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CDF/CF INFRARED DRYING/FIRING FURNACE
MODELS 7210, 7214, 7224

C-209 VERSION 1.2 07/2008

OWNERS MANUAL

PREFACE ii

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firin

g Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

Revision History
Software Version 4.0.1 4.0.1 4.0.1 Manual Version 1.0 1.1 1.2 Date 02/25/08 3/20/08 06/08 Author K. Livingston K. Livingston K. Livingston Description Initial Release General revisions. Revised belt replacement procedure. Revised alarm messages. Model 7224 added.

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this manual may be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form or by any means including graphic, electronic, or mechanical methods or photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems without the written permission of Despatch Industries, unless for purchaser's personal use.

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

PREFACE iii

Table of Contents 1. About This Manual ..................................................................................................... 1 1.1. Important User Information ................................................................................ 1 1.2. Manufacturer....................................................................................................... 1 1.3. Organization of this Manual ............................................................................... 2 1.4. Conventions ........................................................................................................ 2 1.5. System Model Differences.................................................................................. 3 2. Safety .......................................................................................................................... 5 2.1. Safety Information .............................................................................................. 5 2.1.1. Lockout ........................................................................................................... 5 2.1.2. Doors and Covers............................................................................................ 5 2.2. Maintenance........................................................................................................ 5 2.3. Electrical Power .................................................................................................. 6 2.4. Fire ...................................................................................................................... 6 2.5. Equipment Lockout Requirements ..................................................................... 7 2.5.1. Lockout Requirements .................................................................................... 7 2.5.2. Lockout Procedure .......................................................................................... 7 2.6. Safety Devices .................................................................................................... 8 2.6.1. Emergency Stop .............................................................................................. 8 2.6.2. Doors and Covers............................................................................................ 8 2.6.3. Calculate Maximum Wafer Throughput Capacity.......................................... 9 3. Theory of Operation.................................................................................................. 11 3.1. CDF Program States ......................................................................................... 12 4. Software & Setup...................................................................................................... 13 4.1. Operation Overview & Navigation................................................................... 13 4.2. Gain Access ...................................................................................................... 15 4.2.1. Software Startup............................................................................................ 15 4.2.2. Choose User ID and Password...................................................................... 15 4.2.3. Operator Log-In ............................................................................................ 15 4.2.4. Supervisor Log-In ......................................................................................... 16 4.2.5. Setup Screen.................................................................................................. 16 4.3. Working with the Main Screen ......................................................................... 17 4.3.1. CDF Infrared Drying/Firing Screen.............................................................. 17 4.3.2. Status Display ............................................................................................... 22 4.3.3. Working With Recipe Functions .................................................................. 23 4.3.3.1. Create Recipes (Models 7210/7214)......................................................... 23 4.3.3.2. Create And Manage Recipes (Model 7224).............................................. 24 4.3.3.3. Recipe Parameter Definitions ................................................................... 25 4.3.3.4. Set Flow Limits (Model 7224 Only)......................................................... 26 4.3.3.5. Load and Manage Recipes ........................................................................ 27 4.3.4. Working with the Data Graph Screen........................................................... 28 4.3.4.1. Data Graph Screen Features...................................................................... 30 4.3.4.2. Data Graph Screen Use............................................................................. 32 4.3.5. Working with System Parameters................................................................. 33
Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this manual may be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form or by any means including graphic, electronic, or mechanical methods or photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems without the written permission of Despatch Industries, unless for purchaser's personal use.

PREFACE iv

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

4.3.5.1. Changing Parameters ................................................................................ 36 4.4. Fault Recovery .................................................................................................. 36 4.4.1. Working with the System Alarm Status Screen............................................ 37 4.4.1.1. Moving Around the System Alarm Status Screen .................................... 37 4.4.1.2. Alarms States ............................................................................................ 38 4.4.1.3. Working with the Alarm History Screen .................................................. 38 4.4.1.4. Working with the Event History Screen ................................................... 39 4.4.1.5. Optional: Working with the Runtime Statistics Screen ............................ 40 4.4.2. Working with the I/O Access Screen............................................................ 40 4.4.3. Working with the PID Loop Tuning and Control Screen ............................. 44 4.4.4. Working with Calibration ............................................................................. 46 4.4.4.1. Analog Input Signals................................................................................. 47 4.4.4.2. Analog Output Signals.............................................................................. 48 4.4.4.3. Calibration Linear Relationships .............................................................. 49 4.4.4.4. Calibrating Non-Linear Relationships ...................................................... 51 4.4.4.5. Calibration Procedure ............................................................................... 53 4.4.4.6. Obtaining Calibration Values From Instruments...................................... 55 5. Operation................................................................................................................... 57 5.1. Introduction the CDF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace ..................................... 57 5.1.1. Assumptions about Operation....................................................................... 57 5.1.2. Levels of Access ........................................................................................... 57 5.1.3. Operating from the Main Screen................................................................... 57 5.2. Operating the CDF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace......................................... 59 5.2.1. Operation by Supervisor ............................................................................... 59 5.2.2. Operation by Operator .................................................................................. 59 5.3. Belt Cleaning with the Ultrasonic Cleaning System (Optional)....................... 60 6. Troubleshooting ........................................................................................................ 63 6.1. Main Contactor Cannot Be Reset ..................................................................... 64 6.2. Supply And Exhaust Fans Do Not Run ............................................................ 65 6.3. Main Circuit Breaker is ON but Computer Will Not Turn ON ........................ 66 6.4. Conveyor Belt Motor is ON but Belt Not Rotating .......................................... 66 6.5. There Is No Heat In A Drier Or Furnace .......................................................... 67 6.6. A Cooling Water Loop Does Not Have Water Flow........................................ 68 6.7. There Is No Air Pressure................................................................................... 69 6.8. A Furnace Clamshell Will Not Lower Or Raise............................................... 69 7. Maintenance.............................................................................................................. 71 7.1. Preventive Maintenance.................................................................................... 71 7.1.1. Maintenance Periods..................................................................................... 71 7.1.2. Bearings ........................................................................................................ 73 7.1.3. Glass Rods .................................................................................................... 73 7.1.4. CDA Air Supply ........................................................................................... 73 7.1.5. Cooling Water Filter ..................................................................................... 73 7.1.6. Convective Cooling Filters ........................................................................... 74 7.1.7. Check and Clean Exhaust Tray..................................................................... 74
Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this manual may be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form or by any means including graphic, electronic, or mechanical methods or photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems without the written permission of Despatch Industries, unless for purchaser's personal use.

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

PREFACE v

7.1.8. Check Optional Volatile Organic Compound Condenser............................. 75 7.1.9. Check Process Parameters ............................................................................ 75 7.2. Electrical System .............................................................................................. 75 7.2.1. Electrical Cabinets ........................................................................................ 75 7.2.2. High Limit Heater Automated Controls ....................................................... 75 7.2.3. E-stop Circuit ................................................................................................ 76 7.3. Heater Lamp Replacement................................................................................ 76 7.4. Thermocouple Tube or Process Port Tube Replacement.................................. 77 7.4.1. Required Tools.............................................................................................. 77 7.4.2. Tube Replacement Procedure ....................................................................... 77 7.4.2.1. Preparation & Thermocouple Replacement.............................................. 78 7.4.2.2. Tube Replacement Procedure ................................................................... 78 7.5. Insulation Repair............................................................................................... 79 7.5.1. Introduction................................................................................................... 79 7.5.2. Fracture Repair.............................................................................................. 80 7.5.2.1. Fracture Repair Required Tools................................................................ 80 7.5.2.2. Fracture Repair Procedure ........................................................................ 80 7.5.3. Zone Divider Replacement ........................................................................... 81 7.5.3.1. Required Tools.......................................................................................... 81 7.5.3.2. Preparation ................................................................................................ 81 7.5.3.3. Lower Zone Divider Replacement............................................................ 82 7.5.3.4. Upper Zone Divider Replacement ............................................................ 82 7.6. Belt Maintenance .............................................................................................. 84 7.6.1. Required Tools.............................................................................................. 84 7.6.2. Belt Cleaning Procedure ............................................................................... 84 7.6.3. Adjust Belt Tracking by Aligning Drive and Tail Drums ............................ 84 7.6.4. Belt Shortening Procedure ............................................................................ 87 7.6.5. Alternate Belt Shortening Procedure ............................................................ 88 7.6.6. Belt Replacement Procedure......................................................................... 89 7.7. Replace Lamps in (Optional) Automation Light Source .................................. 92 8. Appendices................................................................................................................ 93 8.1. Complete List of Alarm Messages.................................................................... 93 8.2. PID Loop Parameters........................................................................................ 98 8.2.1. Working with the PID Loop Tuning and Control Screen ............................. 98 8.2.2. PID Loop Screen Description ....................................................................... 99 8.2.3. PID Loop Tuning Procedure....................................................................... 101 8.2.4. PID Loop—The Concept ............................................................................ 101 8.2.4.1. PID Parameters Described ...................................................................... 102 8.2.4.2. Adjust PID Values .................................................................................. 102 8.2.4.3. PID Tuning Guidelines ........................................................................... 103 8.2.5. Despatch CDF Furnace Software PID Algorithm ...................................... 103 8.2.6. PID Loop Algorithm Definitions ................................................................ 104 8.2.7. PID Algorithm Sequence Auto/Manual...................................................... 105 8.3. Calibration Screen Tables ............................................................................... 107
Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this manual may be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form or by any means including graphic, electronic, or mechanical methods or photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems without the written permission of Despatch Industries, unless for purchaser's personal use.

