M4U1 Part4 Grammar and usage Direct speech and reported speech
【设计思想】 本堂课是以让学生辨识直接英语和间接引语，如何将陈述句、疑问句、祈使句改为间接引语等为 主的语法课。语法课的教学目标包括帮助学生理解并掌握比较人、物体及事物的表达方式；也包括使 用适当的语言形式进行描述和表达观点、态度和情感等语言基础
知识。当然，语法教学不能让学生死 记枯燥的规则。教师必须创设具体语境，让学生在真实的语言情景中学习，在语境中学会运用规则。 【教学目标】 1. Get to learn the difference between direct speech and reported speech or indirect. 2. Learn how to change direct speech into indirect speech in different tenses. 3. Learn to use indirect speech in statements, questions and imperative sentences. 【重点难点】 After learning Linking verbs, the students will know how to apply these rules into practice. 【教学环节】 Step 1 Words and expression review Make a dialogue with some Ss to introduce the topic. Step 2. Direct speech and reported speech 1. What should we pay attention to when changing direct speech into repored speech? (1) personal pronouns and tense (2 )adverbials of time and place (3 )other cases Step 3. How to use reported speech to report 1. 陈 述 句 用 that 连接 She said, ‘Ads are an important part of our lives.’ =She said that ads are an important part of our lives. ‘Are all ads playing tricks on us?’I asked her. =I asked her whether/if all ads were playing tricks on us. （ the style used in writing to report what someone said without repeating their actual words.） 【要点】 （根据学生情况 可作调整） 1. 标点符号的变化： He said to me, “Don’t live in London!” = He told me not
连 接 词
2. 一般（选择，反 意）疑问句用 if 或 whether 连接
3. 特殊疑问句仍用 原来的特殊疑问词 连接 to live in London.
I asked her, ‘How can that be true?’ I asked her how that could be true.
He said to me, “Do you live in London?” = He asked me if/whether I lived in London. 3. 动词的变化: say (to) 在陈述句中多变为 tell 等词，在疑问句中多变为 ask 等词，在祈使句 中表示命令多变为 tell, order 等词，表请求时多变为 ask 等词。 He said to me, “Could you please live in London?” = He asked me if/whether I could live in London. = He asked me to live in London. 4. 连接词的变化： 5. 时态的变化： 时态的变化 1.主句是一般现在 时态，间接引语的 动词时态不变。 一般现在时 一般过去时 现在进行时 过去进行时 现在完成时 过去完成时 一般过去时 过去完成时 过去完成时 / 过去 将来时 / 过去进行 时 不变 一般将来时 过去将来时 直接引语 He says, “I live in London.” 间接引语 =He says that he lives in London.
2.、直接引语转换成间接引语时时态的变化 He said, "I'm afraid I can't finish this work." He said, "I'm using the knife." She said, "I have not heard from him since May." He said; "I came t o help you." He said, "I had finished my homework before supper." Zhou Lan said, "I'11 do it after class." =He said that he was afraid he couldn't finish that work. =He said that he was using the knife. =She said that she had not heard from him since May. =He said that he had come to help me. =He said that he had finished his homework before supper. =Zhou Lan said that she would do it after class. =He said that he was born in 1956
3. 表示过去具体 年份的状语不变
He said, “I was born in 1956.”
4. 表示真理，格 言，谚语等不受时
人 称 代 词 变 化
He said, “The earth =He said that the earth turns around the turns around the sun. sun.” 1. 一主（根 Tom said to Kate, “I have finished my homework.” 据引号外的 = Tom and Kate that he had already finished his 主语变换引 homework. 号内的人称 代词） 2. 二宾（根 据引号外的 宾语变换引 号内的人称 代词） 3. 三不变 （第三人称 不变） Tom said to Kate, “You speak English better than me.” = Tom told Kate that she spoke English better than him. Tom asked Mike, “Does she often come to school late?” = Tom asked Mike if/whether she often went to school late. =She said that the bus leaves at 5:40. (公交车 尚未开走) =He said that he would like to live in London. = He said that he used to live in London.
5. 强调所谈情况 She said,‘the bus 仍然存在时不变。 leaves at 5:40. ’(公 交车尚未开走) 6.could,would,should, needn’t, had better, o ught to, used to 等情 态动词不变。 He said, “I would like to live in London.” He said, “I used to live in London.”
6. 人称代词的变化： 7. 指示代词、时间状语、地点状语和动词的变化 直接引语转换成 间接引语时的变 化 例 直 接 引 语 句 间 接 引 语
this these those now today day
She said, "I will come this morning." He said, "These books are mine." He said, "It is nine o'clock now. He said, "I haven't seen her today." She said, "I went there yesterday." She said, “I'11 go t here tomorrow. ?“ He said, "My sister was here three days ago." She said, "I will come here this evening."
yesterday the day before tomorrow the next/following day here there come go
She said that she would go that morning. He said that those books were his. He said that it was nine o'clock then. He said that he hadn't seen her that day. She said that she had gone there the day before. She said that she would go there the next (following) day. He said that his sister had been there three days before. She said that she would go there that eveni ng.
