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美国2002年化学竞赛试题


2002 U. S. NATIONAL CHEMISTRY OLYMPIAD
NATIONAL EXAM—PART II
Prepared by the American Chemical Society Olympiad Examinations Task Force

OLYMPIAD EXAMINATIONS TASK FORCE

r />Arden P. Zipp, State University of New York, Cortland Chair
Peter E. Demmin (retired), Amherst Central High School, NY Dianne H. Earle, Paul M. Dorman High School, SC David W. Hostage, Taft School, CT Alice Johnsen, Bellaire High School, TX Elizabeth M. Martin, College of Charleston, SC Jerry D. Mullins, Plano Senior High School, TX Ronald O. Ragsdale, University of Utah, UT
DIRECTIONS TO THE EXAMINER–PART II Part II of this test requires that student answers be written in a response booklet of blank pages. Only this “Blue Book” is graded for a score on Part II. Testing materials, scratch paper, and the “Blue Book” should be made available to the student only during the examination period. All testing materials including scratch paper should be turned in and kept secure until April 21, 2002, after which tests can be returned to students and their teachers for further study. Allow time for the student to read the directions, ask questions, and fill in the requested information on the “Blue Book”. When the student has completed Part II, or after 1 hour, 45 minutes has elapsed, the student must turn in the “Blue Book”, Part II of the testing materials, and all scratch paper. Be sure that the student has supplied all of the information requested on the front of the “Blue Book,” and that the same identification number used for Part I has been used again for Part II. There are three parts to the National Olympiad Examination. You have the option of administering the three parts in any order, and you are free to schedule rest-breaks between parts. Part I Part II Part III 60 questions 8 questions 2 lab problems single-answer multiple-choice problem-solving, explanations laboratory practical 1 hour, 30 minutes 1 hour, 45 minutes 1 hour, 30 minutes

A periodic table and other useful information are provided on the back page for student reference. Students should be permitted to use non-programmable calculators. DIRECTIONS TO THE EXAMINEE–PART II DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL DIRECTED TO DO SO. Part II requires complete responses to questions involving problem-solving and explanations. 1 hour, 45 minutes is allowed to complete this part. Be sure to print your name, the name of your school, and your identification number in the spaces provided on the “Blue Book” cover. (Be sure to use the same identification number that was coded onto your Scantron? sheet for Part I.) Answer all of the questions in order, and use both sides of the paper. Do not remove the staple. Use separate sheets for scratch paper and do not attach your scratch paper to this examination. When you complete Part II (or at the end of 1 hour, 45 minutes), you must turn in all testing materials, scratch paper, and your “Blue Book.” Do not forget to turn in your U.S. citizenship statement before leaving the testing site today. Not valid for use as an USNCO National Exam after April 21, 2002. Distributed by the ACS DivCHED Examinations Institute, Clemson University, Clemson, SC. All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A.

1.

(12%) The percentages of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 are to be determined in a mixture of them with KCl. A 0.500 g sample of the mixture is dissolved in 50.0 mL of deionized water and titrated with 0.115 M HCl, resulting in this pH titration curve. a. Write a balanced equation for the reaction that is responsible for the equivalence point that occurs at about i. pH = 9 ii. pH = 5 b. Calculate the total number of moles of acid used to reach each equivalence point if the volumes are 9.63 mL and 34.27 mL, respectively. c. Determine the number of grams of Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 and their percentages in the original mixture. d. Sketch a titration curve for a solution of Na2CO3 by itself and describe how it differs from the given curve. (15%) Consider the formation of N2O5(g) by this reaction. 2NO2(g) + 1 /2O2(g) → N 2O5(g) For this reaction, ?H o = –55.1 kJ and ?S o = –227 J·K–1 Additional data are given in the Table. a. Calculate these values. Type of Data ?Hf o So So

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

0

10.0

20.0

30.0

40.0

Volume HCl(aq), mL →

2.