PREFACE vi

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

Figures Figure 1. Name Plate........................................................................................................... 1 Figure 2. Emergency Stop Locations.................................................................................. 8 Figure 3. Design Specification Label showing Solvent Load............................................. 9 Figure 4. Use Throughput Calculator To Calculate Safe Wafer Throughput..................... 9 Figure 5. Throughput Calculator Dialog Window.............................................................. 9 Figure 6. CDF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace in Manufacturing Line. .......................... 11 Figure 7. CDF Drying/Firing Furnace. ............................................................................. 12 Figure 8. Typical Main Screens (Left: Models 7210/7214, Right: Model 7224). ............ 13 Figure 9. CDF/CF Drying/Firing Furnace Navigation. .................................................... 14 Figure 10. Login dialog window....................................................................................... 15 Figure 11. Setup Icon (Top: Models 7210/7214, Bottom: Model 7224). ......................... 16 Figure 12. Setup Screens (Left: Models 7210/7214, Right: Model 7224)........................ 16 Figure 13. CDF Main Screen for Models 7210/7214 (Supervisor Access)...................... 17 Figure 15. Optional Power Control Screens (Models 7210/7214). .................................. 21 Figure 16. Exit Program Warning Dialog Window. ......................................................... 21 Figure 17. System Status (Models 7210/7214)................................................................. 22 Figure 18. System Status (Model 7224). .......................................................................... 22 Figure 19. Creating Recipes (Models 7210/7214)............................................................ 23 Figure 20. Edit Recipe Dialogue Box (Model 7224)........................................................ 24 Figure 21. Creating Recipes (Model 7224)....................................................................... 24 Figure 22. View and Modify Recipe Alarms And Alerts. ................................................ 25 Figure 23. Set Recipe Mass Flow Limits (Model 7224)................................................... 26 Figure 24. Recipe Dialog Window (Models 7210/7214).................................................. 27 Figure 25. Load recipe (Model 7224). .............................................................................. 27 Figure 26. Data Graph Screen Icon (Left: Models 7210/7214. Right: Model 7224)........ 28 Figure 27. Data Graph Screen (Models 7210/7214)......................................................... 28 Figure 28. Data Graph Screen (Model 7224).................................................................... 29 Figure 29. Clear Data Graph Confirmation Window........................................................ 31 Figure 30. Optional Data Graph Change Dialog Window................................................ 31 Figure 31. Save Data Graph Dialog Window. .................................................................. 32 Figure 32. System Parameters Screen (Models 7210/7214)............................................. 33 Figure 33. System Parameters Screen (Model 7224)........................................................ 34 Figure 34. System Parameters Confirmation Screen. ....................................................... 36 Figure 35. Typical System Alarm Status Screen. ............................................................. 37 Figure 36. Alarm History Screen. ..................................................................................... 38 Figure 37. Event History Screen....................................................................................... 39 Figure 38. Runtime Statistics............................................................................................ 40 Figure 39. I/O Access Screen with Zone Monitoring Option ON (Models 7210/7214). . 41 Figure 40. I/O Access Screen (Model 7224) .................................................................... 42
Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this manual may be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form or by any means including graphic, electronic, or mechanical methods or photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems without the written permission of Despatch Industries, unless for purchaser's personal use.

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

PREFACE vii

Figure 41. PID Loop Tuning and Control Screen (Models 7210/7214). .......................... 44 Figure 42. PID Loop Tuning and Control Screen (Model 7224)...................................... 45 Figure 43. Typical Calibration Screen (Models 7210/7214). ........................................... 46 Figure 44. Typical Calibration Screen (Model 7224)....................................................... 46 Figure 45. A single point plotted. ..................................................................................... 49 Figure 46. Two Point Pairs Plotted. .................................................................................. 49 Figure 47. Straight Line Calibration Curve for a Differential Pressure Transducer......... 50 Figure 48. Piecewise-linear Calibration Curve for Nonlinear Analog Input Device........ 52 Figure 49. Typical Dialogue Window for Conveyor Speed Sensor Calibration—Enter Raw X Value..................................................................................................................... 53 Figure 50. Enter Raw Y Value.......................................................................................... 53 Figure 51. Display of New Calibration Point Pair............................................................ 54 Figure 53. Main Screen—Models 7210/7214 (Supervisor Access). ................................ 57 Figure 54. Main Screen—Model 7224 (Supervisor Access). ........................................... 58 Figure 55. Belt-Cleaning Dialogue Window. ................................................................... 60 Figure 56. Main Circuit Breaker, Main Connector and E-stop Power Supply. ................ 64 Figure 57. Fan and Conveyor Motor Circuit Breakers. .................................................... 65 Figure 58. Fan Motor Variable Frequency Drives............................................................ 65 Figure 59. 110 VAC circuit. ............................................................................................. 66 Figure 60. Adjust Slip Clutch. .......................................................................................... 66 Figure 61. Conveyor Motor Drive. ................................................................................... 66 Figure 62. Check Circuit Breaker/Fuse when Conveyor Drive Controller lit but Conveyor not ON............................................................................................................................... 66 Figure 63. Check Discrete Inputs on Manual I/O Screen. ................................................ 67 Figure 64. Furnace Heater Circuit Breaker/Fuses............................................................. 67 Figure 65. Heater SCR...................................................................................................... 67 Figure 66. Cooling Water Enable ON (I/O Access Screen). ............................................ 68 Figure 67. Inlet and Return Valves. .................................................................................. 68 Figure 68. Ensure Cooling Water Filter is not Clogged. .................................................. 68 Figure 69. CDA Enable ON (I/O Access Screen)............................................................. 69 Figure 70. Clean Dry Air Supply...................................................................................... 69 Figure 71. Linear Actuator Control. ................................................................................. 69 Figure 72. Typical Chamber Lift Circuitry....................................................................... 70 Figure 73. Excessive Force Limit Switch. ........................................................................ 70 Figure 74. Lubricate Bearings Every Three Months. ....................................................... 73 Figure 75. Drain Pneumatic Filter Every Three Months. ................................................. 73 Figure 76. Release Pressure Before Cleaning Filter. ........................................................ 73 Figure 77. Open and Clean Cooling Water Filter. ............................................................ 74 Figure 78. Convective Cooling Filters.............................................................................. 74 Figure 79. Check and Clean Exhaust Trays Monthly. ...................................................... 74 Figure 80. Clean VOC Condenser Collection Vessel Regularly. ..................................... 75 Figure 81. Remove Thermocouples Annually To Test For Alarms. ................................ 75 Figure 82. High Limit Heater Control. ............................................................................. 76 Figure 83. Typical E-Stop Operator.................................................................................. 76
Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this manual may be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form or by any means including graphic, electronic, or mechanical methods or photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems without the written permission of Despatch Industries, unless for purchaser's personal use.

PREFACE viii

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

Figure 84. Heater Lamp Enclosure. .................................................................................. 77 Figure 85. Lamp Has Three Gaskets................................................................................. 77 Figure 86. Loosen Nut To Remove Thermocouple. ......................................................... 78 Figure 87. Thermocouple Tube Replacement................................................................... 78 Figure 88. Repair Insulation Fracture. .............................................................................. 81 Figure 89. Replace Lower Zone Dividers......................................................................... 82 Figure 90. Replace Upper Zone Dividers. ........................................................................ 82 Figure 91. Attach IR Belt Tool To Prepare for Belt Shortening....................................... 84 Figure 92. Location of plumb bob line. ............................................................................ 85 Figure 93. Mark the floor with a plumb bob..................................................................... 85 Figure 94. Measure from Floor Marks.............................................................................. 86 Figure 95. Drive drum bearing.......................................................................................... 86 Figure 96. Example of adjusting the drive drum position. ............................................... 87 Figure 97. Pull Tools Together to Produce Slack. ............................................................ 87 Figure 98. Example Belt Threading.................................................................................. 88 Figure 99. Conveyor Belt Splice....................................................................................... 88 Figure 100. Spice Belt with Weave in Opposite Direction............................................... 88 Figure 101. Face Mesh Arrows Pointing into the Furnace. .............................................. 89 Figure 102. Splice Conveyor Belts Together.................................................................... 90 Figure 103. Conveyor Belt Path........................................................................................ 90 Figure 104. Drive Drum Sprocket and Slip Clutch........................................................... 91 Figure 105. Tension Drum Position: Minimum (22 cm) and Maximum (40 cm). ........... 91 Figure 106. Slide Automation Light Source out to Replace Lamps. ................................ 92 Figure 107. PID Loop Tuning and Control Screen........................................................... 98

Tables Table 1. CDF/CF Model Primary Differences.................................................................... 3 Table 2. Main Screen Icons (Refer to Figure 13). ............................................................ 19 Table 3. Recipe Parameter Definitions. ............................................................................ 26 Table 4. Data Graph Screen Features and Definitions (Refer to Figure 27)..................... 30 Table 5. System Parameter Definitions. ........................................................................... 35 Table 6. Furnace Discrete Outputs (Reference Figure 39). .............................................. 43 Table 7. Calibration Screen Parameters and Explanations (Refer to Figure 43 and Figure 44). .................................................................................................................................... 47 Table 8. Hypothetical Flowmeter Characteristics............................................................. 51 Table 9. Belt Cleaning Parameters (Refer to Figure 55) .................................................. 60 Table 10. CDF/CF Infrared Dryer/Firing Furnace Preventive Maintenance Intervals..... 71 Table 11. PID Loop Screen Parameter Descriptions (Refer to Figure 107) ..................... 99 Table 12. PID Loop Parameters...................................................................................... 100 Table 13. PID Loop Algorithm Definitions.................................................................... 104 Table 14. Analog Input Signals. ..................................................................................... 107 Table 15. Analog Outputs. .............................................................................................. 109

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this manual may be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form or by any means including graphic, electronic, or mechanical methods or photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems without the written permission of Despatch Industries, unless for purchaser's personal use.

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

ABOUT THIS MANUAL 1

1.
1.1.

About This Manual
Important User Information
Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries. All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this manual may be reproduced, copied, or transmitted in any form or by any means including graphic, electronic, or mechanical methods or photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems without the written permission of the publisher, unless it is for the purchaser's personal use. Printed and bound in the United States of America. The information in this manual is subject to change without notice and does not represent a commitment on the part of Despatch Industries. Despatch Industries does not assume any responsibility for any errors that may appear in this manual. In no event will Despatch Industries be liable for technical or editorial omissions made herein, nor for direct, indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages resulting from the use or defect of this manual.

Values listed on computer screens and in the Manual are examples only. Though those values may be typical, contact Despatch Industries for the final value.

The information in this document is not intended to cover all possible conditions and situations that might occur. The end user must exercise caution and common sense when installing or maintaining Despatch Industries products. If any questions or problems arise, call Despatch Industries at 1-888-DESPATCH or 1-952-469-5424.

