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英语语法大全


(一) 一.词类(Parts of Speech) 名词英文名称 The Noun(缩写为 n.) 表示人或事物的名称例词 boy,clock,book 等 冠词英文名称 The Article(缩写为 art.) 用在名词前帮助说明名词所指的人和或事物。例词 a(an),the 代 词 英 文 名 称 The Pronoun( 缩 写 为 pron) 用 来 代 替 名 词 、

形 容 词 或 是 数 词 例 词 we,that,his,what 形容词英文名称 The Adjective(缩写为 adj.) 用以修饰名词,表示人或事物的特征 例词 old,red,fine,good. 数词英文名称 The Numeral(缩写为 num.) 表示数量或是顺序。例词 one,thirteen first 动词英文名称 The Verb(缩写为 v.) 表示动作或状态。例词 sit,go,be(am,is,are) 副词英文名称 The Adverb(缩写为 adv.) 修饰动词、形容词或其他副词。例词 not too,here,very 介词英文单词 The Preposition(缩写为 prep.) 表示名词、代词等和句中其他词的 关系。例词 in,on,of,to,under. 连词英文单词 The Conjunction(缩写为 conj.) 用来连接词与词、短语与短语或句 与句。例词 and,or,but. 感叹词英文单词 The Interjection(缩写为 interj.) 表示说话时的喜悦、惊讶等 情感。例词 oh,hello,hi,er. 二.名词(Nouns) 1.总的说来,名词分专有名词和普通名词两类。 专有名词: 表示具体的人,事物,地点或机构的专有名称。 Lucy China 中国 Asia 亚洲 Beijing 北京。 专有名词的第一个字母要大写。 普通名词: 表示某些人,某类事物,某种物质或抽象概念的名称。例如: teacher 老师 tea 茶 reform 改革 普通名词又可进一步分为四类 1) 个体名称: 表示单个的人和事物。 house 马 car 汽车 room 房间 apple 苹果 fun 风扇 picture 照片 2) 集体名称: 表示一群人或一些事物的名称。 people 人们 family 家庭 army 军队 government 政府 group 集团 3) 物质名词:表示物质或不具备确定形状和大小的个体的物质。 fire 火 steel 钢 air 空气 water 水 milk 牛奶 4)抽象名词:表示动作,状态,品质或其他抽象概念。 labour 劳动 health 健康 life 生活 friendship 友情 patience 耐力 2.名词按其所表现的事物的性质分为可数名词和不可数名词。 可数名词(Countable Nouns)有复数形式,如: an apple two apples a car some cars 不可数名词(Uncountable Nouns)一般没有复数形式. 抽象名词, 物质名词和专有名词一般是不可数名词。 sand 沙 sugar 糖 有少数名词即可作可数名词,也可作不可数名词,但含义不同。 glass 玻璃 glass 玻璃杯 paper 纸 paper 报纸,文件

名词的功能 名词在句中作主语, 宾语,介词宾语,宾语补助语,表语以及名词短语作状语。 The bag is in the desk. bag 作主语。 书包在桌子里边。 I washed my clothes yesterday. clothes 作宾语。 昨天我洗了我的衣服。 This is a good book. book 作表语。 这是一本好书。 We elected him our monitor. monitor 作宾语补助语。 我们选他为我们的班长。 Mary lives with her parents. parents 作介词宾语. 玛丽和她的父母亲住在一起。 He is a Party member. Party 作定语. 他是一名党员。 They study hard day and night. day and night 作状语。 他们白天黑夜地学习。 3.可数名词有单数(the Singular Nunmber)和复数(the Plural Number)两种形式。 名词的复数形式(The Plural Form Nouns)的部分规则如下: 1) 一般情况下,在词尾加 -s. 例如: bags,maps,pens,desks,workers 2) 以 s,sh,ch,x 等结尾的词加-es.例如: buses watches boxes 3) 以 ce,se,ze,(d)ge 等结尾的词加-s.例如: licences blouses oranges 4) 以辅音字母+y 结尾的词变 y 为 i 再加-es.例如: babies families 5) 名词以 -f 或 -fe 结尾的,把 -f 或-fe 变成 -ves. bookshelves, wives, knives 注:英语中有些名词的复数形式是不规则的,需要一一记忆常见的有, man - men woman - women foot - feet tooth - teeth mouse - nice ox - oxen sheep - sheep dear - dear fish - fish 英语中有些名词总是以复数形式出现。 scissors 剪刀 goods 货物 trousers 裤子 clothes 衣服 glasses 玻璃杯 4.名词的所有格(The Possessive Case of Nouns) 在英语中,名词的格有三个,主格,宾格和所有格。 它们的形式及其变化表示与其他词的关系。 实际上, 主格和宾格通过它在句中的作用和位置来确定。 The bird is in the tree. 鸟在树上。 bird 作主语, 是主格。 I saw a film yesterday. 昨天我看了一场电影。 film 作宾语,是宾格。 名词的所有格: 名词中表示所有关系的形式叫做名词所有格。 Lu Xun's book is worth reading. 鲁迅的书值得一读。

