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M2U1语法-- 现在完成时与现在完成进行时


现在完成时

一.构成:have / has + 动词的过去分词(done) 被动结构:have / has been + 动词的过去分词(done) 二.现在完成时的基本用法: 1. 表示过去发生的事或刚结束的动作对现在仍有影响或造成的结果。

He has turned off the light. 他已把灯关了。 The disapp

earance of Justin has made Kelly very unhappy. (Justin 在过去失踪,但是 Kelly 至今仍为他的失 踪感到不高兴。) The police have just finished searching the area. 2. 表示过去开始的动作一直延续到现在(句中用延续性动词) 。

He has lived here since 1995. 自从 1995 年以来,他一直住在这儿。

I have not seen Justin since last Friday night. (从上周五晚上到现在一直都没有见过 Justin) 3. 表示过去曾发生过一次或多次的行为,也可以表示一种经历。 Some villagers say that they have seen UFOs many times. 三.常与现在完成时连用的时间状语有: 1. already (多用于肯定), (多用于否定、 yet 疑问) never, ever, , before, several times, recently, lately, just(而 just now 用一般过去时)等

2.so far, up to now, how long, for+时间段,since+时间点/时间段加 ago/从句(从句用一般过去时), in the past/ last +时间段,by now, by this time, these days, all these years,。请看如下高考题中完成时态与标志词 之间的对应关系: 1. You don’t need to describe her, I have met her several times. 2. -Who is Jerry Copper? -Haven’t you met him yet? I saw you shaking hands with him at the meeting. 3. -How are you today? - Oh, I haven’t felt as ill as I do now for a very long time. 4. I wonder why Jenny hasn’t written to us recently. We should have heard from her by now. 5.With the rapid growth of population, the city has spread in all directions in the past five years.[源:Z+xx+k.Com] 6. Years ago we didn't know this, but recent science has shown that people who don’t sleep well soon get ill. 7. The country life he was used to has changed since 1992. 8. We haven’t seen him since he left Nanjing. We haven't seen him for two years/ since 2002. 9. My brother is an actor. He has appeared in several films so far. 10. I’ve met the old man somewhere before. 注意: 1.一些非延续性动词,如,arrive, teach, join, lose, fall, come, go, leave, buy 等,其现在完成时形式不能 和表示一段时间的时间状语连用。如: 他三年前买了一辆车。He has bought a car for three years. He has had a car for three years. He has bought a car. He bought a car three years ago. 他两年前参了军。 (误) (正) (正) (正)

He has joined the army for two years. (误) He has been in the army for two years.(正) He has joined the army. He joined the army two years ago. (正) (正)

2.用于 until, after, as soon as, if 等引导的时间或条件状语从句中,用现在完成时代替将来完成时,强调动 作的完成。如: I can’t promise yo u anything until I have spoken to the manager. 在和经理商谈之前,我不能向你承诺任何事情。 Please turn off the electricity after you have finished the experiment.

试验完成之后请关掉电源。 3.现在完成时不与具体的过去时间短语及 when 连用 I don’t know when he has left.(误) He has left here ten minutes ago. 误) 4. 注意 have been to 和 have/has gone to 的区别:[来源:学§ 网] 科§ have/has been to 曾经去过某地 have/has gone to 去了某地

Jack is on holiday now. He has gone to France. (He is in France now or he is on his way to France.) Jack is back in London now. He has been to France .(He was in France but now he has returned.) 5.一些特殊句式要用现在完成时态: 1)It/This is the first / second time that…that 从句用现在完成时。 It is the first time that I have visited the city. It was the third time that the boy had been late. This is the first time (that) I've heard him sing. 这是我第一次听他唱歌

2)This is the… that…结构,that 从句要用现在完成时. This is the best film that I've (ever) seen.。 This is the only book that he has written. 3)It is/ has +一段时间+since 从句 It is/ has been 3 years since I saw you. Comparison Compare the difference between the simple past tense and the present perfect tense. 现在完成 时与一般过去时所表示的动作或状态都发生在过去,区别在于: 1.现在完成时强调这一动作与现在的关系,如对现在产生的影响或结果,它不与表过去的时间状语连用。 2.一般过去时则只表示过去的事实,与现在毫无关系关系,它常与这些时间状语词连用:yesterday, last night/ week/ month/ year, ago, in 1980, at that time, then, the other day, just now, once 等。 1. We have studied English for about five years. We began to study it five years ago.