Step4 Consolidation: a short quiz 一、完成下列对话： (每题 3 分，共 12 分) 1. Lily: Don’t touch the things in the corner. Jim: What did she tell me to do, Lucy? Lucy: ___________________ ___________________ _ 2. Mum: Charlie, please tidy your room up and put away your dirty clothes! Charlie: What did Mum tell me to do, Dad?
Dad: __________________________________________________ 3. Girl: Don’t drive so fast! It’s dangerous. Man: What did you say just now? Girl: ___________________________________________________ 4. Mum: Will you please pass me the soap？ Dad: What did Mum ask me to do, Tom? Son: ___________________________________________________ 二、将下列句子改为间接引语： （每题 3 分，共 15 分） 1. “I’m very glad to visit your factory,” said the visitor. ________________________________________________________ 2. “I don’t like American movies very much,” said the woman. ________________________________________________________ 3. “We’re having a meeting now,” the teacher said to her students. ______________________________________________________ 4. “I will try to finish reading the book by the end of this week,” she said. _____________________________________________________ 5. “Mom has gone to the bookstore, ” the daughter said to her father. ________________________________________________________
三、单项选择： （每题 3 分，共 30 分） 1.The chemistry teacher told them ________ anything in the lab. A. didn’t touch B. don’t touch C. not to touch D. not touch 2. Our teacher said that Jiangsu __________ in the east of China. A. lay B. lies C. laid D. is lying 3.He said that his bike ________ stolen and that he __________ have to telephone the police. A. was ; would B. has; will C. has been; will D.had been; would 4. The mother asked her son ______________. A. what did he do the day before B. where did he find his lost wallet C. what time he got up that morning D.what if he had finished his homework 5. “What a beautiful dress!” she said. She remarked ________________. A. what a beautiful dress it was B. what it was a beautiful dress C. a beautiful dress D. what dress it was beautiful 6.She said that _________ it ________ my turn. A. now; is B. now; was C. then; is D. then; was 7. The teacher said, “Please sit down.” The teacher ______________. A. said please sit down B. asked them to sit down C. said to them to sit down D. ordered them to sit down 8. He said that the head of our college _________ for the U.S. __________. A. has left; two days ago B. had left; two days ago C. had left; two days before D. has left; two days before 9. Father asked _____________. A. what was wrong with me B. what’s wrong with me C. what wrong was with me D. what wrong is with me 10. “Let’s take a break,” he said. He suggested ___________. A. to take a break B. they take a break C. they would take a break D. let them take a break CBDCA DBCAB 【板书设计】
1. 直接引语间接引语极其用法 2. 讲解过程中遇到的生词。 自我评价（学生） 课后反思（教师）
【提升与拓展】 Ⅰ.单项填空 1. Our English teacher suddenly stopped and asked __________. A. what was the matter C. what is the matter A. which she could do C. which could she do A. had g one C. had left B. had set off D. had been away B. what the matter was D. what the matter is B. what she can do D. what can she do
2. I think you should talk to your daughter and tell her __________ to solve the problem.
3. When Jack arrived, he learned Mary __________ for almost an hour.
4. —Could you tell me _________ _? —Sorry, I have no idea. A. where lives Mr. Smith B. Mr. Smith lives where C. where does Mr. Smith live[ D. w here Mr. Smith lives 5. He asked __________ for the violin. A. did I pay how much C. how much did I pay 6. He said,“I am living with my brother.” →He said that ________ was living with ________ brother. A. I; my C. he; his B. you; your D. he; my B. I paid how much D. how much I paid
7. You can never know __________ when she received our presents. A. how excited she was B. how she was excited C. how was she excited D. how excited was she 8. He asked,“Are you a Party member or a League member?” →He asked me _________ . A. am I a Party member or a League member B. was I a Party member or a League member C. if I was a Party member or a League member D. whether was I a Party member or a League member 9. My mother asked me to show my homework to her. →My mother said to me， “Show _________ homework.” A. her my C. her your B. me your D. me his
10. He said,“Don’t do that again.” →He ________ me _________ that again. A. said to; not to do B. said to; don’t do C. told; don’t do D. told; not to do
11. Do you know __________? A. where is her address B. in which place is her address C. what her address is D. the place her address is 12. Excuse me, but can you tell me __________? A. where can I get to the library B. where I can get to the library C. how can I get to the library D. how I can get to the library 13. The general said to the men,“Don’t stop practising.” →The general __________ the men __________ practising. A. ordered; not to stop C. said to; not to stop stop 14. John asked me __________ to visit his uncle’s farm with him. A. how would I like B. if or not would I like C. whether I would like __________. A. he is entering which lane B. which lane he is entering C. is he entering which lane D. which lane is he entering 16. Scientists study __________ human brains work to make computers. A. when C. that B. how D. whether D. which I would like 15. When changing lanes, a driver should use his turning signal to let other drivers know B. ordered; don’t stop D. requested; to not
17. —It’s no use having ideas only. —Don’t worry. Peter can show you __________ to turn an idea into an act. A. how C. what A. had been lying C. was lying B. who D. where B. has been lying D. has lain
