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2011年英语阅读理解主旨大意题专项训练


2011 年高考英语阅读理解主旨大意题解题技巧 一、 考纲解读:
在高考阅读理解中, 主旨大意题的考查占有十分重要的位置。 掌握所读材料的主旨和大 意也是《英语课程标准》和《考试说明》对考生的基本要求之一。只有通过阅读掌握了文章 的主题,才能正确理解文章,进而根据文章的事实细节推测作者的态度和观点。 主旨大意题主要是测试考生对一篇文章或一段文字的深层理解程度以及在速读中

准确 把握文章主旨大意的能力。 一般针对某一语段或某一语篇的主题标题或目的设题。 凡是问文 章标题(the best title) 、大意(the main idea)和写作意图(the purpose, the aim)的题目都属 于此类。它要求考生在理解全文的基础上能较好地运用概括、判断、归纳、推理等逻辑思维 方法,对文章进行高度概括或总结,属于高层次题。

二、

题型特点与命题方式

【设题类型】 1、_________________________________________________ 2、_________________________________________________ 3、目的类主旨大意(purpose) 【设问形式】 1、大意类常见的主题型题干: 1) _________________________________________________ 2) _________________________________________________ …… 2、标题类常见的标题型题干: 1) _________________________________________________ 2) _________________________________________________ …… 3、目的类常见的标题型题干: 1) _________________________________________________ 2) _________________________________________________ ……

