, "机密情报"; confidential a secretary,"机要秘书". 45. (C) but C.but 在这里是"而是"的意思,符合文意.A.and 表示"一个及多个故事",B.or 表示"一个或多个 故事",D.with 表示"一个含有多个故事的故事",故 A,B,D 均不合文意. 译文:"这场战争的历史包含着关于招募新兵,战争工业,战时供应,军事领袖,政治,外交及民 众士气等许多故事.它其实不是一个故事,而是许多独立的故事,每一个都很复杂,扑朔迷离." 46. (B) reduced A.declined 作"缩小","减少"解时为不及物动词,没有被动用法,可从语法角度排除.过渡词 however 提示本句与上句应为逻辑转折关系,C.extended(延长,延伸)和 D.expanded(扩大,扩展) 都不合逻辑,应予排除.只有 B.reduced(缩小,减少)既符合逻辑又符合语法要求,是正确答案. 译文:"然而,可以根据战争中那些士兵的经历把南北战争缩小到人们能理解的程度." 47. (B) Each 本句主语指上文提到的 soldiers,代词 his 表明主语应为单数,故 C.All 可以排除.A.One 指"某一 个",D.The soldier 指"那一个士兵",均不合逻辑,也应排除.只有 B.Each 表达了"所有士兵中的 每一个"这层意思,符合逻辑. 48. (D) fashion 本题四个选项为同义词, 都有"方式", "式样"的意思, 但只有 D.fashion 常用于较抽象的意义. some in fashion 等于 in some way,故 D 为正确答案.A.mode 通常强调"方法","作法","形式","种类"; B.model 特指"样式","款式","模型",且通常用于介词 on 或 after 之后;C.style 也有"方式"的意
思,但主要指"流行样式","(与题材相对的)写作方式(文体)","建筑(服装等)的样式(款式)",故 A, B,C 都不合适.译文:"他们每人都有自己的历史,自己的亲身经历,这些个人经历以某种方式 反映了战争中更伟大的力量." 选项用法举例:adopt a new mode of action,"采取新的行动方式";the mode of thinking,"思想方 式";His mode of business is offensive to me."他做生意的方式使我反感."Automobiles are a popular mode of transportation."汽车是一种普及的交通工具."live after foreign models,"按外国方式生活"; build a house on the model of a country villa,"照乡村别墅的样式建房";the style of the 30's,"30 年 代的流行式样";He changed his style of painting."他改变了画风."What style of furniture do you like?"你喜欢什么式样的家具?"They lived in European style."他们按欧洲方式生活."He lived in an expensive fashion."他过着奢华的生活."She speaks in a strange fashion."她说话的样子很怪." 49. (D) beyond D.beyond 意为:"(程度上)超出,越过",在含疑问或否定意义的结构中有"除……以外"的意思,符 合文意.A. between,B. beneath,C. behind 在此都不适用. 译文:"虽然大多数士兵除了他们在部队名单,伤亡报告及其他公开文件中受到人们短暂的注意外 没有留下有关自己思想和活动的任何记录,但有些人写过日记和私信,从而使我们能够详细了解 他们的个人历史." 50. (A) closely 虽然 closely 和 carefully 都可译成"仔细地",但 A.closely 有"近距离地","详细地"等含义,而 B.carefully 主要指"谨慎地","小心地",C.privately(私下里)和 D.intimately (亲近地,熟悉地)都不 合文意.从上下文看,只有 A 符合文意.
Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension 51. (C) 第一段第二,三句指出,在 50 年代中期,英国历史学家普遍认为苏联应对冷战的开端负全部 责任,因为它既多疑又贪婪(suspicious and grasping).这种观点与人们对美国的传统看法极相一致 (fit comfortably with).D 意为:"这种看法给他们以心理平静". 52. (B) 本句中 reverse 意为:"颠倒".第一段第四句指出,在 60 年代,另一种观点开始流行(flower). 他们认为,战后的苏联理所当然地(understandably)产生了一种防御意图,因为美国人表现得盛气 凌人,做事毫无顾忌(behaved aggressively and irresponsibly).它由于独有原子弹的威慑力(atomic monopoly),便放弃了罗斯福总统时代协调式外交政策而恃强欺弱(bullying attitude).可见,这种看 法与所谓"正统"的观点截然相反.C 意为:"认为对'正统'的观点不屑一顾". 53. (D) 第二段说明了"新正统"观点.该观点仍认为冷战主要应由苏联一方负责,但同时承认美国的 对外政策也加剧了冲突.美国本来是想寻求国际安全的,但由于其对内政策的限制(constraints)及 其领导人的错误估计(miscalculation),结果使国家陷入了危险的冷战. 54. (C) 最后一段指出,有关冷战起源的历史争议也使人不得不承认:在战后外交中,美国也要维护 其切身利益,而政策制定者在谋求这些利益时表现得过急(with eagerness).最后,作者用几个反问 表明了自己的观点:追求自身利益是不是不道德呢?安全的维护是单方面的(oneway street 意为: "单行道")吗?在复杂的国际争端中,是否受责备的仅是一方呢?