This is my father's room. 这是我父亲的房间。 名词所有格的构成 单数名词加's 例词:Mike's father 以 s 结尾的复数名词加' 例词:the teachers' room 不以 s 结尾的复数名词加's 例词:men's women's 三、代词(Pronouns) 1.人称代词(Personal Pronouns) 第一人称单数主格 I(复数 We) 单数宾格 me(复数 us) 第二人称单数主格 you(复数 you) 单数宾格 you(复数 you) 第三人称单数主格 he,she,it(复数 they) 单数宾格 him,her,it(复数 them) 2.物主代词(Possessive Pronouns) 形容词性物主代词第一人称单数 my(复数 our) 形容词性物主代词第二人称单数 your(复数 your) 形容词性物主代词第三人称单数 his,her,its(复数 their) 名词性物主代词第一人称单数 mine(复述 ours) 名词性物主代词第二人称单数 yours(复数 yours) 名词性物主代词第三人称单数 his,hers,its(复数 theirs) 四、数词(Numeral) 表示数目多少或顺序多少的词叫数词,数词分为基数词和序数词。 表示数目多少的数词叫基数词;表示顺序的数词叫序数词。 基数词(Cardinal Numbers) 1 one 2 two 3three 4four 5five 6six 11eleven 12twelve 13thirteen 20twenty 21twenty-one 40fouty 100one hundred 五、动词(Verb) 一般现在时(The Simple Present Tense) 一般现在时表示现在的状态 如:He is twelve.She is at home. 表示经常的或是习惯性的动作. 如:I go to school at 7:30 every day. 表示主语具备的的性格和能力等 如:She like apple.They know English. 1.动词 be(Verb to be) 肯定式 I am......否定 I am not.... 肯定式 You are...否定式 You are not.... 肯定式 He/She/It is....否定式 He/She/It is not.... 疑问句和简略答语 Am I ....? Yes,you are./No,I you are not. Are you....? Yes,I am./No,I am not. 2.There be 结构 "There is/are+某物/某人+某地/某时"这样一种句型,大致相当于汉语

"某地/某时有某物/某人"的说法.句子的 is/are 和后面所跟的名词在数 方面必须是一致. 肯定式:There is(There's)a table in your room. There are(There're)some pencils on the desk. 否定式:There is not(There isn't)any cats here. There are not(aren't)any cats here. 疑问式和简略答语 Is there a ruler in your bag? Yes,there is./No,there is not(isn't). Are there any people in that house? Yes,there are./No,there are not(aren't). How many kites are there in the sky? There are thirteen. 六、介词(Prepositions) 介词一般用于名词或代词前,表示该词与句子其他成分的关系.介词后面的名词 或代词称为介词宾语.介词和介词宾语一起构成介词短语. 本册课本出现的介词短语如下: at: at home at school at six thirty behind: behind the door/tree behind one's chair beside: beside the door beside the house from: from one to a hundred in: in Row/Team/Class/Grade4 in one's school/grade/class/team/rom in your desk/pencil-box/bedroom in the picture in the same class in different classes in English in the hat in the morning/afternoon like: like this/that near: near the window near the door of: a picture of a classroom a map of China the name of her cat the wall of their classroon on: on the desk/chair on the floor on the wall on the bike on the duty to:(a quarter)to ten (go)to school/bed/work under: under the desk/table under the tree/window under one's chair/bed (1) 表示时间: at: 表示某一时间点 如:at noon on: 表示特定的日子 如:on Christmas in: 表示一段不具体的时间 如: in the morning, in the Second world war 如表示在某一特定的早上、下午则用 on 如:on a cold morning, on a hot afternoon, on Sunday morning