2. They moved to the so uth in 1990 and have lived there since then. 3. Eric left home last year and has just come back. 4. Justin has been away from home for several days. He disappeared last Friday. 5. They bought this house three years ago and they have lived here since then. 6. My brother went to see my grandpa last week. He has visited him three times this month. 7. “Have you seen my pen?” “ Yes, I saw it on your desk just now.” 8. Has the postman come yet/ this mornin g? 9. I have known him for a long time. Did the postman come this morning.

Hello! I didn’t know you were here in Nanjing. Ho w long have you been here?[来源:学§ 网 Z§ X§ 科§ X§ K] 10. He has smoked for six years. ( He still smokes.) He smoked for six years. ( It may mean that he stopped smoking then.) 11. Tom has had a bad car crash. ( He’s probably still in hospital now.) Tom had a bad car crash.( But he’s probably out of hospital now.) 12. We haven’t seen Justin for a week. ( He is till missing.) Justin disappeared last week. ( It may mean that this week Justin is here.)

现在完成进行时
一.构成:have / has been + doing 二.通常使用现在完成进行时的情况: 1. 表 示过去开始的动作一直延续到现在并仍在继续之中。 (注意区分 have/ has been done 结构)

I have not been sleeping well since I returned home.( “我”回家后一直都没睡好,现在也没睡好。) 2. 表示过去开始的动作刚结束并在某种情况下与现在有关联。 Kelly: Sorry I’m late. Have you been waiting long? (凯利刚到,对方虽然不再等了,但已一直等到现在) Sally: Yes. I have been waiting for an hour. 三.现在完成时与现在完成进行时的区别: 1. 现在完成时和现在完成进行时都表示动作从过去开始,但现在完成时强调动作的结束。而现在完成进 行时则强调动作持续的过程。 They have been wide ning the road.他们一直在加宽马路。 (尚未完工,仍在继续)[来源:学科网 ZXXK] They have widened the road.他们把马路加宽了。 (已经完工) 2.在表反复发生的动作时现在完成时强调次数。而现在完成进行时则强调持续的过程。 -How many times have you visited Egypt this month? - I have visited Egypt twice this month. ( 表被问者过去往反于埃及和居住地,但现已经回来。) -How long have you been touring Egypt? -I have been touring Egypt for two months.( 表被问者过去一段时间内一直呆在埃及,没有离开过。 )

其它比较 1)现在完成进行时更强调动作的延续性,它是现在完成时的强调形式。试比较: We've been living here for ten years. We've lived here for ten years.我们在这儿已经住了十年了。 "持续性动词"可用现在完成时,也可用现在完成进行时,唯一的区别是进行时更强调动作的持续性。 Who has been eating my dinner?(Some of it is left) Who has eaten my dinner?(It is all gone.) 2)在不用时间状语的情况下,现在完成进行时表示动作仍在进行。而现在完成时则表示动作在过去已 结束。如: The students have been preparing for the exam.(还在进行)学生们一直在准备考试。 The students have prepared for the exam.(已经结束)学生们为考试作了准备。 3)有些表示状态,感情,感觉的动词如:have,exist,like,hate,hear,know,sound 等动词不能用于 现在完成进行时,但可用于现在完成时。如: They've known each other since 1970.自从 1970 年起他们就相互认识了。

练习
一.Fill in the blanks with the given verbs in brackets, using the present perfect or the present perfect continuous tense. 1. They are happy because they_________ (do) the experiment successfully. They ________( make) up their minds to tell the world about the results of their experiment. 2. This is the second time that I _______( lose) my mobile phone.[来源:Zxxk.Com] 3. The students _________ ( prepare) for the New Year’s concert since last month. They ________( invite) their parents to come and watch their performance. 4. For the last two years, he _____ yet. 5. I wonder if Mary __________( forget) my number. I ________( expect) her to call me for the past two hours. 6. I _ ________( wait) for an hour but he still ________(not turn) up. 7. It _________( snow) for three years. We __________( have) too much snow this winter. 8. I _________(try) to talk to him on the phone for weeks but I ________( get) no answer yet. 二.单项选择 1. Tom: Miss Jones ______music at Eton School for ten years. Sarah: No wonder I often hear her singing in her garden. A. teaches B. used to teach C. is teaching D. has been teaching (write) a book on the Second World War, but he _________(not finish) it

2.Tracy: I think the waitress must have forgotten us. We______here for over half an hour and nobody______our food yet. John: I supposed you are right. A. have been waiting; has served C. have been waited; has served B. have been waiting; served D. have waited; served