三、

应试技巧

一、主题句认定法; 我们会发现很多文章常常有表明作者观点的主题句。 如果能找出这些主题句, 必将极大地帮 助我们解决主旨大意题。通过以下阅读的练习,观察主题句通常出现在文章的__________ , __________ , __________ 。需要强调的是,不是每一篇文章都有主题句, Passage 1 (09?安徽 A 篇) Remembering names is an important social skill. Here are some ways to master it. Recite and repeat in conversation. …… Ask the other person to recite and repeat. …… 59. What does the text mainly tell us? _____________ A. Tips on an important social skill. B. Importance of attending parties. C. How to make use of associations. D. How to recite and repeat names. 【解析】 很明显这篇文章主要是围绕第一段话题展开的论述,所以第一段就是文章的主题
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句。从而可以选出正确的答案:________ Passage 2 (09 年四川卷 A 篇) Hey there, So you’re about to spend four years of your life and tens of thousands of dollars of your patent’s money, and all you really know about college is that all of your friends are going. Do you ever stop to wonder why you’re going? … … Finding the right college can be difficult. Fortunately, Johnson Review is here to help you every step of the way. … … For more information, call 600-3681 or visit JohnsonReview.com. Wherever you go, have a nice trip!(最后一段) 44. What’s the author’s purpose of writing this test? A. To suggest ways to prepare for college learning B. To help readers find the right college C. To make Johnson Review popular D. To introduce college life 【解析】本篇阅读的主要意思就是一篇应用文,它的目的就是给大家一份建议,在各种场合下 如何记住别人的名词,属于社交范畴。纵观全文,特别是最后一段的最后一句可知作者的真 正目的是 To make Johnson Review popular。从而选出正确答案_______。 Passage3 (09 年全国卷 I D 篇) It's not easy being a teenager (13 至 19 岁青少年) – nor is it easy being the parent of a teenager. You can make your child feel angry, hurt, or misunderstood by what you say without realizing it yourself. It is important to give your child the space he needs to grow while gently letting him know that you’ll still be there for him when he needs you. Expect a lot from your child, just not everything. Except for health and safety problems, such as drug use or careless driving, consider everything else open to discussion. … … Teach your teenager that the family phone is for the whole family. If your child talks on the family’s telephone for too long, tell him he can talk for 15 minutes, … … 68. The main purpose of the text is to tell parents ______. A. how to get along with a teenager B. how to respect a teenager C. how to understand a teenager D. how to help a teenager grow up 【解析】 这篇文章是作者向父母们介绍一些教育青少年的可行的做法,文章结构平行。第 一段的大意是要给孩子一定的空间; 第二段的大意是对孩子要有期望但不能期望一切, 要让 孩子自己去解决问题, 教孩子遇到问题时向父母求助; 第三段的大意是要教育孩子和家人分 享电话。将三段的大意串联起来我们可以发现,文章的写作目的是提建议,帮助父母教育青 少年子女,从而选出正确答案_______。 二、文章结构识别法; 很多文章的结构,例如议论文、科普文,都是总-分-分或者分-分-总。还有提建议类、广告 类的文章通常使用平行结构,新闻类通常使用倒金字塔结构…… 了解文章的结构能够帮助我们迅速找出文章的主旨大意, 特别是新闻, 主旨大意通常出现在 文章的第一或第二段。 Passage 4((2009 北京卷,D 篇) When students and parents are asked to rate subjects according to their importance, the arts are unavoidably at the bottom of the list. Music is nice, people seem to say, but not important. Too often it is viewed as mere entertainment, but certainly not an education priority (优先) . This view
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is shortsighted. In fact, music education is beneficial and important for all students. …… So music education is far more necessary than people seem to realize. 71. What is the main idea of the passage? A. Music education deserves more attention. B. Music should be of top education priority. C. Music is an effective communication tool. D. Music education makes students more imaginative. 【解析】 。文章第一段引出话题:When students and parents are asked to rate subjects according to their importance, the arts are unavoidably at the bottom of the list. Music is nice, people seem to say, but not important. Too often it is viewed as mere entertainment, but certainly not an education priority(优先). This view is shortsighted. In fact, music education is beneficial and important for all students. 表明人们对音乐不重视,然后作者从不同方面来论证自己的观点: 音乐应该得到人们更多的关注。从而可以选出正确的答案:________ 三、排除法; 每一道主旨大意题总有比较容易判断出是错误的选项, 将这样的选项排除掉有助于我们排除 干扰、缩小范围,提高命中率。 Passage 5 (2009 年四川卷 E 篇) All too often,a choice that seems sustainable(可持续的)turns out on closer examination to be problematic. Probably the best example is the rush to produce ethanol(乙醇)for fuel from corn. Corn is a renewable resource—you can harvest it and grow more,almost limitlessly. So replacing gas with corn ethanol seems like a great idea. ……The admirable goal of living sustainably requires plenty of thought on an ongoing basis. 