during: 表示期间内的某个时期 如: during the night, during the Second World War for: 其后接表示一段时间长度的词 如:for three days through: 表示在整个期间没有间歇 例: It snowed through the night. till/until: 表示动作持续的终点 例:I studied hard till twelve o'clock last night. by: 表示动作完成期限 例: I'll be back by five o'clock. since: 表示某动作的起始点 例:I have studied English since 1990. (2) 表示地点: at: 表示较小的地点 如:arrived at the school gate in: 表示较大的地点 如:arrived in Shanghai for: 表示目的地 例: I'll leave for Shanghai. above: 表示上面,上方,其反意词是 below over: 表示垂直上方,其反意词是 under 例: The dog jumped over the table. through: 表示穿过 如:through the forest across: 表示平原上的跨越 例: I want to walk across the road. 七、句子的种类(Kinds of Sentences) 英语的句子按照用途可分为以下四类: 陈述句用途是用来说明事实或说话人的看法例句:I can see a map on the wall. I think it's his. 疑问句用途是用来提出问题. 例句:Are you Mr Green? Can you find it ? How old are you? 祈使句用途是用来表示请求和命令. 例句: Sstand up.Come in,please. Let's play games. 感叹句用途是用来表达强烈的感情. 例句:What a fine day it is! How beautiful the flowers are! 八、一般疑问句和特殊疑问句 一般疑问句子和特殊疑问句 一般疑问句(General Question)一般是指用 Yes 或 No 回答的疑问句。 例如:Is she at school today? Yes,she is/No,she isn't. Can you see a pencile on the desk? Yes,I can./No,I can't. Do you play football? Yes,they do./No,they don't. 特殊疑问句是以特殊疑问词开头的疑问句. (二)

一.形容词和副词的比较级和最高级 (The Comparative and Superlative Degrees of Adjective and Adverbs) 大多数形容词和副词有三个等级: 1)原级,即原形。 2)比较级,表示“较??”或“更??一些”的意思。 3)最高级,表示“最??”的意思。 1.形容词和副词比较级和最高级的构成 (1)规则变化 单音节词和少数双音节词 一般在词尾加-er 或-est cold colder coldest strong stronger strongest fast faster fastest slow slow slowest 以字母 e 结尾的形容词,加-r 或-st nice nicer nicest large larger largest 重读闭音节词只有一个辅音字母时,应先双写辅音字母,再加-er 或-est big bigger biggest thin thinner thinnest hot hotter hottest 以“辅音字母+y”结尾的双音节词,先改“y”为“i” ,再加-er 或-est easy esaier easiest happy happier happiest early earlier earliest 少数以-er,-ow 结尾的双音节词 clever(聪明的)未尾加-er,-est clever cleverer cleverest narrow narrower narrowest 多音节词和部分双音节词 在词前加 more 或 most delicious more delicious most delicious interesting more interesting most interting easily more easily most easily carefully more carefully most carefully (2)不规则变化 good/well better best bad/badly worse worst much/many more most little less least far farther/further farthest/furthest 2.形容词和副词的比较级和最高级的用法 比较级:表示两者(人或事物)的比较 Mr King is taller than Mr Read This mooncakes is nicer than that one。

The tractor is going faster than the bike。 最高级:表示三者或三者以上(人或事物)的比较,其中有一个在某一方面超过 其他几个时,用最高级。最高级的前面一般要加定冠词 the。后面可带 of(in) 短语来说明比较的范围。 Whose drawing is he best of all? She is the youngest in the class. The taxi is going ghe fastest. Mr Qin is walking tje slowest of all. 注:在形容词和副词的比较级前,有时可以用 much,a little 等来修饰, 如:much better a little taller 二。数词(Numerals) (2) 序数词(Ordinal Numbers) 序数词表示事物的顺序,往往与定冠词 the 连用。 fist 1st twentieth 20th second 2nd twenty-first 21th third 3nd thirieth 30th fourth 4nd thirty-ninth 39th fifth 5nd fortieth 40th sixth 6th fiftieth 50th seventh 7th sixtieth 60th eighth 8th seventieth 70th nineth 9th ninetieth 80th tenth 10th hundredth 100th eleventh 11th one hundred and first 101st twelfth 12th 三、冠词(Articles) 冠词是一种虚词,让在名词的前面,帮助说明名词的含义, 冠词分不定冠词(The Indefinite Article) 和定冠词(The Define Article)两种,a(an)是不定冠词。 a 用在辅音之前,如:a road a boy;an 用在元音之前,如:an hour ;an old man 等;the 是定冠词。 1.不定冠词的用法 用于可数名词的单数形式前,指人或事物的某一种类。 Susan is a scientist. Pass me an orange,please. 指某人或某事,但不具体说明何人或何物。 A boy is looking for you。 We work five days a week。 表示“一”这个数量,但数的概念没有 one 强烈。 We are going to have an English lesson tomorrow。 I have a mouth,a nose,two eyes and two ears。 用于某些固定的词组中。 a few ,a little ,a lot of ,a moment ago 2.定冠词的用法。

