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高中英语句子成分分析1


句子的构成

句子成分
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 主语 subject 谓语 predicate 宾语 object 表语 predicative 宾补 complement 定语 attribute 状语 adverbial 同位语 appositive

1. I met my best friend Tom at

the station yesterday. ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ 主 谓 定 宾 同 状 语 语 语 语 位 语 语

㈠主语
主语: 可以作主语的成分有名词, 主格代词,动词 不定式, 动名词等等。主语一般在句首。

? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Jane is good at playing the piano. 名词 She went out in a hurry. 主格代词 Four plus four is eight. 数词 To see is to believe. 动词不定式 Smoking is bad for health. 动名词 the + 形 The young should respect the old. 容词 What he has said is true. 句子

㈡谓语
? 谓语: 简单谓语由动词或动词词组构成, 一 般在主语之后。 ? I saw the flag on the top of the hill? ? He looked after two orphans. ? 复合谓语 由情态动词或助动词+动词; ? He can speak English well. ? She has finished the homework.

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

1. The sun rose. 2. Who cares? 3. What he said does not matter. 4. They talked for half an hour. 5. Who knows the answer? 6. He has refused to help them. 7. He enjoys reading. 8. He said "Good morning."

(三)宾语
宾语:动作的接受者,一般在谓语后 面
●I like my job. ●I love you. ●He wanted to leave here. ●They enjoyed playing computer games. ●He asked where he was.

? 宾语分为直接宾语和间接宾语.直接宾语指 物,间接宾语指人. ? He gave me some books. ↓ ↓ 间接 直接 宾语 宾语 ●Please pass me the book. ●He bought me some flowers.

(四)宾语补足语
? 宾语补足语: 位于宾语之后对宾语作出说明 的成分。 ? I found the book interesting. 形容词 ? Do you hear Tom singing? 现在分词 ? He made himself understood. 过去分词 ? She asked me to lend her a hand. 动词不定式 ? Please make yourself at home. 介词短语 ? Please keep the dog out. 副词 ? We must keep it a secret. 名词

(五)定语
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? He is a clever boy. (形容词) They are building a stone bridge. (名词) There are 54 students in our class. (数词) Do you known Betty’s sister? (名词的所有格) He bought some sleeping pills. (动名词) There is a sleeping baby in bed. (现在分词) His spoken language is good. (过去分词) I met a friend on my way home. (副词)

The girl in red is his sister. We have a lot of work to do. The girl standing under the tree is his daughter. Do you know the man who spoke just now? There is nothing interesting in this book.

(六)状语
? 用于修饰形容词,副词,动词,介词短语或 句子.可表示时间,地点,原因,结果,目的,方 式,伴随,条件,程度,让步,频率等. ? I will be back in a while. ? They are playing on the playground. ? He was late because he got up late. ? He got up so late that he missed the train.

? I waited to see you. ? He often went to school by bus. ? His parents died,leaving him an orphan. ? Please call me if it is necessary. ? This book is very interesting. ? He went to school in spite of his illness. ? He always comes late to school.

? He went. ? He went there.

? He went there yesterday.
? He went there to see his mother yesterday. ? He went there to see his mother by bike yesterday.

(七)表语
? ? ? ? ? 在系动词后的部分就是表语 常见的系动词有: Be动词 (am, is, are) 感官系动词 feel, smell, sound, taste, look 变化系动词 become, grow, turn, fall, get, go, come ? 状态系动词 seem, keep, remain, stay, appear.

1. The war was over.

2. They seem to know the truth.
3. Time is precious.

4. I’m not quite myself today.
5. Who was the first? 6. He is out of condition. 7. The book is what I need. 8. The apple tastes good.

八、同位语
同位语 当两个指同一事物的句子成分放在
同等位置时, 一个句子成分用来说明和解释

另一个句子成分, 这个句子成分就叫做它的
同位语。

We students should study hard.
(students是we的同位语, 都是指同一批“学生”)

We all are students.
(all是we的同位语, 都指同样的“我们”)

句子分类
由一个主语(或并列主语)和一个 谓语(或并列谓语)组成的句子.eg: Tom and Mike are American boys. She likes drawing and often draws pictures for the newspaper. 有两个或两个以上的简 并列复合句 单句用连词连接而成。 如:and, but, or, so等 定语从句 主从复合句 状语从句

简单句

复合句

名词性从句 由主句和从句构成,且主从句分别有不同的主谓结构。

五大基本句型
? 一: S V (主+谓)
? 二: S V P (主+系+表)

? 三: S V O (主+谓+宾)
? 四: S V o O (主+谓+间宾+直宾) ? 五: S V O C (主+谓+宾+宾补)

基本句型 一:SV(主+谓)
谓语:不及物动词(vi.)没有宾语, 形成主谓结构。 如: We come.