1.2.

Manufacturer
The CDF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace (Figure 1) is manufactured by:
Despatch Industries 8860 207th Street Lakeville, MN 55044 1-952-469-5424 ? 1-888-DESPATCH www.despatch.com Figure 1. Name Plate.

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this manual may be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form or by any means including graphic, electronic, or mechanical methods or photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems without the written permission of Despatch Industries, unless for purchaser's personal use.

ABOUT THIS MANUAL 2

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

Refer to Figure 2 for the location of the CDF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Name Plate. A list of machine specifications and technical support contact information is on the Name Plate.

1.3.

Organization of this Manual
This owners manual contains the most comprehensive set of information for the CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace. Where necessary for clarity, software differences between models will be shown with optional screens.

1.4.

Conventions

This icon signifies important information.

!
Danger! Warning! Caution!
LOG OUT

This icon signifies information that describes an unsafe condition that may result in death, serious injury, or damage to the equipment.

A condition that may result in death, serious injury, or damage to equipment. A condition that may result in serious injury or damage to equipment. A condition that may result in damage to equipment or product. Bold, 10pt Arial typeface indicates a specific key or button on screen to click.

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this manual may be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form or by any means including graphic, electronic, or mechanical methods or photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems without the written permission of Despatch Industries, unless for purchaser's personal use.

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

ABOUT THIS MANUAL 3

1.5.

System Model Differences
Table 1 lists differences between the four models represented in this manual. CF stands for firing furnace only while CDF includes the dryer and firing furnace.
Table 1. CDF/CF Model Primary Differences. CF-7210 CDF-7210 CF-7214 CDF-7214 Firing Dryer & Firing Dryer & System Furnace Firing Furnace Firing Furnace Furnace 7,366 mm 10,560 mm 7,366 mm 10,560 mm Length (290 inches) (416 inches) (290 inches) (416 inches) 1270 mm (50 inches) Width 1650 mm (65 inches) Height 254 mm 254 mm 355 mm 355 mm Conveyor (10 inches) (10 inches) (14 inches) (14 inches) Width 6 3/6 6 3/6 Heated Zones CF-7224 Firing Furnace 7,366 mm (290 inches) CDF-7224 Dryer & Firing Furnace 10,560 mm (416 inches)

457 mm (18 inches) 6

457 mm (18 inches) 3/6

Where applicable, standard options are noted.

Software screens will vary between models and standard options ordered.

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this manual may be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form or by any means including graphic, electronic, or mechanical methods or photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems without the written permission of Despatch Industries, unless for purchaser's personal use.

ABOUT THIS MANUAL 4

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this manual may be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form or by any means including graphic, electronic, or mechanical methods or photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems without the written permission of Despatch Industries, unless for purchaser's personal use.

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

SAFETY 5

2.
2.1.

Safety
Safety Information
Do not work on the CDF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace without reading and understanding this section, which contains important information and warnings. Ignoring these warnings can result in death, serious injury or damage to the machine and product.

2.1.1.

Lockout

Machine lockout places the CDF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace into a zero energy state and prevents accidental machine start up. Always follow the Lockout Procedure described in this Section before cleaning, maintaining or repairing the CDF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace. An accidental start-up, while working on the CDF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace, can result in serious injury or death.

2.1.2.

Doors and Covers

Doors and covers on the CDF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace protect against the hazards behind them. Operation without these safety devices in place creates hazards that the doors and covers are intended to render safe for personnel. Inspect the CDF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace periodically to make sure the doors and covers are in place.

2.2.

Maintenance
Only qualified and trained personnel should perform maintenance or repair. Maintenance tasks should be performed with appropriate proper personal protective equipment (PPE).

Danger!

!

Use personal protective equipment (PPE) and follow standard safety protocols when working with Dopant and other chemicals.

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this manual may be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form or by any means including graphic, electronic, or mechanical methods or photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems without the written permission of Despatch Industries, unless for purchaser's personal use.

SAFETY 6

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

2.3.

Electrical Power
Only qualified and trained personnel should perform electrical maintenance or electrical repair.

Danger!

!
? ? ?

Contact with energized electrical sources may result in serious injury or death.

Before performing maintenance, disconnect all electrical power from the machine. Use a padlock and lockout all disconnects feeding power to the machine. Never clean, lubricate or repair the dryer or furnace when in operation. Unauthorized alterations or modifications to CDF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace are strictly forbidden. Never modify any electrical circuits. Unauthorized modifications can impair the function and safety of the CDF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace.

Danger!

!

Systems equipped with an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) may require that the UPS be powered OFF manually to disconnect all electrical power.

2.4.

Fire
Keep the CDF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace clean and free of scrap materials, oil or solvents to prevent the possibility of fire. In the event of fire, use a fire extinguisher as follows. 1. De-energize the machine immediately by pushing an Emergency Stop push button 2. Turn off the remote main disconnect (customer supplied disconnect). 3. Extinguish the fire. Danger!

!

Always disconnect all power before extinguishing a fire. Attempting to extinguish a fire in a machine connected to electrical power can result in serious injury or death!
Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.

All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this manual may be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form or by any means including graphic, electronic, or mechanical methods or photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems without the written permission of Despatch Industries, unless for purchaser's personal use.

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

SAFETY 7

2.5.

Equipment Lockout Requirements
To prevent injury or equipment damage during inspection or repair, the CDF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace must be locked out.

2.5.1.

Lockout Requirements

1. Every power source that can energize any element of the CDF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace must be shut off at the closest possible power source. This includes air, water and electricity. 2. After energy sources are locked out, test to ensure circuits are de-energized.

2.5.2.

Lockout Procedure

Personnel authorized to lockout equipment must have the necessary locks to perform the lockout. 1. Physically disconnect all electrical power to the machine or lockout the appropriate breaker or disconnects. 2. Close all valves for air or water sources and bleed off any pressure. 3. Test for power by attempting a start with the machine controls. 4. Identify the Lockout Condition with a tag on the electrical disconnect and pneumatic shut off valve. 5. When work is complete, remove all tags and restore the machine to its working state.

Danger!
Electrical panels contain high voltage. Disconnect and lock out the power supply before working inside any electrical panels. Failure to lock out the power supply can result in death or injury.

!

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this manual may be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form or by any means including graphic, electronic, or mechanical methods or photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems without the written permission of Despatch Industries, unless for purchaser's personal use.

SAFETY 8

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

2.6.

Safety Devices

2.6.1.

Emergency Stop

When a risk of personal injury or damage to the CDF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace exists, push an Emergency Stop operator. This shuts off all electrical power to the machine. Figure 2 shows location of Emergency Stop operators.

Dryer

Firing Furnace

Name Plate Emergency Stop Operators Main Disconnect Emergency Stop Operators Figure 2. Emergency Stop Locations.

2.6.2.

Doors and Covers

All doors on this machine have fasteners that latch to the frame and require a tool to open. Panels and doors that require a tool to open are part of the safety system of the CDF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace. Do not open any doors while the machine is running.

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this manual may be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form or by any means including graphic, electronic, or mechanical methods or photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems without the written permission of Despatch Industries, unless for purchaser's personal use.

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

SAFETY 9

2.6.3.

Calculate Maximum Wafer Throughput Capacity

The CDF/CF Drying/Firing Furnace dryer is designed for the specific solvent load noted on the design specification label (Figure 3). The design specification label is located on the main electrical cabinet door of the furnace. The dryer is equipped with a flow switch, which ensures the introduction of the minimum volume of dilution air. Dilution air volume dictates the amount of flammable solvent that can be safely processed in the furnace. Calculate wafer throughput capacity of the dryer within the flammable solvent capacity using the THROUGHPUT CALCULATOR on the Main Screen (Figure 4).

Figure 3. Design Specification Label showing Solvent Load.

Figure 4. Use Throughput Calculator To Calculate Safe Wafer Throughput.

Calculate the safe solvent load: 1. Determine the deposition weight of paste per wafer. Enter that value in the top box (Figure 5). 2. Consult the Material Safety Data Sheet Figure 5. Throughput Calculator Dialog Window. (MSDS) provided by the paste manufacturer to determine the total amount of solvent in the paste (percentage of total weight). If more than one solvent is specified, use the sum of all solvents) and enter in lower box (Figure 5). If paste is thinned by adding solvent at point of use, include additional solvent in total. 3. Press OK for the Safe Throughput Capacity in wafers per hour
Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this manual may be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form or by any means including graphic, electronic, or mechanical methods or photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems without the written permission of Despatch Industries, unless for purchaser's personal use.

SAFETY 10

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this manual may be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form or by any means including graphic, electronic, or mechanical methods or photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems without the written permission of Despatch Industries, unless for purchaser's personal use.

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

THEORY OF OPERATION 11

3.

Theory of Operation
The furnace controller is an industrial PC with custom software from Despatch Industries. The furnace is controlled by the user at the PC console, consisting of PC display, keyboard and mouse. The PC automatically launches the operating software when the furnace powers up.

DCF Inline Diffusion System

CDF/CF Dryer/ Firing Furnace

Figure 6. CDF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace in Manufacturing Line.

The CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing furnace fits the typical photovoltaic manufacturing line after circuits have been printed on both sides. The CDF Drying/Firing furnace serves dries and fires wafers in the PV industry. Taking the PV industry as an example, the CDF Drying/Firing Furnace (Figure 7) uses infrared radiation to dry the product. As the product continues on the conveyor, organics are burned off the wafer in the next heating zone. After that, wafers are fired to melt silver etching into the surface of the silicon, followed by rapid cooling.

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this manual may be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form or by any means including graphic, electronic, or mechanical methods or photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems without the written permission of Despatch Industries, unless for purchaser's personal use.

THEORY OF OPERATION 12

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

Figure 7. CDF Drying/Firing Furnace.

3.1.

CDF Program States
The CDF Drying/Firing Furnace uses program sub-states to run the utilities, conveyor and heaters and other systems according to recipe specifications. Program sub-states typically follow this sequence: ? Disable/Enable ? Stabilizing ? Ready ? Alarm

Each sub-state is signaled on the software interface, both current status and recipe set points.