特指某些人或某些事物 Show me the photo of the boy。 The book on the desk is mine。 指双方都知道的人或事物。 Where are the new books,Jim? They are on the small table。 指上文提过的人或事物。 Ji Mei lives on a farm。The farm is not big。 用在世界上独一无二的事物前。 The sun is bigger than the moon。 用在序数词和形容词最高级前。 The first month of the year is January。 Walk along this road,and take the fourth turning on the left。 用在由普通名词构成的专有名词前。 the Great Wall the Women's Hospital 用在一些习惯用语中。 in the morning(afternoon,evening) , on the left(right) ,at the back(front)of the day befoer yesterday,all the same 3.不用冠词的情况 在专有名词和不可数名词前, China,Grade Two,Bill Smilk,milk 名词前已有作定语用的 this,that,my,your,some,any 等代词。 The letter is in her bag , Come this way,please . I have some question. 复数名词表示一类人或事物时, My father and mother are teachers. I like cakes. 在星期,月份,季节,节日前, It is Sunday(Monday,Tuesday,etc。 )today。 June 1st is Children's Day in China。 It is cold in winter。 在称呼语或表示头衔的名词前。 Mr Mott is going on a trip。 What colour are Mrs Green's shoes? 在三餐饭和球类运动的名词前。 He went to shool before breakfast this morning。 Can you play basketball? 四、动词(Verbs) (2) 1.动词的种类(Kinds of Verbs) 行为动词 Action Verbs:含有实在的意义,表示动作或状态,在句中能独立作谓语。 She has some bananas。

They often come back early。 I listen to the radio every day。 连系动词 Link Verbs:本身有一定的词义,但不能独立作谓语,必须与表语一起构成谓语。 His father is a teacher。 Twins usually look the same。 Trees turn green。 助动词 Auxiliary Verbs 本身没有词义,不能独立作谓语,只能和主要动词一起构成 谓语动词,表示否定,疑问,时态或其他语法形式。 He doesn't speak Englist。 We are playing basketball。 Do you have a brother? 情态动词 Modal Verbs 本身有一定的意义,但不能独立作谓语,只能和主要动词一起构成谓语动词,表示说话 人的语气和情态,情态动词没有人称和数的变化。 She can speak a little English。 May I speak to Ann,please? We must go now。 2.一般过去时态(The Simple Past Tense) 一般过去时表示过去某个时间发生的动作或存在的状态,常和过去的时间状语连用, 如:yesterday,last night,in 1990,two days ago 等,也表示过去经常或反复发生的 动作,常和 often,always 等表示频度的时间状语连用。例如: I got up at 6:30 yesterday。 My father was at work yesterday afternoon。 He always went to work by bus last year。 一般过去时的构成 be 肯定句:I was?? He (she,it) was?? We(You,They)were?? 否定句 I was not(wasn't)?? He(She,It)was not(wasn't)?? We(You,They)were not(weren't)?? work 肯定句 I(You,He,She,It,We,You,They)worked。 否定句 I(You,He,She,It,We,You,They)did not(didn't)worked。 there be 肯定句 There was…… There were…… 否定句 There was not(wasn't)?? There were not (weren't)?? 疑问句和简略答语 be

