一、何时使用被动语态 1. 不知道谁是动作的执行者或没有必要知道时： Paper is made from wood. 中文：_______________________________________________________________________ The house is quite old. It was bui
lt in 1950. 中文：_______________________________________________________________________ He was wounded in the fight. 中文：_______________________________________________________________________ 2. 需要强调动作的承受者时： Books and newspapers in the reading room mustn't be taken away. 中文：_______________________________________________________________________ He was awarded first prize in that contest. 中文：_______________________________________________________________________ 3. 为了使语气婉转，避免提及自己或对方而使用被动语态，或由于修饰的需要，使用被动 语态，使句子得以更好的安排： The construction of the new lab must be completed by the end of next month. 中文：_______________________________________________________________________ Electricity is used to run machines. 中文：_______________________________________________________________________ 二. 被动语态的构成 主动语态变为被动语态的方法： 主动语态：主语 + 谓语动词 + 宾语 （执行者） （承受者） 被动语态：主语 + be + 过去分词（+ by + 执行者）(一般省略) ◎变被动语态 1)The workers have built three bridges since 1988.（主动语态） Three bridges_________________ (by the workers) since 1988.（被动语态） 2) Mother was not mending the trousers. _____________________________________________ 3) He told me that he would come back soon. _____________________________________________ 4) Do you water your flowers every day? _____________________________________________ 各种时态的被动语态（以 make 为例） 一般式 进行时 完成时
现在 过去 将来 过去将来
is / are made
注意： 1. be+done 可以是被动语态，也可以是系表结构形式。被动语态中，done 可以带 by 短语， 而系表结构中 done 相当于 adj. 不带 by 短语。 The question is settled. (系表结构) Such questions are settled by us. (被动语态) The composition is well written. (系表结构) The composition is written with great care . (被动语态) The job was well done. (系表结构) The job was well done by a skilled worker. (被动语态) 2. 许多 verbs(broken, interested, shut, worried) ， 既可以用做 adj.， 也可以在被动语态结构中做 过去分词。句中如果有 by，通常是被动语态。 I was worried aboutyou all night. (表状态) I was worried by mosquitoes all night. (表动作) The glass was broken by Jack. (表动作) The glass is broken. (表状态) I was frightened by his ghost story. She was frightened at the sight of a snake. 3. The nurse looked after the children well when I was away last week. 被动： ___________________________________________________________________________ 结论 : _________________________________________________________________________ ①A neighbour helped to keep our dog. It ______________ while we were on holiday. A. was taken care B. took care of C. is taken care of D. was taken care of ②Mr. Johnson's story _____ by everyone who heard it. A. laughed at B. was laughed C . l a u g h e d D. was laughed at 三、特殊的被动结构 1. 带宾语补足语的句子改为被动语态： 主动语态：主语 + 谓语动词 + 宾语 + 宾语补足语
被动语态：主语 + be + 过去分词 + 主语补足语 结论：主动结构中的宾语→ _________ ，宾语补足语保留在___________后面。 ◎变被动语态 1) We always keep the classroom clean.
_____________________________________________________________________ 2) They call her Sofia. ______________________________________________________________________ 3) He left the door open. ______________________________________________________________________ 4) My brother often made me do this and that when I was young. ______________________________________________________________________ 5) I heard her move about in her room upstairs last night. ______________________________________________________________________ 6) Did you see Jack take away the magazine? ______________________________________________________________________ 注意：还原 to 原则 三个使役动词：_________，_________，_________， 三看二听一注意：__see___，_________，_________，_________，_________，_________。 在主动语态的句子中，以上动词后后面跟着的动词不定式省略 to，但变成被动语态时， __________________。 ? ? ? The boy was made ____ streets without pay in the old days. A. to clean B. clean C. cleaned D. be cleaned The news made us cry. ______________________________________________________________ I saw him come into the office just now. ______________________________________________________________
2.带有双宾语结构的句子改为被动语态： 主动 give sbsth I pass him the salt. Mary can mend him his bike. He will buy us some food. 双宾语，物做主语， “人”前加_______ 或 _________； 在 give、take、show、pass、lend、sell、bring、leave 等；加介词 _______ 在 buy、make、mend、build、cook 等；加介词 ___________ 3.带宾语补足语的句子改为被动语态： 句型 1：It + be + 主句谓语动词的 过去分词 + that + 原宾语从句 被动 1 sb is given sth 被动 2 sth is given to sb.
句型 2： 宾语从句的主语 1)
+ be +
People say that she knows five languages.