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this manual may be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form or by any means including graphic, electronic, or mechanical methods or photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems without the written permission of Despatch Industries, unless for purchaser's personal use.

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

SOFTWARE & SETUP 13

4.

Software & Setup

Always read and understand Section 2—Safety before installing, performing maintenance or adjusting the CDF Infrared Drying/ Firing Furnace.

Place the Normal/Maintenance switch in the Normal position for control software to function properly.

4.1.

Operation Overview & Navigation
The Main Screen of the CDF Drying/Firing Furnace is the system default screen (Figure 8). Navigate from the main screen to all other screens used to operate the CDF Drying/Firing Furnace (Figure 9).

Figure 8. Typical Main Screens (Left: Models 7210/7214, Right: Model 7224).

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this manual may be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form or by any means including graphic, electronic, or mechanical methods or photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems without the written permission of Despatch Industries, unless for purchaser's personal use.

SOFTWARE & SETUP 14

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

Click on the Despatch company logo (upper left corner) for the About screen and software version.

CDF/CF Drying/Firing Furnace

Main Screen

System Status Dialog Window
Answer alarms, see events, check statistics

Manual Functions
Manually adjust parameters using I/O Access, PID, Calibration

Recipe Functions
Set and edit recipes

Access Setup Screen
Set passwords and privileges Figure 9. CDF/CF Drying/Firing Furnace Navigation.

Data Graph Function
Charting capabilities

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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SOFTWARE & SETUP 15

4.2.

Gain Access
After launching the CDF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace, login to gain access to system functions.

4.2.1.

Software Startup

When the main disconnect is placed in the ON position, power is supplied to the PLC which boots and loads the CDF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace main program and other supported files.

4.2.2.

Choose User ID and Password

Choose any User ID, but the password must match data entered the Setup Screen (Section 4.2.5). User ID Choose a convenient, descriptive user ID for every operator. Use a single character (for example, K), number (for example, 7), or any combination of characters and numbers (for example, Matthias32). Password The chosen password must match the password entered in the Setup Screen

4.2.3.

Operator Log-In

Operators log into the CDF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace from the Main Screen: 1. Click Login 2. Enter User ID and valid password (Figure 10). 3. Click Enter to continue or Cancel to abandon. The logged in User ID and access level displays in the upper right corner of the main screen.
Figure 10. Login dialog window.

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this manual may be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form or by any means including graphic, electronic, or mechanical methods or photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems without the written permission of Despatch Industries, unless for purchaser's personal use.

SOFTWARE & SETUP 16

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

4.2.4.

Supervisor Log-In

From the main screen: 1. Click the Login icon 2. Enter User ID and valid password 3. Click Enter to access the setup screen or click Cancel to close the dialog window.

Note that only the Supervisor can exit the Infrared Furnace software by clicking EXIT.

4.2.5.

Setup Screen

A supervisor must login to access the Setup Screen and set passwords for access levels. The Setup Screen allows a supervisor access to other functions as well. Passwords can be changed as follows. ? Open the Setup Screen by clicking SETUP/SECURITY SETUP (Figure 11). ? Enter a new password into the text box. ? Click SAVE to save the new password or RESTORE to abandon the change. ? Click EXIT to close the setup screen.

Figure 11. Setup Icon (Top: Models 7210/7214, Bottom: Model 7224).

Click the appropriate box to enable or disable access (Figure 12).

Figure 12. Setup Screens (Left: Models 7210/7214, Right: Model 7224).

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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SOFTWARE & SETUP 17

4.3.

Working with the Main Screen
The Main Screen is used for operating the CDF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace. Variations in wording may exist for this screen, but variations will largely follow the legend below.

4.3.1.

CDF Infrared Drying/Firing Screen

The main screen (Figure 13 and Figure 14) presents controls and indicators that allow the operator to view system status, issue commands to the system and change the process parameters. Login access level is determined by data input to the setup screen.
2 22 3 4 1 5

20

6 19 7 18 8

9

10 17 16 15 14 13 12 11

Figure 13. CDF Main Screen for Models 7210/7214 (Supervisor Access).

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this manual may be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form or by any means including graphic, electronic, or mechanical methods or photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems without the written permission of Despatch Industries, unless for purchaser's personal use.

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21 1

22

2

3 4 5

23 20

6

18 9

8 7

16

24 17

15

14

10

11

Figure 14. CDF Main Screen for Model 7224 (Supervisor Access).

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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SOFTWARE & SETUP 19

Table 2. Main Screen Icons (Refer to Figure 13).

Reference Number
1

Icon Name
System Status

Function Displays current state of heaters, conveyor and utilities or other system functions. Models 7210/7214: Turn separate systems ON (ENABLE) or OFF (DISABLE). Model 7224: RUN RECIPE turns ON all systems.

2

ENABLE/DISABLE Switches

RUN RECIPE 3 EXIT/QUIT EXIT/QUIT CDF System Operation. Figure 16 shows Exit

dialog screen.
4 5 User Information Light Tower Status

Displays date and time, User ID and security level of use. Green, yellow, or red light turns ON or OFF corresponding to light tower status: ? ? ? ? Red—Alarm condition Yellow—System requires operator assistance Green—System ready or running Blue—Service needed

6 7 8

RECIPE IN USE Data Logging / Graph CHILLED WATER TEMPERATURE SUPPLY/RETURN EXHAUST PRESSURE SETUP/ SECURITY SETUP LOG OUT CALIBRATION PID ALARM STATUS SYSTEM PARAMETERS

Current recipe used by system. Monitor process profiles by choosing data to track. Current supply and return temperatures (Celsius).

9 10

Current exhaust pressure (mm H2O) Access setup screen and change or create user privileges. Available only when logged in as a supervisor. Log current user in or out. Display Analog Input-Output Calibration screen. Display PID Loop Tuning and Control screen. Display alarm status screen. Display systems parameter screen and set those variables that remain constant in all recipes.

11 12 13 14 15

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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SOFTWARE & SETUP 20

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

Reference Number
16

Icon Name
THROUGHPUT CALCULATOR I/O ACCESS

Function Calculate wafer throughput capacity (refer to Section 2.6.3). Display the I/O Access screen, which provides direct access to the I/O control modules. List of currently available recipes. See Section 4.3.3 for more information. Identifies section screen the user is working on: either working with a recipe or monitoring the current system. Compare current actual temperatures (in Celsius), setpoint temperatures and calculates PID CV (current actual value compared to set point value as a percentage for each recipe process parameter). Model 7224 includes lower PID CV. Display machine states. Identifies current alarms. See Appendix for more information about alarms (8.1). Switch between observing the main panel and the monitors and meters. Access screens to edit recipe. See Section 4.3.3 for more information. For Models 7210/7214, control Heat Zone Mode using PID LOOP TEMPERATURE CONTROL or FIXED SCR POWER CONTROL (Figure 15). Dryer and/or furnace parameters are typically controlled by temperature (PID LOOP TEMPERATURE CONTROL). But using the optional FIXED SCR POWER CONTROL, control parameters can be set to percentages of total power instead, providing another method for controlling heat variation. Note: For Model 7224, PID TEMPERATURE CONTROL versus FIXED SCR POWER CONTROL is handled in the EDIT RECIPES function (Section 4.3.3).

17

18

Recipe Directory

19

Monitor/Recipe

20

Dryer & Furnace Temperatures

21

Status Messages

22

Alarm and Alert Message Tab: Main Panel/Monitors & Meters Edit Recipe (Model 7224 only) HEAT ZONE MODE: PID LOOP TEMPERATURE CONTROL or

23

24

Optional Icon A

B

(Optional) FIXED SCR POWER CONTROL

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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SOFTWARE & SETUP 21

Optional Icon A Power Control Mode Optional Icon B Indicates PID Loop Temperature Control Mode

Figure 15. Optional Power Control Screens (Models 7210/7214).

Caution!
Use proper procedures when shutting-down the operation.

!

Pressing Exit and confirming the exit can damage the system because conveyors are stopped without proper cool down.

Figure 16. Exit Program Warning Dialog Window.

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this manual may be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form or by any means including graphic, electronic, or mechanical methods or photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems without the written permission of Despatch Industries, unless for purchaser's personal use.

SOFTWARE & SETUP 22

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

4.3.2.

Status Display

System status display (Figure 17 and Figure 18) provides an overview of the system components and operation. Click ENABLE/DISABLE (Models 7210/7214) to turn each system ON or OFF (Figure 17). Despatch recommends starting the systems sequentially, from bottom to top. Click RUN RECIPE (Model 7224) to start system (Figure 18).

Column shows Online or Offline Status Column shows Stabilizing or Stable Status Figure 17. System Status (Models 7210/7214).

Column shows Alarm State Status Column shows System Ready or Not Ready Status

Column shows whether system ENABLED or DISABLED. Column displays when system STABILIZING.

Column displays explanation of process.
Column shows when system READY.

Figure 18. System Status (Model 7224).

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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SOFTWARE & SETUP 23

4.3.3.

Working With Recipe Functions

Recipes include any variable needed to manage the CDF production process, including conveyor speeds and dryer and furnace heat zone values. Dryer and furnace setpoint values are generally in temperature, although one CDF system option allows setpoint values in percentage of power mode.
Recipe settings depend on the materials used and processes that have gone before the drying/firing step, so the typical setpoints below serve only as a starting reference.

Typical recipe values include:
Belt Speed (in/min) Typical Setpoint 200 Dryer 1 (°C) 325 Dryer 2 (°C) 350 Dryer 3 (°C) 375 Furn. Zone 1 (°C) 500 Furn. Zone 2 (°C) 500 Furn. Zone 3 (°C) 500 Furn. Zone 4 (°C) 650 Furn. Zone 5 (°C) 850 Furn. Zone 6 (°C) 850

Achieve best system performance by optimizing the process after stabilizing the firing result.

4.3.3.1. Create Recipes (Models 7210/7214) Fix conveyor, dryer and furnace setpoint values by clicking the up or down arrow for each setpoint in an existing recipe (Figure Change setpoints 19): with up/down arrow ? Conveyor speed (CPM) ? Dryer temperature (Celsius) ? Furnace heat zones (Celsius) Save the new recipe by renaming it in the EDIT NAME area.