第一人称 Was I???Yes,you were。No,you were not。 Were we???Yes,we(you)were。No,we(you)were not。 第二人称 Were you???Yes,I was。No,I was not。 Were you???Yes,we were。No,we were not。 第三人称 Was he (she,it)???Yes,he(she,it)was。No,he(she,it) was not。 Were they ???Yes,they were。No,they were not。 work 第一人称 Did I work?Yes,you did。No,you did not。 Did we work?Yes,we(you)did。No,we(you) did not。 第二人称 Did you work?Yes,I did。No,I did not。 Did you work?Yes,we did。No,we did not。 第三人称 Did he (she,it)work?Yes,he(she,it)did。No,he(she,it)did not。 Did they work?Yes,they did。No,they did not。 there be Was there a/any???Yes,there was。No,there was not。 Was there any???Yes,there were。No,there were not。 规则动词过去式地构成 一般在动词原形末尾加-ed 例如:look looked,play played, 结尾是 e 的动词加-d 例如:live lived,hope hoped,use used 末尾只有一个辅音字母的重读闭音节词,先双写这个辅音字母,再加-ed 例如:stop stopped,plan planned,trip tripped 结尾是"辅音字母+y"的动词,先变 y 为 i 再加-ed. 例如:study studied carry carried,worry worried. 常见的不规则动词有: am/is-was are-were go-went have-had do-did get-got come-came say-said see-saw put-put eat-ate take-took 3.一般将来时态(The Simple Future Tense) 一般将来时表示将来某个时间要发生的动作或存在的状态,也表示将来将来经常 或反复发生的动作,常与表示将来的时间状语连用.如:tomorrow,next,week,next year 等 例如:I will go to my hometown next week. We will come to see you every Sunday. 1)一般将来时的构成一般将来时由"助动词"will+动词原形"构成.在口语中,will 在名词或代词后常简缩为'll,will not 常简缩为 won't.在疑问句中,主语为第一人称 (I 和 well)时,常用助动词 shall. 第一人称肯定式 I/We will go.否定式 I/will not go.疑问式 Shall/we go ? 第二人称肯定式 You not go.否定式 You will not go.疑问句 Will you go? 第三人称肯定式 He/She/It/They will go.否定式 He/She/It/They will not go.

疑问式 Will he/she/it/they go? 注:(1)在书面语中,主语式第一人称(I 和 we)时,常用助动词 shall+动词原形.例如: I shall write you a letter next month. We shall be very please to see you. (2)在表示"带意愿色彩的将来"时,常用 will.例如: I will tell you all about it. (3)在问对方是否愿意,或表示客气的邀请或命令时,常用 will.例如: Will you go to the zoo with me? Will you please open the window? (4)在表示建议或者征求对方意见时,可用 shall.例如: Shall we go at the ten? Shall we get some food? 2)用"be going to+动词原形"表示将要发生的的事或打算,计划,决定要作的事情. 例如: What are you going to next Sunday?下星期你打算干什么? They're going to meet outside the school gate.他们打算在校门口见面. We're not going to have any classes next week.下一周我们不上课. 五.句子的成分(Members of the sentence) 组成句子的各个部分叫做句子的成分,即:主语.谓语.表语.宾语.宾语补足语.定语和状语. 主语和谓语是句子的主体部分.表语、宾语、宾语补足语都是谓语里的组成部分 主语(The Subject) 表示句子所说的是什么人或什么事物,一般由名词代词或相当于 名词的短语等充当.例句:Lucy is an American girl. We study in No.1 Middle School. 谓语(The Predicate)说明主语"做什么","是什么"或者是怎么样.谓语(谓语部分里 主要是词)用动词.谓语和主语在人称和数两方面必须一致.例如:We love China. Mike hope to be a doctor.His parents are farmers.She is singing. 表语(The Predicative) 说明主语是什么或者怎么样,由名词、形容词或相当于名词 或形容词的词或短语等充当,和连系动词一起构成谓语。例句:Her aunt is a driver. 宾语(The Object)表示动作或行为的对象,由名词,代词或相当于名词的词,短语等 充当,和及物动词一起说明主语做什么.例句:He often helps me. We study English at school. Did you see him yesterday? 定语(The Attribute)用来休息名词或代词.做定语的除形容词外,还有代词,数词,名词 介词短语或相当于形容词的词或短语等.例句:The black bike is mine. We have four lessons in the morning.What's your name.please? 状语(The Adverbial)用来修饰动词,形容词或副词.一般表示行为发生的时间,地点 目的,方式,程度等意义,通常由副词,介词短语或相当于副词的词或短语等来表示 例句:People are all working hard.It is very nice. We had a meeting this afternoon. 六.句子的种类(Kings of Sentence) 1.四种疑问句(Four Kind of Question) 选择疑问句(The Alternative Question) 提出两种或两种以上的情况,要求对方选择一种,这种疑问句叫选择疑问句.它的机构 是一般疑问句加 or 加一般疑问句,但常把后一部分里面和前一部分相同的成分省略.说 是 or 前面部分用声调,后面用降调.如:Is her brother a adoctor or a teacher?