Substance NO2(g) NO2(g) O2(g)

Value +33.2 kJ·mol –1 239.7 J·mol–1·K–1 205.1 J·mol–1·K–1

i. ?Hf o of N2O5(g) ii. S o of N2O5(g) iii. ?G o of the given reaction at 25 °C iv. K p of the given reaction at 25 °C b. State and explain i. whether this reaction is spontaneous at 25 °C. ii. how the numerical value of K p would be affected by an increase in temperature. iii. how the relative amounts of reactant and product molecules would be affected by an increase in temperature. iv. why the S o values differ for NO2(g) and O2(g) at 25 °C. 3. (11%) Calcium ions form slightly soluble compounds with phosphate ions such as PO43–, HPO42–, and H2PO4–. a. Write the formula and give the K sp expression for the compound formed by Ca2+ and each of these two ions. i. PO43– ii. H2PO4– b. Calculate the equilibrium concentration of Ca 2+ in a saturated solution with each of the phosphate ions given in part a. i. K sp for calcium phosphate equals 1.0 × 10–25. ii. K sp for calcium dihydrogen phosphate equals 1.0 × 10–3. + c. Determine the [H ] needed to just prevent precipitation by H2PO4– in a 0.25 M H3PO4 solution that has [Ca2+] = 0.15 M. The Ka1 of H 3PO4 is 7.1 × 10 –3. 4. (14%) This reaction can be used to analyze for iodide ion. [I –], M [IO3–], M [H +], M Reaction rate, mol·L–1·s–1

IO3–(aq) + 5I–(aq) + 6H+(aq) → 3I2(aq) + 3H2O(l) 0.010 0.10 0.010 0.60 When the rate of this reaction was studied at 25 °C, the 0.040 0.10 0.010 2.40 results in the table were obtained. 0.010 0.30 0.010 5.40 a. Use these data to determine the order of the reaction 0.010 0.10 0.020 2.40 with respect to each of these species. Outline your reasoning in each case. i. I– ii. IO 3– iii. H + b. Calculate the specific rate constant for this reaction and give its units. c. Based on the kinetics, discuss the probability of this reaction occurring in a single step. d. The kinetics of reactions are often studied under pseudo first-order conditions. Describe what is meant by the term pseudo first order and illustrate how the reaction conditions above would be changed so that the [I–] would be pseudo first order. e. The activation energy for this reaction was found to be 84 kJ·mol –1 at 25 °C. How much faster would this reaction proceed if the activation energy were lowered by 10 kJ·mol–1 (for example, by using a suitable catalyst)?

Page 2

Not valid for use as an USNCO National Exam after April 21, 2002

5.

(12%) Write net equations for each of these reactions. Use appropriate ionic and molecular formulas for the reactants and products. Omit formulas for all ions or molecules that do not take part in a reaction. Write structural formulas for all organic substances. You need not balance the reactions. All reactions occur in aqueous solution unless otherwise indicated. a. Concentrated hydrochloric acid is added to solid manganese(IV) oxide. b. Solutions of magnesium sulfate and barium hydroxide are mixed. c. Solid barium peroxide is added to water. d. A piece of copper metal is added to a solution of dilute nitric acid. e. A solution of sodium thiosulfate is added to a suspension of solid silver bromide. f. 2-butanol is heated with a solution of acidified potassium dichromate. (12%) Chlorine trifluoride, ClF 3, is a vigorous fluorinating agent that has been used to separate uranium from the fission products in spent nuclear fuel rods. a. Write a Lewis dot structure for ClF3. b. Sketch and describe clearly the geometry for the ClF3 molecule. c. Sketch one other possible geometry and explain why it is not observed. d. Identify the hybrid orbitals that are considered to be used by the chlorine atom in ClF3. e. The electrical conductance of liquid ClF3 is only slightly lower than that of pure water. This behavior is attributed to the self-ionization of ClF3 to form ClF2+ and ClF4–. Sketch and describe the expected structures of ClF2+ and ClF4–. (12%) Answer these questions about the voltaic cell based on these half-reactions. MnO2(s) + 4H+(aq) + 2e– → Mn2+(aq) + 2H2O(l) E o = +1.23 V 2+ + – TiO (aq) + 2H (aq) + 4e → Ti(s) + H2O(l) E o = –0.88 V a. Write the equation for the reaction that produces a positive standard potential and then calculate that potential. b. Identify the half-reaction that occurs at the cathode. Explain. c. Specify the conditions that produce the standard potential. d. State whether each of the changes listed in parts i - iii will affect the standard potential calculated in part a for the assembled cell. For each change, state whether the potential will increase, decrease, or remain the same. Outline your reasoning or show your calculations in each case. i. The [Mn2+] is doubled. ii. The size of the Ti(s) electrode is doubled. iii. The pH of both compartments is increased by the same amount. (12%) Three common allotropic forms of carbon are diamond, graphite, and buckminsterfullerene (C60). a. Describe or sketch clearly the structure of each allotrope. b. Compare diamond and graphite with regard to their hardness and electrical conductivity and account for any differences in behavior on the basis of the structures in part a. c. Graphite is more stable than diamond (by 2.9 kJ·mol–1) at room temperature and pressure. Explain why the diamonds in jewelry do not change readily into graphite. d. Use this phase diagram for carbon to determine which has the greater density, 106 diamond diamond or graphite. Explain your reasoning and suggest a means of liquid converting graphite into diamond. 104
graphite