句型 1：___________________________________________________________________ 句型 2：___________________________________________________________________ 2) People say that he will come tomorrow. 句型 1：___________________________________________________________________ 句型 2：___________________________________________________________________ 3) We believe that the book has been translated into English. 句型 1：___________________________________________________________________ 句型 2：___________________________________________________________________ 注意一下表达方式： It is said that ... It is hoped that ... It is supposed that ... It must be admitted that ... It must be pointed out that ... It is well known that ... It is believed that ... 4. 主动 to do doing / 1) 2) 3) 被动 to be done being done done
I didn't expect ______________________________. (被邀请) He doesn't like ______________________________. (受到这样的对待) He asked who was ___________________________. (正在被动手术的人)
5. get + 过去分词：表示“经历” 、 “受苦” 、 “情感或身体变化” arrested, get + changed, hanged, married, bored, drunk, hurt, punished, broken, wounded, invited, repaired, burned, excited, killed, tired, caught, fired, lost, translated
7. I have so much work to do.____________________________________ I have so much work to be done. _________________________________ Have you anything to send? _____________________________________ Have you anything to be sent? ___________________________________ There is a lot of work to do. ______________________________________ There is a lot of work to be done. ______________________________________ 四、主动形式表被动意义：
1. 动词 want、need、require、deserve 等表示“需要”的动词后用动名词形式。 ? The boy needs to be looked after. = The boy needs looking after. ? The window wants to be repaired. = _____________________________________ ? The story deserved to be mentioning. = ___________________________________ 2. The cloth __________ (wash) well. The third act ___________ (play) well. The poem _________ (read) smoothly. This pair of glasses ___________ (wear) comfortably. The door ____________ (not shut). The car _____________ (not start). 结论：________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 这类不及物动词有： act, clean, cut, cook, burn, draw, keep, lock, move, pick, play, read, sell, shut, tear, wash, wear, write 3. 有些动词既可以当及物动词使用，又可以当不及物动词使用（表被动意义） 。 ? He has improved his oral English. → His oral English has improved. ? They changed their work pattern. → Their work pattern changed. ? We finished the party with a song. → The party finished with a song. 这类动词（多为描述从一种状态到另一种状态）有： begin, bend, break, change, close, cook, continue, crash, decrease, increase, drive, drop, finish, fly, grow, improve, melt, open, run, sail, shrink, shut, split, spread, start, stick, stop, stretch, tear, widen. 4.“值得.....” sth be worth doing sth be worthy to be done. of being done. It is worthwhile to do sth. / doing sth. 5. 不定式 to blame（责备） ，to let（出租）作表语时，主动形式表被动含义 6. 某些作表语的形容词 （difficult, easy, hard, dangerous, comfortable, cheap, expensive, safe, simple, sift, terrible, good 等）后，用不定式的主动形式表被动意义。 7. 感官动词（feel, look, smell, sound, taste, wear, prove）与形容词连用时。 五、某些动词不能用被动结构。 1. 动词 leave，enter，reach 等的宾语是表示处所、地点（国家、团体、组织、军队）等时； 2. 表状态的动词： become, benefit, cost, contain, equal, exist, fit, fail, have, lack, last, mean, seem, resemble, suit, look like 等； 3. 下列不及物动及词组： die rise with appear disappear agree with belong to keep words lose heart happen occur break out consist of take place lie keep up
Exercise 1: It was getting dark when I __1_________(get) home.It was cold and I __2________(wear) a coat.I walked up to the door and put my hand into my pocket to take out the key，but I couldn't find it.I suddenly remembered that I __3___________(leave) it on my desk in the office.It really didn't make any difference.I knew my wife __4_________(be) at home and the children must have come back from school by now, so I __5___________(knock) at the door.There was no answer.I _6__________(continue) knocking at the door for some time.I __7__________(get) angry.Then I remembered something the office boy had told me at noon.He said that my wife had phoned saying that she _8____________(go) shopping in the afternoon with the children.It seemed that nothing __9___________(can do) and I__10__________(shut) out of my house.: Exercise 2： ( )1._____ a new library _____ in our school last year? A.Is; built B.Was; bulit C.Does; build D.Did; build
( )2.An accident ____ on this road last week. A.has been happened B.was happened C.is happened D.happened
( )3.Cotton ____ in the southeast of China. A.is grown B.are grown C.grows D.grow
( )4.So far,the moon ____ by man already. A.is visited B.will be visited C.has been visited D.was visited
( )5.Mary ____ show me her new dictionary. A.has asked to B.was asked to C.is asked D.asks to
( )6.How many trees ____ this year? A.are planted B.will plant C.have been planted D.planted
( )7.A lot of things ____ by people to save the little girl now. A.are doing B.are being done C.has been done D.will be done
( )8.Neither of them ______ in China. A.is made B.are made C.were made D.made