18. When Alice came to, she did not know how long she __________ there.
Ⅱ.用括号中动词的正确形式填空 1. The teacher said that light __________ (travel) faster than sound. 2. He told us he had __________ (finish) reading the book. 3. She told me __________ (not tell) him the news. 4. We all know that practice __________ (make) perfect. 5. She said she __________ (go) to England in 1998. 6. He says that he __________ (buy) me a book yesterday.
7. He told me that he __________ (teach) English since he came here. 8. She asked him __________ (bring) her a cup of tea. Ⅲ.句型转换 1. “I’ve found my wallet,”he said to me. He __________ me that he __________ __________ __________ wallet. 2.“I took it home with me,”she said. She said that __________ __________ __________ it home with her. 3. The teacher said,“The sun rises in the east and goes down in the west.” The teacher said that the sun __________ in the east and __________ down in the west. 4.“You must come here before five,”he said. He said that I __________ to go __________ before five. 5.“Did you see her last week?”he said. He __________ __________ I had seen her the week __________. 6. He said,“You can sit here, Jim.” He __________ Jim that he __________ sit there. 7. He asked,“How did you find it, mother?” He asked his mother __________ __________ ____ ______ found it. 8.“Where have you been these days?”he asked. He asked me __________ I __________ been __________ days. 答案与解析 Ⅰ. 1. A 句意：我们的英语老师突然停下来问怎么了。ask 后的宾语从句用陈述语序且主句中谓语 为一般过去时，故变为间接引语时也应改为过去时态。 2. B 句意：我认为你应该和你女儿谈一下，告诉她她应该做什么来解决这个问题。tell 后的宾 语从句用陈述语序。what 引导宾语从句且充当 do 的宾语。 3. D 句意：当杰克到达时，他得知玛丽已经离开几乎一个小时了。宾语从句的动作先于 learned 的动作发生， 故宾语从句谓语动词要用过去完成时态， 后面又有一段时间状语， 要用持续性动词， 从而判定答案为 D。 4. D 问句句意：——你能告诉我史密斯先生住在哪儿吗？tell 后的宾语从句用陈述语序。 5. D 句意：他问我花了多少钱买了这把小提琴。宾语从句要求使用陈述句语序，而非一般疑问句 语序，故答案为 D。 6. C 句意：他说他跟弟弟在一起住。直接引语变间接引语时，第一人称代词要按照引述动词主语 的人称而变化，故第一空用 he；第二空用 his。 7. A 句意：你不会知道当她收到我们的礼物时她是多么兴奋。know 后的宾语从句用陈述语序。 8. C 一般疑问句变为间接引语时由 whether/ if 引导，结合宾语从句中用陈述语序，可知 C 项正 确。 9. B 考查由间接引语变为直接引语。直接引语是个祈使句，句意：母亲说： “把你的作业给我看 看。 ”故选 B。 10. D 句意：他告诉我不要再那样做了。祈使句转化为间接引语，不定式在引述动词后作补语， 故否定式为 not to do。
11. C 句意： 你知道她的住址吗？know 后的宾语从句需用陈述语序。 对 address 进行提问用 what。 12. D 句意：不好意思，你能告诉我如何到达图书馆吗？tell 后的宾语从句需用陈述语序，故排 除 A、C 两项；因句中有地点状语，故排除 where; how 表示方式。 13. A 祈使句由直接引语变间接引语时，谓语动词变成不定式，其否定形式应将 not 放在不定式 符号前。 14. C 句意：约翰问我是否愿意和他一起参观他叔叔的农场。ask 后的宾语从句 ，询问对方的意 愿，故用 whether。 15.B 16. B 17. A 考查连接词的用法 。句意：——只有主意没用。——不用担心。彼得可以教你怎样把主意 变为行动。虽然四个词都可以和动词不定式连用，但是意义不同。how 表示“怎样” ，强调方式； 而 who 和 what 是连接代词，一般在不定式短语中作宾语，此句中动词不定式有宾语，不再需要 宾语，所以排除；where 则强调地点，与上一句不对应。 18. A 句意：当艾丽斯醒来时，她不知道自己在那儿躺了多久。根据宾语从句中时态一致原则。 排除 B、D 两项。结合句意可知 宾语从句中动作发生在过去的过去，故 A 项正确。 Ⅱ.1. travels 8. to bring Ⅲ. 1. told; had found his 2. she had taken 3. rises; goes 4. had; there 5. asked if/ whether; before 6. told; could 7. how she had 8. where; had; those 2. finished 3. not to tell 4. makes 5. went 6. bought 7. had taught