6.

7.

8.

102 0

vapor

2000 4000 6000 Temperature, oC →

END OF PART II
Not valid for use as an USNCO National Examination after April 21, 2002. Page 3

amount of substance ampere atmosphere atomic mass unit atomic molar mass atomic number Avogadro constant Celsius temperature centi- prefix coulomb electromotive force energy of activation enthalpy entropy

ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS n equilibrium constant K measure of pressure mmHg A Faraday constant F milli- prefix m atm formula molar mass M molal m u free energy M G molar A frequency mol ν mole Z gas constant h R Planck’s constant N A gram pressure P g °C heat capacity k C p rate constant c hour Rf h retention factor C joule s J second E kelvin speed of light c K Ea kilo- prefix temperature, K T k H liter t L time S volt V

CONSTANTS R = 8.314 J·mol –1·K–1 R = 0.0821 L·atm·mol –1·K–1 1 F = 96,500 C·mol –1 1 F = 96,500 J·V–1·mol–1 N A = 6.022 × 10 23 mol–1 h = 6.626 × 10 –34 J·s c = 2.998 × 10 8 m·s –1 1 atm = 760 mmHg

E =E –

RT ln Q nF

USEFUL EQUATIONS ? – ?H ? ? 1 ? ln K = ? ? ? ? +c ? R ??T?

ln ?

? k 2 ? Ea ? 1 1 ? ?= ? ? ? ? ? k1 ? R T1 T2 ?

PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS
1.008

1 H

4.003

2 He 10 Ne 18 Ar

6.941

3 Li

9.012

4 Be

10.81

5 B

12.01

6 C

14.01

7 N

16.00

8 O

19.00

9 F

20.18

22.99

11 Na 19 K

24.31

12 Mg 20 Ca 38 Sr

26.98

13 Al

28.09

14 Si

30.97

15 P

32.07

16 S 34 Se

35.45

17 Cl

39.95

39.10

40.08

44.96

21 Sc 39 Y

47.88

22 Ti

50.94

23 V

52.00

24 Cr

54.94

25 Mn 43 Tc

55.85

26 Fe

58.93

27 Co

58.69

28 Ni

63.55

29 Cu 47 Ag

65.39

30 Zn

69.72

31 Ga 49 In 81 Tl

72.61

32 Ge 50 Sn

74.92

33 As

78.96

79.90

35 Br 53 I

83.80

36 Kr 54 Xe

85.47

37 Rb 55 Cs 87 Fr

87.62

88.91

91.22

40 Zr

92.91

41 Nb 73 Ta

95.94

42 Mo 74 W

(98)