60.What does the author mainly discuss in the text? A.Technology. B.Sustainability. C.Ethanol energy. D.Environmental protection. 简析:很明显,这篇文章并不是讲环境保护问题,我们首先可以排除 D 项;再进一步分析, 答案 A 过于笼统,也不是文章所主要讲述的,也排除。剩下 B 和 C,通过阅读我们知道, 用玉米制造乙醇,这样的―可持续发展‖会引起其他方面的问题,是不实际的,从而可以选出 正确的答案:________ 四、不大不小具体法。 遵循四字原则: 精准全新 文章标题通常有如下要求:不能过大、 过于笼统, 放之四海皆适用; 也不能过小、以偏概全, 挂一漏万。好的文章标题具有较强的针对性、独特性,能够准确地概括出这篇短文的主旨大 意,而不是其它文章的大意。掌握标题的这些特点,可以帮助我们识别出正确的标题来。 Passage 6 (2009 年全国卷 I A 篇) I suddenly heard an elephant crying as though frightened. Looking down, I immediately recognized that something was wrong, and ran down to the edge of the near bank. There I saw Ma Shwe with her three-month-old calf struggling in the fast-rising water, and it was a life-and-death struggle. Her calf was floating and screaming with fear. …… While I was wondering what I could do next, I heard the sound of a mother’s love. Ma Shwe had crossed the river and got up the bank and was making her way back as fast as she could, roaring (吼叫) all the time, but to her calf it was music. 59. What can be the best title for the text? A. A Mother’s Love B. A Brave Act C. A Deadly River D. A Matter of Life and Death 简析: 本文讲述一头母象不顾自身安危营救一头小象的经过, 赞美了母爱的力量。 通过分析,
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选项 B(一件勇敢的事)和 D(一件生与死的事)就犯了标题过于空泛的毛病;而选项 C 又明显犯了片面的错误, 从而可以选出正确的答案: ______, 准确地表述了文章的主旨大意。 五、假定标题写作法; 这是一种逆向思维的方法。这种方法就是先设定某一个选项为正确的文章标题,那么,按照 这个标题文章通常应该怎么写、 写什么呢?根据标题里的核心词, 我们可以在头脑里大致确 定一下文章的结构和内容,如果二者与阅读短文基本相同,就可以判断该项正确;如果与短 文大相径庭,就可以判断该项不对。 使用这种方法的关键是找出标题中的核心词。 Passage 7 (2009 年浙江英语卷 E 篇) Four people in England, back in 1953, stared at photo 51. It wasn’t much –a picture showing a black X. But three of these people won the Nobel Prize for figuring out what the photo really showed—the shape of DNA. The discovery brought fame and fortune to scientists James Watson, Francis crick, and Maurice Wilkins. The fourth, the one who actually made the picture, was left out. Her name was Rosalind Franklin. ―She should have been up there,‖ says historian Mary Bowden. ‖if her photo hadn’t been there, the others couldn’t have come up with the structure.‖ one reason Franklin was missing was that she had died of cancer four years before the Nobel decision. But now scholar doubt that Franklin was not only robbed of her life by disease but robbed of credit by her competitions. …… As Franklin’s competitors, Wilkins, Watson and Crick had much to gain by cutting her out of the little group of researchers, says historian Pnina Abir-Am. In 1962 at the Nobel Prize awarding ceremony, Wilkins thanked 13 colleagues by name before he mentioned Franklin. Watson wrote his book laughing at her. Crick wrote in 1974 that ―Franklins was only two steps away from the solution.‖ No, Franklin was the solution.‖ She contributed more than any other player to solving the structure of DNA. She must be considered a co-discoverer,‖ Abir-Am says. This was backed up by Aaron Klug, who worked with Franklin and later won a Nobel Prize himself. Once described as the ―Dark Lady of DNA‖, Franklin is finally coming into the light. 57. What is the text mainly about? A. The disagreements among DNA researchers. B. The unfair treatment of Franklin. C. The process of discovering DNA. D The race between two teams of scientists. 简析:假如 A 项正确的话,那么核心词是 disagreements,重点应写 DNA 研究人员们的分 歧; 假如 B 项正确的话, 重点应写对富兰克林的不公正, 核心词 unfair; 假如 C 项正确的话, 那么重点应写发现 DNA 的进程,核心词 progress;假如 D 项正确的话,重点应写两组科学 家们的竞争,核心词是 race。通过以上重新构思写作法,再与原文进行比较,发现 B 项与 原文最一致,从而可以选出正确的答案:________ 总而言之,以上五种方法并不是孤立存在的,针对一道题目,我们可以把五种方法结合起 来,融会贯通,灵活使用。

四、思考
1. 主旨句的出现位置:_____________________________ 2. 正确选项的特点 含有抽象名词和概括性词语 . 四个选项中 , 含有 approach, concept, chance, opportunity, various, both, general, many, difficult, way, necessity, necessary, importance 等词的选项一般
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是正确选项. 四个选项中, 内容相近或完全相反的两个选项中往往有一个是正确选项 那些概括全文, 内容全面, 含义深刻, 说明道理的选项一般是答案项 , 而选项内容片面 , 单 一的内容一般是错误选项. 错误选项的特点 以偏概全. 只是局部信息, 或是一句没有展开论述的话. 过于笼统. 即归纳的主题太泛, 与细节脱节或是没有对细节加以充分论述. 把观点强加与作者. 读者往往根据自己的常识对文章进行判断而忽视了作者的见解. 无关信息, 既在文章中没有提到或找不到语言依据的信息

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