Rename recipe before saving changes

Figure 19. Creating Recipes (Models 7210/7214).

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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SOFTWARE & SETUP 24

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

4.3.3.2. Create And Manage Recipes (Model 7224) Set recipe values for conveyor, drying and furnace setpoint values by selecting from existing recipes (Figure 20) or clicking on CREATE NEW. Fix values by clicking the up or down arrow for each setpoint. Press SAVE to save changes (Figure 21).

Figure 20. Edit Recipe Dialogue Box (Model 7224).

Click to set process variable limits (Section 4.3.3.3, Figure 22).

Click to set mass flow limits (Section 4.3.3.4, Figure 23).

Click up or down arrow to reach desired setpoint. Click to set PID limits (Section 8.2).

Figure 21. Creating Recipes (Model 7224).

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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SOFTWARE & SETUP 25

Dryer and/or furnace parameters are typically controlled by temperature (PID LOOP TEMPERATURE CONTROL). But using the optional FIXED SCR POWER CONTROL, control parameters can be set to percentages of total power instead, providing another method for controlling heat variation.

4.3.3.3. Recipe Parameter Definitions View and modify the high and low alarms and alerts of current recipe by pressing VIEW LIMITS (Figure 22). Table 3 lists the parameters used when working with alarms and alerts for each of the heat zones.

Figure 22. View and Modify Recipe Alarms And Alerts.

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SOFTWARE & SETUP 26

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

Table 3. Recipe Parameter Definitions.

Parameter
High Alert Band

Definition
Recipe process value added to the set point to initiate an alert message (process value exceeds set point). Recipe process value added to the set point to initiate an alarm message (process value exceeds set point range). Recipe process value subtracted from the set point to initiate an alert message (process value dropped below set point). Recipe process value subtracted from the set point to initiate an alarm message (process value out of set point range).

High Alarm Band Low Alert Band Low Alarm Band

4.3.3.4. Set Flow Limits (Model 7224 Only) Click on FLOW LIMITS to set limits on mass flow meters in each zone (Figure 23). Press SAVE to keep values or REVERT to cancel changes.

Figure 23. Set Recipe Mass Flow Limits (Model 7224).

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SOFTWARE & SETUP 27

4.3.3.5. Load and Manage Recipes In Models 7210 and 7214, load, view, delete or refresh recipes by clicking the appropriate button (Figure 24). Edit recipes by first loading the recipe, then press Recipe tab to have access to the setpoint arrows, as in Figure 19.

Figure 24. Recipe Dialog Window (Models 7210/7214).

In Model 7224, load a recipe by selecting the recipe from the list and pressing LOAD RECIPE. To manage recipes see section 4.3.3.2

Figure 25. Load recipe (Model 7224).

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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SOFTWARE & SETUP 28

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

4.3.4.

Working with the Data Graph Screen

The Data Graph Screen allows the user to monitor the values of the system over time. Access the data graph screen by clicking on the data graph icon on the main screen (Figure 26). The data graph default settings Figure 26. Data Graph are included. Figure 27, Figure 28 and Table 4 explain the parameters for Screen Icon (Left: Models 7210/7214. the data graph screen.
Right: Model 7224)

Attribute Trace List

Enable-Disable Check Box

Trace Selection Lists

Data Log File Status

Plot Selection List Scale Dialog

Figure 27. Data Graph Screen (Models 7210/7214).

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CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

SOFTWARE & SETUP 29

Attribute Trace List

Scale Dialog Data Log File Status

Enable-Disable Check Box Trace Selection Lists Plot Selection List Figure 28. Data Graph Screen (Model 7224).

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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SOFTWARE & SETUP 30

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

4.3.4.1. Data Graph Screen Features
Table 4. Data Graph Screen Features and Definitions (Refer to Figure 27).

Feature Trace Selection Lists Scale Dialog (Models 7210/7214) Graph Scaling (Model 7224) CHANGE Dialog Box (Optional) (Models 7210/7214) CHANGE DATALOGGING (Model 7224)

Definition Select an attribute to plot on the Data Graph by checking the box of that attribute. Hide the plot of a specified signal by unchecking the designated box for that attribute. Click to select the minimum and maximum values for each trace scale.

Data Log File Status

Plot Selection Trace Selection Box CLEAR (Models 7210/7214)

Click CHANGE to adjust data logging settings. Click Datalogging Enabled Check Box to enable or disable data logging. Change the attribute values by highlighting and typing in a new value, or using the scroll up or scroll down keys. ? Max Log Size—maximum data log file size. When maximums size reached, data is dumped on a first in, first out basis. ? Log interval—time between logging events when every process value is added to the data log file. ? Auto-Save time—interval between each file save to disk operation. Click SAVE to save changes or RESTORE to return the original settings. Click CANCEL to close the dialog window. Displays data file information: ? Current number file entries ? Maximum number of file entries ? Current file size ? Maximum file size After reaching the maximum number of file entries or maximum file size, data is removed from the file on a first in, first out basis. List of available plots. Click on a plot to display the available traces in the three trace selection boxes. Three list windows displaying a list of available traces for the selected plot. Select one trace in each box. Click CLEAR/CLEAR GRAPH to delete data and clear old data from the graph. When the confirmation dialog window displays, click OK to clear the data or CANCEL to abandon the operation
Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.

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SOFTWARE & SETUP 31

Feature CLEAR GRAPH (Model 7224) Save (Models 7210/7214) SAVE DATA TO TEXT FILE (Model 7224) Exit

Definition (Figure 29)

To save data into a tab-delimited text file, click Save. (Figure 30)

Click Exit to close the data graph screen.

Figure 29. Clear Data Graph Confirmation Window.

Figure 30. Optional Data Graph Change Dialog Window.
Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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SOFTWARE & SETUP 32

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

Figure 31. Save Data Graph Dialog Window.

4.3.4.2. Data Graph Screen Use To start a plot trace on the Data Graph Screen: 1. Click SCALE DIALOG/GRAPH SCALING and set the minimum and maximum scale values. 2. Click a plot name in the Plot Selection list—the available traces display in each trace selection box. 3. Click on one trace in each trace selection box. 4. Click on each attribute trace in the attribute trace list.

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SOFTWARE & SETUP 33

4.3.5.

Working with System Parameters

On the main screen click System Parameters to display the system parameters screen (Figure 32 and Figure 33). System parameters are those variables that remain enforced through all programs and recipes. See Table 5 for parameter definitions.

Figure 32. System Parameters Screen (Models 7210/7214).

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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SOFTWARE & SETUP 34

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

Figure 33. System Parameters Screen (Model 7224).

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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SOFTWARE & SETUP 35

Table 5. System Parameter Definitions.

Parameter Chilled Water High Limit Lamp Power Threshold (Models 7210/7214) Sys Lamp Power Threshold (Model 7224) Maximum Exhaust Pressure (Models 7210/7214) Sys Maximum Exhaust Pressure (Model 7224) UPS Duration Time (min) (Model 7224 only) Temperature Scale (Models 7210/7214) In/Cm (Models 7210/7214) Conveyor Process Stabilization Time minutes (Models 7210/7214) Sys Conveyor Process Stabilization Time (min) (Model 7224) Thermal Process Stabilization time minutes (Models 7210/7214) Sys Thermal Process Stabilization time (min) (Models 7224)

Definition Maximum cooling water temperature (degrees Celsius) value to trigger an alarm. Detects lamp element failures. Alarm triggers when value exceeded by a failed element monitor’s SCR.

Alarms when exhaust pressure exceeds threshold value.

Length of time conveyor allowed to run on UPS power.

Select Celsius or Fahrenheit Select inches or centimeters Minutes allowed for conveyor to reach setpoint speed.

Minutes allowed for all heat zones to reach desired temperature range

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SOFTWARE & SETUP 36

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

Parameter Conveyor at Speed Time minutes (Models 7210/7214) Temperature Control in Soak Time (Models 7210/7214) Cooldown Temp

Definition Minutes delay after the conveyor hits the speed setpoint

Minutes delay after heat zones reach temperature setpoint

The process temperature level before stopping the conveyor.

4.3.5.1. Changing Parameters Change parameters by selecting the parameter and entering the new value (Figure 34): ? Click SAVE to change the parameter and save it or RESTORE to abandon the change and return to the original value. ? Click EXIT to close the screen and return to the main screen.

Figure 34. System Parameters Confirmation Screen.

4.4.

Fault Recovery
A fault condition is an abnormal event within the system that prevents the system from operating as intended. When a fault condition occurs: ? An alarm message displays in the alarm message text box. ? The system may or may not abort the process.

To recover from a fault condition: 1. Click ALARM STATUS from the Main Screen and open the Alarm Status Screen (Figure 35). 2. Click ACK DISPLAYED ALARMS to acknowledge the alarms on the screen.

Note that acknowledging an alarm does not clear the alarm. Alarms are cleared only when the condition that caused the alarm is cleared.

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SOFTWARE & SETUP 37

3. Correct the problem that caused the fault condition. 4. Click EXIT to exit the Alarm Status Screen and return to the main screen. 5. Press Run (for Operator) or enable systems to resume (if necessary).

Figure 35. Typical System Alarm Status Screen.

4.4.1.

Working with the System Alarm Status Screen

The System Alarm Status screen (Figure 35) displays all alarms initiated by the system. Alarms are listed in chronological order, with Set Time and Clear Time if the alarm has been cleared, Ack Time (Acknowledge Time) if the alarm has been acknowledged, and the user ID (“Ack ID”) of the person who acknowledged the alarm. 4.4.1.1. Moving Around the System Alarm Status Screen To move around the Screen: ? Use HOME, SCROLL UP, SCROLL DOWN, and END to navigate through the alarm list. ? Click ACK DISPLAYED ALARMS to acknowledge alarms.

Note that acknowledging an alarm does not clear the alarm. Alarms are cleared only when the condition that caused the alarm is cleared.

?

Click EXIT to exit the Alarm Status Screen and return to the main screen.
Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.

All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this manual may be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form or by any means including graphic, electronic, or mechanical methods or photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems without the written permission of Despatch Industries, unless for purchaser's personal use.