55. (B) B 意为:"有一致的证据,证明".本文提到了生理学,解剖学,实验心理学等方面的研究结果, 证明大脑的两半球有不同功能.A 意为:"证明是无道理的". 56. (A) 参考第一段第二句与第三段第二句.这两句均指出,左脑与分析能力,数学能力,语言能力 等有关.换言之,在进行这些方面的活动时,左脑更活跃. 57. (A) 文章最后一句提到另一个证据.常坐教室左边座位的人被称作"向右转眼者(rightshifters)", 而第三段第二句指出:这些人在知觉活动中表现出更强的分析能力,他们在语言-概念的组合,数 学以及与数学,科学和理论相关的测试中能获得更高的分(score higher). 58. (B) 这是本文旨在说明的问题. 文章第一句就开门见山地提出了这一问题(本句中 implication 意为: "意义").文章从几方面的研究说明了左右脑的功能与人的思维方式,认识方式,情感和习惯等个 性特征(personality)紧密相关. 59. (C)意为:"通过人物刻画所传达的信息非常重要".第一段第二句指出,在《孩子们,小孩子们》 一书中,作者对孩子所遭受的待遇表示忧虑和不满.第三段第七句指出,所塑造的单一性格的人 物(onesided characterization)--疯狂的父亲,不成熟的母亲,吝啬的祖父,自私的姑姑,残忍的邻 居, 完全被误解的布莱特--走过照得通明的舞台, 展示一个道理(moving across a lit stage to dramatize a message). 60. (B)意为:"布莱特生活在充满敌意的环境中".参阅第 59 题题解. 61. (A)意为:"通过他的书表达一个道理".参阅第 59 题题解. 62. (B)意为: "小说评论". 第三段最后一句指出, 虽然其真实的结尾没有结局或展开(without resolution or growth or development)--在舞台上是行得通的, 但是, 这却与小说的结尾差之甚远(it is contrary to everything a novel should do).最后一段指出,称该书是一部小说是出版者的错误,该作品更像一 个剧本,是德雷克先生印成书的心理剧(psychodrama in print),我们有理由这样看它.通过以上的 分析可以看出,该书实际上是一本小说,但却具有戏剧的许多特征. 63. (D) 本文主要谈的是如何对待民意测验(public opinion polls)的问题(第一段第二句).第二段指出, 民意测验可以防止领导违背民意(getting too far out of line with the public thinking),增加治国 (government)的效率.在民主社会里,政策的有效性往往取决于公众的支持程度.当政府有违民意 时,公众就会对之不置一顾或抵制,使之无效或起到相反的作用.这是第二段旨在说明的观点, 下文举了里根总统的例子来说明这一点.C 意为:"民意测验的价值由领导来确定". 64. (D) 里普曼指出,在问题面前,一个高效的政府不应该始终(first and last)问自己"民意如何"(Gallup Poll 意为:"盖洛普民意测验",指一种民意测验方法),而应该问:"什么是现实?该如何正确处 理?"(course 在此意为:"行动方针")下文举了卡特总统的例子做了进一步说明.当然,这并不是说 应无视民意,而是说不应该让民意代替制定政策时所应做出的判断(参考第三段第一句). 65. (A) A 意为:"面对不利的公众意见时理智的判断非常重要".第三段指出,不能让民意代替理智的 判断,否则,反而会危害公众利益(do a disservice to the public).在制定治理通货膨胀的(inflation fighting)计划时,卡特总统表现得很不果断,随着民意(public sentiment)的改变几易其计划,结果 未能调动其政治力量(political capital)去赢得国会和全国的支持(get Congress and the country behind any of the efforts).B 意为:"在困难的时候民意更显得重要";D 意为:"同国会和民众搞好关系非 常重要".