3. The students don’t want to have their supper until they ______their experiment. A. finished A. haven’t B. have finished B. don’t have C. had finished C. haven’t had D. will finish D. don’t have had

4. I play ping-pong quite well, but I______ time to play since the new year.

5. By now students in Grade One______1,700 English words and phrases. A. should learn B. have learned C. learned D. learn

6. I _______ my history this time yesterday. Now I ______all my work for today. A. reviewed; had done C. was reviewing; have done B. was reviewing; had done D. reviewed; have done

7. John: Sorry to have kept you waiting! James: I ______here for fifty minutes. A. have arrived B. have got C. have reached D. have been

8. Tom: Where have you been? I ______you the whole day. Kate: I was in the library reading magazines. A. have been telephoning A. has decided A. didn’t feel B. had telephoned C. telephoned D. was telephoned

9. The boss ______yet when and where to take her paid holiday. B didn’t decide C. hasn’t decided B. wasn’t feeling C. don’t feel D. hadn’t decided D. haven’t felt

10. Jane: How are you today?Ben: Oh, I ______this ill in a long time. 11. Shirley ______ a book about China last year but I don’t know whether she has finished it. A. has written B. wrote C. had written D. was writing

12. Peter: Hi, Tracy, you look tired. A. painted B. had painted

Tracy: I am tired. I ______the living room all day. C. have been painting D. have painted

13. I don’t really work here. I ______until the new secretary arrives. A. just help out B. have just helped out C. am just helping out D. will just help out

14.The price______, but I am not sure whether it will go up again tomorrow. A. went down A. hasn’t written B. will go down B. doesn’t write C. has gone down C. won’t write D. was going down D. hadn’t write

15. I wonder why Jenny______ us recently. We should have heard from her by now.

高考题组 1. -Hi, Tommy, you look tired. A. played B. had played --- I am tired. I _________the computer games all day. C. have been playing D. have played

2. The coffee is wonderful! It doesn’t taste like anything I _________ before. A. was having 3. John and I B. have C. have ever had D. had ever had[来源:学科网 ZXXK]

friends for eight years. We first got to know each other at a Christmas party. But we

______each other a couple of times before that. A. had been; have seen 4.---The window is dirty. A. hasn’t cleaned B. have been; have seen ----I know. It B. didn’t clean C. had been ; had seen D. have been; had seen

for weeks. C. wasn’t cleaned D. hasn’t been cleaned

5. ---_______ my glasses? - -- Yes. I saw them on your bed a minute ago. A. Do you see B. Had you seen C. Would you see ? C. Has it all finished D. Did it all finished D. Have you seen 6.I can’t see any coffee in this cupboard. A. Has it all been finished

B. Was it all finished

7. My dictionary _________. I have looked for it everywhere but still________ it.

A. has lost; don’t find C. has lost; haven’t found

B. is missing; don’t find D. is missing; haven’t found

8. – We haven’t heard from Jane for a long time. ---- What do you suppose _______ to her? A. was happening B. to ha ppen C. has happened D. having happened

9. We_________ for the bus half an hour, but it has not come yet. A. have been waiting B. have waited C. are waiting D. have been waited

10. My aunt has worked in a clinic________ 1949. A. after B. before C. till D. since going back to school, but she hasn’t decided yet. C. considered D. is going to consider

11. Now that she is out of a job, Lucy A. had considered

B. has been considering

12. They________ the Summer Palace three times.[来源:Zxxk.Com] A. have gone to B. have been to C. have been in D. have gone into

13. He ________ articles for our wall-newspaper these three years, and he_______ about thirty articles. A. has written; has written C. is writing; has been w riting 14. ---Do you know our town at all? A. was B. have been B. has been w riting; wrote D. has been writing; has written ---No, this is the first time I ___ here. C. came D. am coming

15 The news came as no surprise to me. I A. had known B. knew

it for some time that the factory was going to shut down. C. have known D. know

Answers Fill in the blanks 1. have done, have made 2. have lost 3. have been preparing, have invited 4. has been writing, hasn’t finished 6. have been waiting, hasn’t turned

5. has forgotten, have been expecting 7. has been snowing, have had

8. have been trying, have got, has happened Choose the best answers. Chose the best answers 1-5 DABCBC 6-10 CDACD 11-15 DCCCA 高考题组 1-5 CCDDD 6-10 ADCA D 11-15 BBDBC[来源:Z。xx。k.Com]


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