101.1

44 Ru 76 Os

102.9

45 Rh 77 Ir

106.4

46 Pd 78 Pt

107.9

112.4

48 Cd 80 Hg

114.8

118.7

121.8

51 Sb 83 Bi

127.6

52 Te 84 Po

126.9

131.3

132.9

137.3

56 Ba

138.9

57 La 89 Ac

178.5

72 Hf

181.0

183.8

186.2

75 Re

190.2

192.2

195.1

197.0

79 Au

200.6

204.4

207.2

82 Pb

209.0

(209)

(210)

85 At

(222)

86 Rn

(223)

226.0

88 Ra

227.0

104 Rf

(261)

105 Db

(262)

106 Sg

(263)

107 Bh

(262)

108 Hs

(265)

109 Mt

110
(269)

111
(272)

112
(277)

114
(289)

(266)

140.1

58 Ce

140.9

59 Pr

144.2

60 Nd 92 U

61 Pm 93 Np

(145)

150.4

62 Sm 94 Pu

152.0

63 Eu

157.3

64 Gd

158.9

65 Tb 97 Bk

162.5

66 Dy 98 Cf

164.9

67 Ho 99 Es

167.3

68 Er

168.9

69 Tm 101 Md

173.0

70 Yb

175.0

71 Lu

232.0

90 Th

231.0

91 Pa

238.0

237.0

(244)

95 Am

(243)

96 Cm

(247)

(247)

(251)

(252)

100 Fm

(257)

(258)

102 No

(259)

103 Lr

(260)

Page 4

Not valid for use as an USNCO National Examination after April 21, 2002.

2002 U. S. NATIONAL CHEMISTRY OLYMPIAD
KEY for NATIONAL EXAM—PART II
1. a. i. ii. b. pH = 9 CO32– + H+ → HCO3– pH = 5 HCO3– + H+ → H2CO3 or HCO3– + H+ → H2O + CO2 0.115 mol 9.63 × 10 ?3 L × = 1.107 × 10?3 mol HCl to titrate CO32– L 0.115 mol 3.427 × 10 ?3 L × = 3.941 × 10 ?3 mol HCl to titrate HCO3– L 105.99 g Na 2 CO3 1.107 × 10 ?3 mol CO3 2– × = 1.17 × 10 –1 g Na2CO 3 mol 84.01 g NaHCO3 2.834 × 10?3 mol HCO3 – × = 2.38 × 10 –1 g NaHCO3 mol 1.17 × 10 –1 g Na 2 CO3 × 100 = 23.4% Na 2 CO3 5.00 × 10 –1 g mixture 2.38 × 10 –1 g NaHCO3 × 100 = 47.6% NaHCO 3 5.00 × 10–1 g mixture d. The total volume required to reach the second equivalence point is twice that required to reach the first equivalence point because the number of moles of HCO3– is equal to the number of moles of CO32–.

c.

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

0

10.0

20.0

30.0

40.0

Volume HCl(aq), mL →

2.

a.i. ?Hfo of N2O5(g)

o o ? Hrxn = ? Ho f (N 2 O5 ) ? 2 ?H f (NO 2 )
–1 –55.1 kJ = ? H o f (N 2 O5 ) – 2 mol (33.2 kJ·mol ) –1 ? Ho f (N 2 O5 ) = +11.3 kJ·mol

ii. S o of N2O5(g)

o ? Srxn = So(N 2O 5 ) – 2S o (NO2 ) + S o (O2 )

(

)

–227.0 J·K–1 = S o(N 2 O 5 ) – [2(–239.7 J·mol–1·K–1) + 1/2(205.1 J·mol–1·K–1)] S o(N 2 O 5 ) = 355.4 J·mol–1·K–1 iii. ?G o at 25 °C ? Go = ?Ho – T?So
o ? G = –55.1 kJ – (298 K)(–0.227 kJ·K–1) ? Go = 12.5 kJ

iv. Kp at 25 °C

? Go = – RT ln K p 12500 J = –8.314 J ( 2 9 8 K ) lK np mol ? K ln K p = –5.045 and K p = 6.44 × 10
–3