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4.4.1.2. Alarms States Alarm states are color coded to ease recognition: ? Red: Alarm set and not acknowledged ? Green: Alarm clear but not acknowledged ? Orange: Alarm set and acknowledged

4.4.1.3. Working with the Alarm History Screen Click ALARM HISTORY from the System Alarm Status Screen to get to the Alarm History Screen. The Alarm History Screen (Figure 36) displays the history of all recent alarms (since last reset) along with count and time statistics of each alarm. Click RESET to clear the alarm history count and set time. Click EXIT to exit the Alarm History Screen and return to the System Alarm Status Screen.

Figure 36. Alarm History Screen.

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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SOFTWARE & SETUP 39

4.4.1.4. Working with the Event History Screen Access the Event History Screen by clicking EVENT HISTORY. The Event History screen (Figure 37) displays all events logged in the event history file. Users can choose to display all events or alarm events only by toggling the switch between Show All Events and Show Alarm Events Only.

Toggle to Show All Events or Show Alarm Events Only Figure 37. Event History Screen.

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this manual may be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form or by any means including graphic, electronic, or mechanical methods or photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems without the written permission of Despatch Industries, unless for purchaser's personal use.

SOFTWARE & SETUP 40

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

4.4.1.5. Optional: Working with the Runtime Statistics Screen Some CDF/CF systems include a Runtime Statistics screen (Figure 38) to display a summary of run time by category. ? Click RESET to clear all values and reset them to zero. ? Click EXIT to close and return to the main screen.

Figure 38. Runtime Statistics.

4.4.2.

Working with the I/O Access Screen

The I/O Access Screen (Figure 39 and Figure 40) allows the supervisor to monitor outputs and inputs of the CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace while a recipe is running. When the recipe is not running the I/O Access Screen provides access and the ability to modify: Discrete inputs and outputs Analog inputs and outputs Thermocouple inputs
Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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Note that values entered on I/O Access Screen cannot be saved and are cleared when exiting the screen.

Caution!
Automated safety measures are not in place when the CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace I/O Access screen is operational (that is, when not in Read Only Mode).

!

Optional Thermocouple monitoring input combinations available

Optional Zone Monitoring ON. Refer to section 7.3 for lamp replacement Optional Analog Belt Synchronization. Provides signal for precise belt movement. Figure 39. I/O Access Screen with Zone Monitoring Option ON (Models 7210/7214).

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this manual may be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form or by any means including graphic, electronic, or mechanical methods or photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems without the written permission of Despatch Industries, unless for purchaser's personal use.

SOFTWARE & SETUP 42

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

Figure 40. I/O Access Screen (Model 7224)

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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SOFTWARE & SETUP 43

Table 6. Furnace Discrete Outputs (Reference Figure 39).

Output
UBC Supply Valve UBC Drain Valve Conveyor Enable Frn HL Reset Frn Heat Enable CDA Enable Cooling Water Enable Red Light Yellow Light Green Light Blue Light Alarm Horn Air Cool Sup Fan 1 Air Cool Exh Fan 1 Air Cool Sup Fan 2 Air Cool Exh Fan 2 Dry Heat Enable

Function Turn ON the ultrasonic belt cleaner flushing fluid. Opens the ultrasonic belt cleaner fluid drain valve. Enables furnace conveyor motor drive. Reset furnace high limit Enable furnace heaters. Enable clean, dry air. Enable cooling water. Turns ON red light tower status light. Turns ON yellow light tower status light. Turns ON green light tower status light. Turns ON blue light tower status light. Turns ON audible alarm. Enable supply fan motor drive. Enable exhaust fan motor drive. Enable supply fan motor drive. Enable exhaust fan motor drive. Enable dry heat

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this manual may be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form or by any means including graphic, electronic, or mechanical methods or photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems without the written permission of Despatch Industries, unless for purchaser's personal use.

SOFTWARE & SETUP 44

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

4.4.3.

Working with the PID Loop Tuning and Control Screen

The PID Control screen (Figure 41 and Figure 42) provides for adjustment of the control parameters for conveyor speeds and dryer and furnace zones. PID loop tuning reduces value drift, oscillation, uncontrolled over-limit response and slow response. For more information about PID Loop Tuning, see Section 8.2. Descriptions for parameters are listed in Table 11. See Table 12 for the complete list of PID Loop Parameters.

Figure 41. PID Loop Tuning and Control Screen (Models 7210/7214).

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

SOFTWARE & SETUP 45

Figure 42. PID Loop Tuning and Control Screen (Model 7224).

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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SOFTWARE & SETUP 46

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

4.4.4.

Working with Calibration

For Models 7210/7214, press CALIBRATION on the Main Screen (Figure 8) to access the Calibration Screen (Figure 43). For Model 7224, press SIGNAL CALIBRATION from the I/O Access Screen (Figure 40). Use the Calibration Screen to calibrate analog input and output signals. Table 7 details the calibration screen parameters.

Figure 43. Typical Calibration Screen (Models 7210/7214).

Figure 44. Typical Calibration Screen (Model 7224).
Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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SOFTWARE & SETUP 47

Table 7. Calibration Screen Parameters and Explanations (Refer to Figure 43 and Figure 44).

Parameter
Analog Inputs Analog Outputs Selected Signal Calibration Coordinates Coordinate Values ADD DEL EXIT

Explanation List of analog input signals. List of analog output signals. Displays name of analog signal the selected for calibration. Coordinate values on a graphical display. Table that displays entered coordinate values. Enable adding coordinates for a calibration value. Delete a calibration point. Close calibration screen.

4.4.4.1. Analog Input Signals Refer to Table 14 for a list of all the I/O rack analog input signals. Table columns are as follows. Analog Input Device: Identifies analog signal source device Data from I/O Interface: Indicates range of raw data values supplied by the I/O rack interface for the signal, prior to calibration. Calibrated Program Value: Identifies calibrated value and corresponding units. The program continuously reads raw analog input values (X values) from each I/O Rack device several times each second. Each time a device X value is read, the software calibration is applied, calculating a corresponding calibrated Y value. The calibrated values are subsequently used by the program for display, control feedback and data logging purposes.

Percent Full Scale (FS) in Table 14 indicates a range of 0% to 100% of the I/O Rack signal value associated with the actual analog module’s full scale (minimum to maximum) range.

For example: For a 4 to 20 mA analog input module, 0% is the expected reading at 4 mA, and 100% is the expected reading at 20 mA. For a 4 to 20mA analog output module, 0% represents the written value to produce a 4 mA output, and 100% represents the written value to produce 20 mA output.
Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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SOFTWARE & SETUP 48

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

4.4.4.2. Analog Output Signals Refer to Table 15 for a list of all I/O rack analog output signals. The program continuously calculates raw program data values (X values) from various internal control algorithms. Several times a second, the software calibration is applied to each X value to calculate a corresponding calibrated Y value. These calibrated values are then written to the I/O rack analog output devices.

Percent Full Scale (FS) in Table 15 indicates a range of 0% to 100% of the I/O Rack signal value associated with the actual analog module’s full scale (minimum to maximum) range.

For example: For a 4 – 20 mA analog input module, 0% is the expected reading at 4 mA, and 100% is the expected reading at 20 mA. For a 4 – 20 mA analog output module, 0% represents the written value to produce a 4 mA output, and 100% represents the written value to produce 20 mA output.

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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SOFTWARE & SETUP 49

4.4.4.3. Calibration Linear Relationships Despatch software maintains a collection of calibration data values for each analog signal (input or output). The collection of data values for a signal consists of two or more calibration point pairs—each pair contains an X value and a Y value. Each pair of X and Y values represents a single point plotted in a rectangular coordinate system. In Figure 45 the plotted point is X = 1 and Y = 3.5:

Figure 45. A single point plotted.

Two plotted points in a rectangular coordinate system will lie on a straight line (Figure 46).

Figure 46. Two Point Pairs Plotted.

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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SOFTWARE & SETUP 50

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

These examples display two different point coordinates, one set with X = 0 and Y = 0; the second set with X = 100, Y = 100. If these two point sets were stored for one of the program’s analog signals, the software would calibrate any X value for that signal (Raw data read, for an analog input, or Raw program data, for an analog output) by calculating the Y value on the line above corresponding to that specific X value.

This device requires the program maintain calibration values consisting of the two Figure 47. Straight Line Calibration Curve for a Differential Pressure point pairs (Figure 47).
Transducer.

The CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace uses the line defined by these two points to calibrate a raw input level to measured pressure in pascal, by linear interpolation. Figure 47 shows a raw reading from the I/O Rack of 25% (X value); the corresponding Y value becomes -31.25 pascal. This calibration method can be used for each the analog signal, input or output as long as the following conditions are satisfied: ? Each point must have at least two calibration points (two ‘point pairs’ of X and Y values), the method is inadequate if there are no points or only one point is assigned. ? Each point pair must have a unique X value; having more than one point pair with the same exact X value is an unrealistic condition that prevents Y value calculation. The calibration method described so far represents a first-order ability. The pressure transducer example shows how calibration point pair values can be determined from nominal device specifications. The method can be carried a step further to verify accuracy to a known standard. The Despatch program has a manual mode (accessed through the I/O Access Screen) which, among other things, can be used to: ? Manipulate system output devices, and ? View analog signal Raw values (X values) in real time

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Taking advantage of these abilities allows the system to be manually set up in various operating conditions (if necessary), noting the corresponding Raw analog values. Under these conditions, measurement of actual analog values could be made using (temporary) independent standard instruments to determine actual X and Y value relationships for the analog devices. The two calibration point pairs determined in the example described above could replace the original nominal values, even though the X values represent a fraction of the total range the device can produce (18.2 % - 43.9%, as opposed to 0% - 100%). The software will perform calibration on raw X values outside the range of calibration values by linear extrapolation.

4.4.4.4. Calibrating Non-Linear Relationships Despatch software allows calibration of non-linear relationships, if necessary. Such calibration is accomplished through piecewise linear approximation, which requires more than the minimum requirement of two calibration point pairs for the analog signal. The piecewise linear approximation technique is illustrated in Figure 48 (along with an example of extrapolation). Figure 48 represents an example of calibration point pairs determined for a hypothetical analog input flowmeter with the measured non-linear characteristics listed in Table 8.