66. (B) 文章第二句表达了全文的主旨:民意究竟应该在多大程度上左右领导人的决策?民意不能不尊 重(第二段),但过多地依赖它也是不可取的(第三段),所以要合理地运用它.A 意为:"国家领导 应随时向公众意见妥协";C 意为:"国家政策应符合民意";D 意为:"只有用于制定政策民意才 有用". 67. (C) 文章第二句指出了老鼠对医学的用途,如:可以在它身上试验治疗疾病,可以用于研究病毒 对人的免疫系统(immune system)的影响.本文主要探索的是后者. 68. (A) 两个实验的共同点表现在实验对象和目的(第二段第二句)相同.B 不对.其实验步骤及方法不 一样:一个是采用直接注射人类 B 和 T 细胞的方法(第二段第二句);一个是器官组织的移植(手术 的方法),产生于细胞(stem cell),再转化为 B 和 T 细胞,产生免疫力(参见第三段).可见,C,D 也不对. 69. (B) 最后一段表述了两个实验的发现. 70. (C) 二组研究相比,拉乔达医学生物学院的研究者采用了较直接的方法--直接注入 B 和 T 细胞, 而斯坦福大学的研究者们则采用了手术方法--器官移植生成 B 和 T 细胞的方法.参考第二,三段. Part IV EnglishChinese Translation 短文大意: 短文大意:美国国内战争后膳食结构已开始变化,铁路运输增加了牛奶的供应,冷藏法和冷藏车使得人们 可以吃到新鲜蔬菜,水果和鱼,而罐头食品也扩大了可口和有益于健康的食品种类.总体来说,美国人吃 家畜产品多于粮食,这就意味着美国需要比较大的土地面积来养活美国公众.但是从 19 世纪中叶起,美国 膳食变化更多地考虑到吃的东西是否有营养价值,是否能使美国人有健康的身体. 71. 这是一个并列复合句,三个句子都由分号连接.句架是:Rail transportation increased…;cold storage…made possible…;…canning extended….在第一个句子中,关系代词 that 引导定语从句, 修饰 milk.在第二个句子中,possible 是提到宾语前面的宾语补语(made the greater consumption of fresh vegetables possible).本句应译成:"铁路运输增加了牛奶的供应,也改善了运到城市的牛奶 质量;冷藏法和冷藏车使得人们有可能增大新鲜蔬菜,新鲜水果和鲜鱼的消费量;而商业上的罐 头制造业也扩大了可口的和有益于健康的食品的种类." 72. 这是简单复合句,句架是:…diet continued to reflect…reliance upon…rather than on…,which meant that….句中关系代词 which 引导非限制性定语从句,修饰前面的整个事实.本句应译成:"总的 说来,美国人的膳食仍大量依赖家畜产品而不依赖粮食,这就意味着需要比较大的土地面积来养 活美国公众." 73. 这是一个简单句,句架是:…change was…furthered by…,by….句中的 further 是动词,作"促进" 讲.本句应译成:"由于政府的食品检查制度(1906 年通过了纯食品及药物法案)和二三十年代冰箱 使用的增加,以及近几十年用于冷冻食品的冷冻柜的使用增加而大大促进了这一变化." 74. 这是一个并列复合句,两个句子由 and 连接.句架是:…home canning gave way to…,and the labor of…was lightened.第一个句子中 as 引导状语从句,词组 gave way to 作"让位于……"讲.本句应 译成:"在这期间,如我们在前文所提到的,家庭制作罐头发展成为商业性的罐头制造,减轻了家 务劳动."
75. 这是一个简单复合句, 句架是: …one factor that…is the…familiarity(which)most(people)have with…. 句中关系代词 that 引导定语从句, 修饰 factor; most have=most people have, 是省略关系代词 which 的定语从句,修饰 familiarity.句中 readiness 作"准备就绪","愿意"讲.本句应译成:"美国人易 于接受新食品或新的食物配制法的原因之一可能是,大部分人都普遍熟悉了来自许多不同国度的 多种地区的风味菜." Part V Writing (15 points) 参考范文 Recent years have seen a tendency that more and more aged people prefer living alone.In the past,aged people would like to live with children and grandchildren while young people would like to show their respect and gratitude to those who brought them up.Aged people nowadays hope their married children would move to other places if possible.Why do aged people tend to live alone? There are several reasons for this change.For one thing,with the social and economic development,the old traditional idea of keeping several generations under one roof is out of date.Many old people pursue a life of comforts and relaxation after getting retired from work and released from heavy household chores.Some wish to travel around some scenic spots which they have long dreamed of.Some even start to learn a new subject such as painting,a music instrument and so on in order to enrich their lives.Undoubtedly,they no longer like to be chained to the house.For another,guaranteed by social security and medicare,old people,most of whom still feel strong and healthy,do not need to be taken care of.Furthermore,by living alone they may avoid unpleasant quarrels because of the generation gap. Obviously,the aged people's preference to living alone indicates the improvement of living standard and their new attitude toward life.In my opinion,their choice should be respected,yet living alone does not mean they refuse help,concern from children or,harmony and happiness brought by their offsprings.I believe they will have a better time if their emotional needs can be satisfactorily met.