Key for 2002 USNCO National Exam, Part II

Page 1

b. i. This reaction is not spontaneous at 25 °C. The value of ?G o is positive. ii. An increase in temperature will cause ?G o to become more positive because the value of ?S o is negative. Therefore, the numerical value of Kp will decrease. iii. An increase in temperature will cause the relative amount of reactants to increase and products to decrease. This can be explained by noting that the value of ?Hrxn is negative, which means that adding heat will shift the reaction to the left. Another argument is that as the temperature increases, the value of the equilibrium constant Kp will decrease, also shifting the reaction to the left. iv. The S o values for NO2(g) and O2(g) at the same temperature are not the same because NO2, with 3 atoms per molecule, has more possible arrangements than O2, with only 2 atoms per molecule. This leads to a higher value for entropy, although not very much higher. The molar mass of NO2 is also higher than for O2. 3. a.i. Ca3(PO4)2 ii. Ca(H2PO4)2 b.i. 1.0 × 10 –25

[ ] [PO ] K = [Ca ] [ H PO ] = [Ca ] [ PO ] Then, let 3x = [Ca ] and 2 x = [ PO ]
Ksp = Ca 2+
sp

3

4

3– 2

2+

2

4

– 2

2+ 3

3– 2 4

2+

4

3 –

1.0 × 10 –25 = [3 x ]3 [2 x ]2 1.0 × 10 –25 = 108x 5 and x 5 = 9.26 × 10 –28 and x = 3.9 × 10 –6

[Ca ] = 3(3.92 × 10
2+

–6

) = 1.2 ×10 –5 M

1.0 × 10 –3 = Ca2 + H 2 PO 4– 1.0 × 10 –3 = [ x ] [2 x ]2

[

][

]2

Then, let x = Ca 2+ and 2 x = H2 PO 4 –

[

]

[

]

1.0 × 10 –3 = 4 x3 and x = 6.3 ×10 –2

[Ca ] = 6.3 × 10
2+

–2

M

c.

Ca(H2PO4)2(s) ? Ca2+(aq) + 2H2PO4–(aq) 1.0 × 10 –3 = Ca2 + H 2 PO 4–

[

][

]2

[H 2PO 4– ] =

1.0 × 10–3 = 6.67 × 10–3 = 8.2 × 10 –2 M 0.15

H3PO4(aq) ? H+(aq) + H2PO4–(aq) 7.3 × 10 –3 = 7.3 × 10 –3 =

[ H ][ H PO ]
+

[ H3 PO 4]

2

4



[ x] [0.082 + x ] and x = 1.7 × 10–2 M [0.25 ? x ]

Therefore, to prevent precipitation, H + must be greater than = 1.7 × 10 –2 M 4. a. i. First order in I–. Compare the results of experiments 1 and 2 to see that the rate went up by a factor of 4 when the concentration of I– went up by 4. ii. Second order in IO3–. Compare the results of experiments 1 and 3 to see that the rate went up by 9 when the concentration of IO3– went up by 3.

[ ]

Page 2

Key for 2002 USNCO National Exam, Part II

iii. Second order in H+. Compare the results of experiments 1 and 4 to see that the rate went up by 4 when the concentration of H+ went up by 2. b. rate = k I –

[ ] [IO ] [H ]
1 – 2 3

+ 2

1 2 2 rate = k [0.01] [0.10 ] [ 0.01] 0.60 k= = 6.0 × 10 7 mol–4 ? L4 ? s–1 1.0 × 10 –8 c. Reaction is very unlikely to occur in one step. That would require the simultaneous collision of five particles. d. Pseudo-first order refers to carrying out a reaction under conditions such that only one reactant changes concentration. For this reaction, pseudo-first order kinetics can be established by having a large excess of [IO3–] and [H+]. –E a 2