Table 8. Hypothetical Flowmeter Characteristics. Point Raw X reading: Reference device Y value: Number: 1 7.9 % 14.5 scfm 2 16.2 % 58.7 scfm 3 27.7 % 94.6 scfm 4 52.4 % 112.3 scfm

Figure 48 details how raw data readings are calibrated. Raw values 1 and 2 fall between calibration point pair X values, and therefore the calibrated Y values are determined by interpolating between the associated calibration point pair Y values. However, the raw value 3 is greater than the largest calibration X value, so the calibrated Y value for that point is extrapolated by extending the line between calibration points 3 and 4.

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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SOFTWARE & SETUP 52

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

Figure 48. Piecewise-linear Calibration Curve for Nonlinear Analog Input Device.

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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4.4.4.5. Calibration Procedure A typical calibration screen (Figure 44 or Error! Reference source not found.), has an analog input signal list, an analog output signal list and a graphical and tabular display of the selected signal calibration points. The graph axes and table columns on this screen correspond to the signal X and Y columns in Table 14 or Table 15. 1. Click ADD. A dialog window displays a prompt to enter a raw X value (Figure 49).

Figure 49. Typical Dialogue Window for Conveyor Speed Sensor Calibration—Enter Raw X Value.

2. Enter a raw X value and press Enter. 3. A second dialog window displays and prompts entering the corresponding Y value (Figure 50).

Figure 50. Enter Raw Y Value.

4. Enter an actual differential pressure pascals value. 5. The new calibration point pair data displays on the graphical display and tabular display table (Figure 51). 6. Click SAVE to permanently store the displayed calibration values. Click RESTORE to abandon the data and restore the original (or last-saved) data values. 7. To delete a calibration point, click DEL. A dialog window displays and prompts entering the point number (refer to the tabular display table). a. Enter the point number. b. Press OK to delete the calibration point or CANCEL to abandon the operation and close the dialog window.

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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SOFTWARE & SETUP 54

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

Graphical Display

Tabular Display Table

Figure 51. Display of New Calibration Point Pair.

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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SOFTWARE & SETUP 55

4.4.4.6.

Obtaining Calibration Values From Instruments

Figure 52. Calibration Example Setup.

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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SOFTWARE & SETUP 56

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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OPERATION 57

5.
5.1.

Operation
Introduction the CDF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace
Assumptions about Operation

5.1.1.

This Operation section assumes the CDF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace has been commissioned, set up and functions properly. This section also assumes: ? Recipes have been loaded, tested and can be run ? No changing of manual switches is required for operation ? Operators are required to deal with alarms

5.1.2.

Levels of Access

Operators of the CDF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace will vary in their ability to gain access to parts of the system according to how each operator was set up in the system (See Section 4.2). In addition, some screens will appear differently with different levels of access.

5.1.3.

Operating from the Main Screen

Run the CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace from the main screen (Figure 53 and Figure 54). All processes and controls are available from the main screen, plus safety measures and process are built in to the main screen when running in automated mode (versus operating using the I/O Access Screen).

Figure 53. Main Screen—Models 7210/7214 (Supervisor Access).

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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Figure 54. Main Screen—Model 7224 (Supervisor Access).

Note that there may be slight differences to the Main Screen depending on access level.

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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OPERATION 59

5.2.

Operating the CDF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace
Furnace operation typically involves loading a recipe, starting the utilities and conveyors, allowing them to stabilize and then starting the furnace. Supervisors create edit and load recipes. Operators create, edit or load recipes based on the level of access the supervisor has granted them (refer to Section 4.2.5).

5.2.1.

Operation by Supervisor

Typical operation of the CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace for an operator with Supervisor access involves these steps: 1. Load recipe (press LOAD (Model 7210/7214), press LOAD RECIPE (Model 7224) from the Recipe Directory. For directions on creating or managing recipes, refer to Section 4.3.3. 2. For Models 7210/7214: a. Enable UTILITIES. b. Enable CONVEYOR. c. Allows utilities and conveyor to stabilize. d. Enable HEATERS. 3. For Model 7224: a. Press RUN RECIPE

5.2.2.

Operation by Operator

Typical operation of the CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace for an operator with Operator access involves these steps: 1. If access allows, load recipe (press Load (Model 7210/7214), press Load Recipe (Model 7224) from the Recipe Directory. If access does not allow, contact supervisor to load recipe. 2. Press RUN/RUN RECIPE. Monitor furnace operation from the Main Screen, answering alarms (click on ALARM STATUS) as necessary. Use the I/O Access Screen to observe discrete outputs and inputs, though values cannot be changed while the system is in operation.

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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5.3.

Belt Cleaning with the Ultrasonic Cleaning System (Optional)
When so equipped, the CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace ultrasonic belt cleaner can be used to remove unwanted compounds from the furnace conveyor belt. The cleaner submerges the belt in ultrasonic energized de-ionized water. All functions of belt cleaning are controlled through the software, either while a recipe is running or when a recipe is not running. This includes the supply and drain enable outputs and the low level input. During automatic run mode, the ultrasonic belt cleaner supply is OFF and the ultrasonic belt cleaner drain is ON. 1. On the I/O Access Screen click BELT CLEANING to display the belt cleaning dialog window (see Figure 55 and explanations in Table 9). Set: a. Cleaning time b. Max Fill time c. Max Drain Time d. Belt Speed. e. Press Start Cleaning.

Figure 55. Belt-Cleaning Dialogue Window. Table 9. Belt Cleaning Parameters (Refer to Figure 55)

Parameter
Cleaning Time Max Fill Time Max Drain Time Belt Speed Time Remaining START CONVEYOR

Explanation Click arrow to increase or decrease the cleaning time in minutes. Click arrow to increase or decrease the time the de-ionized water fill valve is open, in minutes. Click arrow to increase or decrease the time the de-ionized water drain valve is open, in minutes. Click up or down arrow keys to increase or decrease the conveyor belt speed in cm/minute Time remaining for cleaning. Start belt in preparation for cleaning
Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.

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OPERATION 61

Parameter
START CLEANING EXIT

Explanation Click to initiate ultrasonic conveyor belt cleaning. Display changes to Stop Cleaning. Click EXIT to close the belt cleaning dialog window. Icon dims and is unavailable during the cleaning cycle.

2. If a low level input is detected for more than the preset time, software initiates an alarm indicating the liquid drain is closed. 3. When belt cleaning is started, the software: a. Disables heaters and cooling fans b. Turns OFF the ultrasonic belt cleaner c. Turns OFF ultrasonic belt cleaner deionized water supply 4. Manual operation of controls that adversely affect the belt cleaning process is prohibited during belt cleaning (this prevents manually operating the conveyor, heaters, ultrasonic belt cleaner solenoid, fans and process gas solenoid during the belt cleaning process). 5. The I/O Access Screen cannot be closed while belt cleaning is in operation. 6. Software maintains belt cleaning for the programmed time period, then turns OFF the ultrasonic belt cleaner de-ionized water supply, turns ON the ultrasonic belt cleaner drain and turns OFF the conveyor. 7. During the ultrasonic belt cleaner operation, the software controls the tank liquid level by toggling supply valve ON and OFF as the level approaches the low level sensor. Software monitors the low level sensor during belt cleaning. If the sensor stays on continuously for more than an allowed time, the software initiates an alarm indicating the liquid supply has failed and terminates the belt cleaning process. Caution!

!

Operation of the ultrasonic transducer without adequate water may damage unit.

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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TROUBLESHOOTING 63

6.

Troubleshooting

Caution!
Always read and understand Section 2 — Safety before the Infrared Furnace installation or before performing maintenance or adjusting the Infrared Furnace.

Troubleshooting requires reference to the electrical schematic drawings supplied with the CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace.

Danger!
Troubleshooting requires opening electrical cabinet doors and exposing energized electrical circuits. Avoid touching any exposed terminal or wires. Only qualified personnel should troubleshoot the Infrared Furnace electrical system. Failure to comply with this warning can result in serious injury or death!

!

In general: ? ? ? ? Red wires indicate 120 VAC wiring Pink wires indicate 24 VAC wiring (return wire white) Blue wires indicate 24 VDC wiring (return wire blue with white stripe) Black wire indicates AC voltage higher than 120 VAC

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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6.1. Main Contactor Cannot Be Reset
1. Make sure remote supply main disconnect is ON. The main disconnect (CDF/CF System) will not reset if input power is not present. (Figure 56) 2. Make sure all E-stop operators are pulled out. The main contactor will not reset if any E-stop circuit is tripped (open). Check for 120 VAC on the terminals of the E-stop Power Supply or 24 VDC coming from the power supply output terminals. If no voltage present check the circuit breaker. If 120VAC is present but 24VDC is not; replace the power supply (Figure 56). 3. If there is 24 VDC present, check for 24 VDC at an E-stop. 4. If there is a UPS on the system, ensure it is ON.

CDF/CF Main Disconnect

Main Contactor

E-Stop Power Supply

Figure 56. Main Circuit Breaker, Main Connector and E-stop Power Supply.

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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TROUBLESHOOTING 65

6.2. Supply And Exhaust Fans Do Not Run
This procedure assumes the system is running a recipe. 1. Review System Stats for possible alarms and take corrective steps. 2. If I/O Access is ON check that Air Cool Sup Fan 1 and 2, and Air Cool Exh Cooling Supply Fan Circuit Breaker Fan 1 and 2 icons are clicked ON. Enable if Conveyor Motor necessary. Circuit Breaker 3. Check each motor breaker (Figure 57) 4. Check that each motor variable speed drive Exhaust Fan Circuit Breaker indicator light is lit (indicating drive has power). (Figure 58) Figure 57. Fan and Conveyor Motor Circuit Breakers. 5. Check the input voltage to each motor. If there is voltage and the motor is not running, replace it.

Supply Fan Drive Exhaust Fan Drive Figure 58. Fan Motor Variable Frequency Drives.

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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6.3. Main Circuit Breaker is ON but Computer Will Not Turn ON
1. 2. 3. 4. Ensure computer and monitor are ON. Check all computer cable connections. Check 110 VAC circuit breaker. (Figure 59) Ensure optional Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) is ON.
Figure 59. 110 VAC circuit.