Would you like tea or coffee?Shall we go to the cinema on Saturday or on sunday? 反意疑问句(The Tag Question) 反意疑问句表示提问者有一定的主见,但没有把握,希望对方来证实. 反意疑问句由两部分组成,前一部分是对事物的陈述,后一部分是简单的提问.如果前一部分 用肯定的形式,后一部分一般用否定的形式;前一部分用否定的形式 ,后一部分久用肯定的形 式 两部分的人称和时态要一致. 反意疑问句陈述的部分用降调.后办部分可升可降 .提问者对陈述部分把握较大时,后半部分 用 降调;把握不大时,用降调.The weather here is very cold,isn't it? You're from Australia,aren't you? Yes,I am . 对反意疑问句的回答,不管问题的提法如何,若事实是肯定的,就要用 Yes,事实是否定的,就要 用 no.这和汉语不一样,应该注意.如: He isn't going to the meeting,is he?它不去参加会是吗? Yes,he is.不,他要去的. No ,he isn't.对他不起. 2.感叹句(The Exclamatory Sentence) 感叹句多用 how 和 what 引起.how 和 what 与所修饰的词放在句首,其他部分用陈诉语气.在 口语 中谓语常省略 (1)how 作状语,修饰形容词,副词和动词.如: How cold it is today! How delicious they are! How beautiful the flowers are! How I miss you! (2)what 作定语,修饰名词(名词前可由其他定语),单数可数名词前要加不定冠词 a(an).如: What a good idear! What a beautiful day! What a happy woman! 感叹句用来表示强烈的感情.句末要用感叹号!,读时要用降调.在口语中常用省略句.后面的 主语和谓语往往省略,由时候只用一个词或者是词组.如:How cold! Wonderful! (三) 一、动词(Verbs) 1.现在完成时(The Present Perfect Tense) (1)现在完成时的构成 现在完成时由“助动词 have(has)+过去分词”构成。现以动词 work 为例, 将现在完成时的肯定式、否定式和疑问式 以及简略答语列表如下: 肯定式 I/You have worked。 He/She/It has worked。 We/You/They have worked。 否定式 I/You have not worked。

He/She/It has not worked。 We/You/They have not worked。 疑问式和简略回答 Have I/you worked?Yes,you/I have。No,you/I have not。 Has he/she/it worked?Yes,he/she/it has。No,he/she/it has not。 Have we/you/they worked?Yes,you/we/they have。No,you/we/they have not。 注:规则动词的过去分词的构成与动词过去式相同 (2)现在完成时的用法 表示过去发生或已经完成的某一动作对现在造成的影响或结果。 Have you had your lunch yet?Yes,I have。I've just had it。 I have already posted the photos。 表示过去已经开始, 持续到现在的动作或状态, 可以和表示从过去某一时刻延续到现在的一 段 时间的状语连用。表示持续动作或状态的动词多是延续性动词。 I haven't seen her these days. I've known LiLei for three years. I've been at this school for over two years. They have lived here since 1996. How long have you worked in this library? She has taught us since I came to this school. 现在完成时可以和 already,never,just,before,yet 等状语连用。 Have you ever eaten fish and chips? I've just lost my science book. I've never been to that farm before. I haven't learned the word yet. have(has)been 和 have(has)gone 的区别: have(has) been 表示“曾经到过某地” ,have(has)gone 表示“已经去过某地了” Where has he been? 他刚才跑到哪去了? Where has he gone?他到哪去了? She has been to Shanghai。她到过上海。 She has gone to Shanghai。她到上海去了。 注:非延续性动词在否定结构中可用现在完成时,如: I haven't bought anything for two months。 (3)现在完成时和一般过去时的区别 现在完成时表示过去发生的某一动作对现在造成的影响或结果, 强调的是现在的情况, 所以 它不能和表示 过去的时间状语连用。如:yesterday,last night,three weeks ago,in 1990 等,而一般过去 时只表示过去 动作或状态,和现在不发生关系,它可以和表示过去的时间状语连用。如: I have seen the film。我看过这部电影。 I saw the film last week。我上星期看了这个电影。 He has lived here since 1992。1992 年以来他一直住在这里。 He lived here in 1992。 1992 年他住在这里。 2.过去将来时(The Futere-in-the-Past Tense)