S│V(不及物动词)
1. The sun rose.

2. Who cares?
3. What he said does not matter.

4. They talked for half an hour.
5. The pen writes smoothly

基本句型二:S│V(是系动词)│ P(表语) 1. This is an English-Chinese dictionary. 2. The dinner smells good. 3. He fell in love. 4. Everything looks different. 5. He is growing tall and strong. 6. Our well has gone dry. 7. His face turned red.

基本句型 三:S V O (主+谓+宾)
此句型的特点是:谓语动词都是及物动词,必须

跟有一个宾语, 即动作的承受者, 才能使意思完整。

S│V(及物动词)│O(宾语)
1. Who│knows│the answer?

2. He │has refused│to help them.
3. He│enjoys│reading.

4. He│said│“Good morning.”
5. He│admits│that he was mistaken.

基本句型 四:S V o O (主+谓+间宾+直宾)
有些及物动词可以有两个宾语, e.g.

give/pass/bring/show。这两个宾语通常一个
指人(间接宾语); 一个指物(直接宾语)。 --Give me a cup of tea please. --Give a cup of tea to me please.

give sb sth= give sth to sb

S│V(及物)│o(多指人)│O(多指物)
1.She ordered herself a new dress.
2. He brought you a dictionary. 3. I showed him my pictures. 4. I told him that the bus was late. 5. He showed me how to run the machine.

基本句型 五:S V O C (主+谓+宾+宾补)
此句型的特点是: 动词虽然是及物动词, 但是只跟一个

宾语还不能表达完整的意思, 必须加上一个补充成分
来补足宾语, 才能使意思完整。 宾语补足语: 位于宾语之后对宾语作出说明的成分。 可以用作宾语补足语的有名词, 形容词, 不定式,

动名词, 分词, 介词短语等。

The war made him a soldier. 名词 New methods make the job easy. 形容词 I often find him at work. 介词短语

The teacher ask the students to close
the windows. 动词不定式

I saw a cat running across the road. 动名词

S │V(及物)│ O(宾语) │ C(宾补)
1. They painted the door green. 3. They found the house deserted. 4. He asked me to come back soon. 5. I saw them getting on the bus.

a. S V b. S V P c. S V O d. S V o O e. S V O C
1. Pleas tell us a story. _______ d

2. She smiled. ______ a
b 3. His job is to train swimmers. _____ e 4. He noticed a man enter the room. _____ c 5. Please look at the picture. _____

Exercises:分析句子结构
? ? ? ? You are a student. He felt happy today. What you said made me happy. Could you give me some advice on how to learn English well? ? After he finished his homework, he went away. ? He likes pop music.

划分句子成分 1. You will tell your friend that you’ve got to school. 2. But as the moon gave far too much light, I didn’t dare open a window. 3. Another time five months ago, I happened to be upstairs at dusk when the window was open. 4. The dark, rainy evening, the wind, the thundering clouds held me entirely in their power.

1.You will tell (your) friend that you’ve got to school.
2. But [as the moon gave far too much light], I didn’t dare open a window.

主语 谓语

定语

间宾

直接宾语

原因状语

主语

3. [Another time five months ago], I happened to be Upstairs [at dusk] (when the window was open). 4. The (dark, rainy) evening, the wind, the thundering Clouds held me [entirely] in their power.

谓语

宾语

状语

一) 挑出下列句中的宾语 ① My brother hasn't done his homework. ② People all over the world speak English. ④ How many new words did you learn last class?

⑤ Some of the students in the school want
to go swimming, how about you?

⑥ The old man sitting at the gate said he was ill.

(二) 挑出下列句中的表语 -- The old man was feeling very tired.

-- The leaves have turned yellow.

-- Soon they all became interested in the
subject.

(三) 挑出下列句中的定语

1. What is your given name?
2. I am afraid some people forgot to sweep

the floor.
3. The man downstairs was trying to sleep. 4. I am waiting for the sound of the other shoe!

(四) 挑出下列句中的宾语补足语 ① She likes the children to read newspapers and books in the reading-room. ② He asked her to take the boy out of school. ③ She found it difficult to do the work. ④ They call me Lily sometimes. ⑤ I saw Mr Wang get on the bus.

(五) 挑出下列句中的状语

① There was a big smile on her face.
② Every night he heard the noise upstairs.

③ He began to learn English when he was
eleven. ④ The man on the motorbike was traveling too fast.

⑤ With the medicine box under her arm,
Miss Li hurried off.

⑥ She loves the library because she loves
books.

⑦ I am afraid that if you've lost it, you must
pay for it.

⑧ The students followed Uncle Wang to see
the other machine.


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