Ea1 ? Ea2 ? RT k Ae k2 ? –? RT – RT ? ? e. 2 = and after cancelling A and combining exponents, = e – Ea1 k1 k1 RT Ae Ea Ea k Taking the natural log and rearranging yields this expression. ln 2 = 1 – 2 k1 RT RT

ln ln

k2 8.4 × 10 4 J ? mol–1 7.4 × 104 J ? mol –1 = – –1 –1 k1 (8.314 J ? mol ? K ) ( 2 9 8 K ) (8.314 J ? mol –1 ? K –1 ) ( 2 9 8 K ) k k2 = 3 3 . 9 0 –29.87 = 4 . 0 3 a n d 2 = e4.03 k1 k1

k2 = 56.3 k1 5. Note: Balanced equations were not required. a. H+ + Cl– + MnO2 → Cl2 + Mn2+ + H2O b. Mg2+ + SO42– + Ba2+ + OH– → BaSO4 + Mg(OH)2 c. BaO2 + H2O → Ba2+ + OH– + O2H– d. Cu + H+ + NO3– → Cu2+ + NO + H2O e. AgBr + S2O32– → Ag(S2O3)23– + Br– f.
H H OH H H H O H H C C C C H + Cr2O72– + H+ → H C C C C H + Cr3+ + H2O H H H H H H H

F 6. a. F Cl F F F F These structures are not favored because they provide less volume for the lone pairs and therefore do not minimize all repulsions. F or F Cl F b. T-shaped F Cl F

c. F Cl

Key for 2002 USNCO National Exam, Part II

Page 3

F d. sp3d e. bent F Cl

+ square planar F F Cl F F



7.

a. Ti + 2MnO2 + 6H+ → 2Mn2+ + 3H2O + TiO2+ b. MnO2 + 4H+ + 2e– → Mn2+ + 2H2O

Eo = 1.23 V + 0.88 V = 2.11 V Reduction occurs at the cathode.

c. The conditions for standard potential are 25°C, 1 atm pressure, and 1 M concentrations. d. i. Doubling [Mn2+] will decrease the potential because Mn2+ is a product. An increase in Mn2+ will shift the equilibrium to the left. ii. Doubling the size of the electrode has no effect. The electrode does not appear in the equilibrium expression nor in the Nernst equation. iii. Increasing pH lowers [H+]. Because H+ appears on the left of the balanced equation, decreasing [H+] will lower the potential. The reaction shifts to the left. 8. a. diamond sp3 hybridization 3-dimensional tetrahedral network solid graphite sp2 hybridization 2-dimensional sheets trigonal planar covalent half-filled p orbital hexagonal rings C60 spherical shape made up of hexagonal and pentagonal rings “soccer ball” design

C C C C C C C C C C

b. Diamond is the hardest. Diamond has 4 covalent bonds per C atom, making a very strongly bonded 3-D network solid. Graphite’s sheets have only weak forces between the sheets, allowing one to slide by the other. This makes graphite much “softer” than diamond. All valence electrons in diamond are involved in sigma bonds, resulting in a nonconducting material. Graphite has delocalized electrons in the half-filled p orbitals (pi-bonding), allowing for electron movement from one atom to the next when an electromotive force is applied. Graphite is a good conductor. c. Although equilibrium favors graphite at room temperature, the rate of the reaction from diamond to graphite is extremely slow because of a very high activation energy barrier. d. The graph shows that as pressure is increased at a fixed temperature of 1000 °C, graphite is converted into diamond. Since increasing pressure should favor increasing density, one could conclude that diamond is denser than graphite. Since graphite is composed of sheets with considerable empty space between the carbon layers, converting graphite to the tetrahedral form decreases the empty space and increases density. To prepare diamond from graphite, the graph indicates that by carrying out the process at 0 °C, a pressure of only 104 atm would be needed. However, since the rate of change would be very slow, this might not be the most ideal set of conditions. An alternate method might be to heat graphite to 2500 °C and apply a pressure of 105 atm, which should increase the rate of the conversion. Another alternate method would be to apply a pressure of 103 atm, then heat to 5000 °C to allow for liquefication, increase pressure to 106 atm and then cool to the lower temperature.

Page 4

Key for 2002 USNCO National Exam, Part II


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