(1)过去将来时由“助动词 would+动词圆形”构成。would 常缩略为‘d。 (2)过去将来时的用法 过去将来时表示过去的某一时间看来将要发生的动作或存在的状态。 过去将来时常用在宾语 从句中。如: I didn't know if she would come。 I wasn't sure whether he would do it。 Wang Lei said that she would visit her uncle next Saturday。 过去将来时也可以用“was(were) going to +动词原形”来表示。如: I didn't know if she was going to come。 Wang Lei said that she was going to visit her uncle next Saterday。 3.过去完成时(The Past Perfect Tense) (1).过去完成时的构成 过去完成时由“助动词 had(用于各种人称和数)+过去分词”构成 (2).过去完成时的用法 过去完成时表示在过去某一时间或动作之前已经发生或完成了的动作, 它表示动作发生的时 间是“过去的过去” 表示过去某一时间可用 by,before 等构成的短语,也可用 when,before 等引导的从句或者 通过上下文表示。 例句 By the end of the match ,they had scored two goals and we had scored four. We had reached the station before ten o'clock. When I got there ,you had already started playing . We did as he had told us. He said he had never seen such an exciting match before . By the time we got there,the bus had already gone. 4.动词不定式(The Ivnfinitive) (1)动词不定式的基本形式是“to+动词原形” ,有时可以不带 to,动词不定式(或不定式短语) 没有人称和数的变化。 在句子中不能作谓语。动词不定式仍保持动词的特点。即可以有自己的宾语和状语。动词不 定式同它的宾语或状语 构成不定式短语。如:to read the newspaper,to speak at the meeting 等 (2)动词不定式具有名词,形容词和副词的特征,因此在句中可以作主语,表语,宾语,宾 语补足语、定语,状语 作宾语 She wanted to borrow my CD player. They began to read and write。 作状语 She went to see her grandma last Sunday。 He came to give us a talk yesterday。 作宾语补足语 Lucy asked him to turn down the radio。 She asked me to speak louder。 She found him to be a very good pupil。 作定语

Have you got anything to say? I had something to eat this morning。 作主语 To learn a foreign language is not easy。 To play in the street is danerous. (3)动词不定式的否定形式 由“not+动词不定式”构成。如: Tell him not to be late。 The policeman told the boys not to play in the street。 (4)动词不定式和疑问句连用 动词不定式亏和疑问句 what,which,how,where,when 等连用,构成不定式短语。 如:The question is when to start。 I don't know where to go。 He showed me how to use a computer。 Nobody told us what to do。 (5)不带 to 的情况 有一些动词后用作宾语补足语的不定式通常不带 to,这种动词有两类;一类是感觉动词, 如 see, hear,watch,feel,notice 等,如: I saw him come。我看见他来了。 I heard him sing。我听见他唱歌了。 另一类是某些使役动词,如 make,let,have 等,如: Let him go。让他走吧 They made the children work 12 hours a day。 他们强迫孩子们一天干 12 小时。 动词 help 后的不定式可带 to,也可不带 to。 5.被动语态。(The Passive Voice) (1)主动语态和被动语态 英语动词有两种语态,即主动语态(The Active Voice)和被动语态(The Passive Voice) Many people speak English.(主动语态) English is spoken by many people。(被动语态) (2)被动语态的构成 被动语态由“助动词 be+及物动词的过去分词”构成。助动词 be 有人称,数和时态的变化, 其变化 规则与 be 作为连系动词时完全一样。现以动词 ask 为例子,将一般现在时和一般过去时被 动语态的 肯定式,否定式及疑问式列表如下: 一般现在时 肯定式 I am asked…… You are asked…… He/She is asked…… We are asked…… You are asked…… They are asked…… 否定式 I am not asked…… You are not asked…… He/She is not asked…… We are not asked…… You are not asked…… They are not asked……

疑问式 Am I asked??? Are you asked??? Is he/She asked??? Are we asked??? Are you asked??? Are they asked??? 一般过去时 肯定式 I was asked…… You were asked…… He/She was asked…… We were asked…… You were asked…… They were asked…… 否定式 I was not asked…… You were not asked…… He/She was not asked…… We were not asked…… You were not asked…… They were not asked…… 疑问式 was I asked??? were you asked??? was he/She asked??? were we asked??? were you asked??? were they asked??? (3)含有情态动词的被动语态 含有情态动词的被动语态由“情态动词+be+及物动词的过去分词”构成。如: This bicycle can be mended in two hour。 This trees may be planted in spring。 The room must be kept clean。 The flowers should be watered often。 (4)被动语态的用法 当我们不知道谁是动作的执行者, 或者没有必要指出谁是动作的执行者时, 或者只需强调动 作的 承受者时,需要被动语态。如: This jacket is made of cotton。 English is spoken in Canada。 二、宾语从句(The Object Clause) 宾语从句在复合句中作主语的宾语, 宾语从句通常作主语的宾语, 宾语从句通常由下面一些 词引导 1.由 that 引导(that 在口语或非正式文体中常省略),如: He said that he would like to see the headmaster. She said that she would leave a message on his desk . He knew that he should work hard . He said that he might fall behind the other students. He was afraid that he would forget his Chinese. 2.由连接代词或连接副词引导,如: Do you know what he has said ? I don't remember when we arrived ? I asked him where I could get so much money? Can you tell me which class you are in ? The children did not know who Father Christmas was. 3.由连词 whether 或 if 引导( 口语中常用 if) Lily wanted to knew if/wheher her grandma liked the handbag。 She asked me if she could borrow there books。 三、定语从句(The Attributive Clause)

在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句,如: (1)The man who lives next to us is a policeman (2)You must do everything that I do . 上面两句中的 man 和 everything 是定语从句所修饰的词,叫先行词,定语从句放在先行词 的后面。 引导定语从句的词有关系代词 what,which,who,(宾格 whom,所有格 whose)和关系副词 where,when,关系代词或关系副词放在先行词和定语从句之间,起联系作用,同时又作定 语从句的 一个成分。 由关系代词引导的定语从句 that 在从句中作主语或宾语 指物 A plane is a machine that can fly。(作主语) The noodles that I cooked were delicious。(作宾语) 指人 Who is the man that is reading the book over there?(作主语) The girl that we saw yesterday was Jim's sister。(作宾语) which 在从句中作主语和宾语。 指物 The silk which is produced in Hangzhou sells well。(作主语) The song which the Beatles sang were very popular。(作宾语) who,whom 在从句中分别作主语和宾语 指人 The foreigner who visit our class yesterday is form Canada。(作主语) The boy who broke the window is called Roy。(作主语) The person to whom you just talked is Mr Li。(作宾语) Mrs Evans is the person to whom you should write。(作宾语) 四、状语从句(Adverbial clause) 在复合句中,修饰主句的动词,形容词或副词等的从句叫做状语从句,状语从句根据它表达 的意思可分为 时间,原因,条件,比较,目的,结果和让步等类。 时间 由 as,after,as soon as,before,since,until,when,whenever,while 等连词引导。 As he explored the sea,he took a lot of picture. As soon as he arrived in France ,he called me. He has been in Shanghai since he was born. Don't come in until you are called. Whenever we're in truble,he'll help us . While I was watching TV,the bell rang. 原因 由 as,because,since,等连词引导 I didn't go surfing,because it was too cold. As the car is expensive ,we can't buy it . Since he was busy ,he didn't come.

条件 由 if,unless 等连词引导 If you travel in India,you can use English everywhere. I won't pass the exam unless I work hard. 比较 由 as(so)??as,than 等引导 Canoeing is not as(so) interesting as sailing (is). Li Lei swims better than Jim (does). 结果 由 so??that,等引导 He was so weak that he couldn't walk on. 目的 由 so ,so that 等引导 We'll sit near the front so we can hear the speaker better. He sat in the dark so that he couldn't be seen. 让步 由 although,even though 等引导 Although the traffic was heavy ,we got to the railway station on time. Even though he is eighty,he looks strong and healthy.


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