6.4. Conveyor Belt Motor is ON but Belt Not Rotating
1. Review Alarm Status for possible alarms and take corrective steps. 2. Make certain the PID Loop is not set to Manual 3. Make certain CONVEYOR ENABLE is enabled on the I/O ACCESS Screen. 4. Ensure the conveyor belt is not jammed or binding on an obstruction (it may be necessary to open the clamshells). 5. Is the belt slipping? If the drum is rotating but the Figure 60. Adjust Slip Clutch. belt is not moving, the conveyor belt has stretched. Remove a portion of the belt and resplice Green LED lit indicates the belt (Section 7.6). controller ON. 6. Adjust the slip clutch (Figure 60). 7. Is the green LED on the conveyor belt motor drive controller lighted? (Figure 61) If not, check circuit breaker/fuses. (Figure 62). 8. If the green LED is lighted, check for a 4-20 mA Figure 61. Conveyor Motor Drive. signal. 9. Check the conveyor drive motor for DC voltage. If there is voltage, replace brushes or the motor as necessary. 10. If necessary reboot the entire system.
Figure 62. Check Circuit Breaker/Fuse when Conveyor Drive Controller lit but Conveyor not ON.
Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this manual may be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form or by any means including graphic, electronic, or mechanical methods or photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems without the written permission of Despatch Industries, unless for purchaser's personal use.

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

TROUBLESHOOTING 67

6.5.

There Is No Heat In A Drier Or Furnace
1. Review Alarm Status for possible alarms and take corrective steps. 2. Check the heater lamp burnout circuit by reviewing the I/O Discrete Inputs (I/O Access Screen) for zones that may not be working (Figure 63). Green indicates functioning lamps. 3. Check furnace heater circuit breakers/fuses. (Figure 64) 4. Using a milliammeter, check for the 4-20 mA DC signal. Use the milliammeter by removing a Heater Lamp wire to hook it in series with the meter. (Figure Burnout Circuits 65). 5. Check the input power to the Heater SCR. (Figure 65). 6. Check for power out. If no power out, replace the SCR. (Figure 65). 7. If there is output power on the SCR and heater does not work, look for a broken wire in the heater circuit. 8. If the SCR has output power, there is no broken wire, and the heater does not work, use an Ohmmeter and check the heater resistance. Replace the heater if the resistance is infinite.
Figure 63. Check Discrete Inputs on Manual I/O Screen.

Figure 64. Furnace Heater Circuit Breaker/Fuses. Danger!

!

Before checking resistance, make certain power to the unit if OFF.

Figure 65. Heater SCR.
Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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6.6.

A Cooling Water Loop Does Not Have Water Flow
1. Review Alarm Status for possible alarms and take corrective steps. 2. Review I/O Access Screen and ensure Cooling Water Enable is ON (Figure 66). 3. Make sure the remote cooling water supply is ON. 4. Make sure the inlet and return valves are open. (Figure 67) 5. Make sure the cooling water filter is not clogged. Close the inlet shutoff valve and follow procedure for cleaning Figure 66. Cooling Water the filter (Figure 68). Enable ON (I/O Access 6. Check for voltage (light ON) to the solenoid valve. Screen). (Inset—Figure 67). Replace if necessary.

Inlet Valve Return Valve. Figure 67. Inlet and Return Valves.

Figure 68. Ensure Cooling Water Filter is not Clogged.

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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6.7.

There Is No Air Pressure
1. Review Alarm Status for possible alarms and take corrective steps. 2. Review I/O Access Screen and ensure CDA Enable is ON (Figure 69). 3. Make sure the clean dry air supply to the Furnace is ON. 4. Make sure the air inlet valve is open. (Figure 70) 5. Check for voltage to the air inlet solenoid valve. (Figure 70) 6. Make sure the air regulator is set correctly. (Figure 70)
Figure 69. CDA Enable ON (I/O Access Screen).

Figure 70. Clean Dry Air Supply.

6.8.

A Furnace Clamshell Will Not Lower Or Raise
1. Make sure all clamshell nuts have been removed. 2. Make sure the Normal-Maint switch is in the Maint position (Figure 71). 3. Make sure the lifter enable contactor is pulled in (Figure 72). 4. Check the limit switch on each motor 5. Make sure there is 110 VAC input at the RaiseLower switch. 6. Make sure that the Lift Actuator Enable Relay is energized. If not, check the four excessive force limit switches (Figure 73). 7. If the chamber lift circuit transformer has input Figure 71. Linear Actuator Control. power, check for 24 VAC output voltage (Figure 72). Replace transformer if necessary. 8. Check for a DC voltage output on the chamber lift circuit rectifier. If no voltage output, check the rectifier circuit breaker.

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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9. Hold the Raise-Lower switch in the Lower position and check for 110 VAC input to the Chamber Lift Lower Contactor coil (Figure 72). Refer to electrical schematic for wire number.
Chamber Lift Circuit Breakers

Chamber Lift Contactors

Chamber Lift Transformer Rectifier: 24 VAC 24 VDC

Figure 72. Typical Chamber Lift Circuitry.

10. On the chamber lift circuit transformer, check for input power (nameplate power). If no power, check the circuit breaker. 11. Check the DC input voltage to the Chamber Lift Lower Contactor. (Figure 72) If there is no voltage, check the circuit breaker. 12. If the circuit breakers are ON, check the input voltage at each linear actuator and replace each actuator as necessary.
Figure 73. Excessive Force Limit Switch.

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this manual may be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form or by any means including graphic, electronic, or mechanical methods or photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems without the written permission of Despatch Industries, unless for purchaser's personal use.

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

MAINTENANCE 71

7.

Maintenance
Always read and understand Section 2—Safety before installing, performing maintenance or adjusting the Infrared Furnace.

7.1. Preventive Maintenance
7.1.1. Maintenance Periods

For your convenience, use the CDF/CF Infrared Dryer/Firing Furnace Preventive Maintenance Intervals (Table 10) to track ongoing maintenance activities.
Table 10. CDF/CF Infrared Dryer/Firing Furnace Preventive Maintenance Intervals. Preventive Maintenance Ensure recipe values remain unchanged (for example, set points and alarm bands) Inspect Alarm and Event logs (4.4 and 4.4.1) Visually inspect gauges for ? Heat Zone /Exhaust airflow ? Dryer recirculation fan speed at VFD display Check key process parameters (7.1.9) Inspect inlet convective cooling filters and replace as necessary Lubricate bearings (7.1.2) Clean glass rods (7.1.3) Every Three Months Every Six Months As Needed

Daily

Weekly

Monthly

Annually

X

X X

X X X X
Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.

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Preventive Maintenance

Daily

Weekly

Monthly

Every Three Months

Every Six Months

Annually

As Needed

Shut off the air and drain pneumatic filter (7.1.4). Clean cooling water filter (7.1.5) Check and clean exhaust trays and exhaust pitot/venturi tubes (7.1.7) Check and empty VOC Condenser (7.1.8) Replace Lamps in Automation Light Source (7.7) Check E-stop operator (7.2.3) Inspect electrical cabinets (7.2.1) Test high limit heater controls (7.2.2) Cleaning broken wafers from dryer and/or furnace Clean dust from drums Furnace Conveyor Belt: Inspect for slipping and tracking. Inspect tensioning roller. Run belt cleaning utility (7.7) Replace (7.6.6) IR Lamps: Visually inspect (7.3) Clean as needed (7.3)

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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MAINTENANCE 73

7.1.2.

Bearings

Bearing

Lubricate each bearing every three months with a general purpose grease using a low pressure grease applicator (Figure 74). Do not over lubricate. The six bearings are located four on front of the system and two on the rear.

7.1.3.

Glass Rods
Figure 74. Lubricate Bearings Every Three Months.

Clean glass rods every three months. 1. Open each furnace clamshell. 2. Wearing powder-free nitryl or latex gloves, remove each glass rod and clean with alcohol. Caution!

!

Never touch a glass rod with a bare hand. Contact with a bare hand to a glass rod will substantially reduce the life of the glass rod. Always use powder-free nitryl or latex gloves when handling the glass rods.

3. Vacuum lower dryer and furnace trays. 4. Inspect the insulation and repair as necessary.

7.1.4.

CDA Air Supply

Every three months, shut off the air and drain the pneumatic filter (Figure 75).

7.1.5.

Cooling Water Filter
Figure 75. Drain Pneumatic Filter Every Three Months.

1. Every three months, shut off water supply to maintain water loops. 2. Release pressure (press red button: Figure 76), and unscrew to open and clean filter (Figure 77).

Figure 76. Release Pressure Before Cleaning Filter.
Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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Inlet Shutoff Valve

Figure 77. Open and Clean Cooling Water Filter.

7.1.6.

Convective Cooling Filters

Once a month, check inlet air filters (on top of system) and replace as necessary—paying attention to directional arrows (Figure 78).

Figure 78. Convective Cooling Filters.

7.1.7.

Check and Clean Exhaust Tray

Exhaust trays trap byproduct from exhaust system and must be cleaned monthly. Check and clean exhaust trays by releasing the lever and pulling tray out (Figure 79). Trays can be checked and cleaned while furnace is running, although panels must be removed to gain access. Dispose of tray contents in appropriate manner.
Release lever to remove tray. Figure 79. Check and Clean Exhaust Trays Monthly.
Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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MAINTENANCE 75

7.1.8.

Check Optional Volatile Organic Compound Condenser

The Volatile Organic Compound Condenser (VOC) removes Volatile Organic Compounds from the exhaust of the CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace. Empty the collection vessel as needed (Figure 80).

7.1.9.

Check Process Parameters

Figure 80. Clean VOC Condenser Collection Vessel Regularly.

On a weekly basis, import key process parameters (such as heat zone temperatures) into Excel and graph from logs to ensure no long-term adverse trends. Changes in relationship between control and process values may indicate tuning needs.

7.2. Electrical System
7.2.1. Electrical Cabinets

Once each year: 1. Shut off and lock out power to the CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace. 2. Open each electrical cabinet and ensure each connection is tight. 3. Vacuum interior of each electrical cabinet.

7.2.2.

High Limit Heater Automated Controls

Once each year test each thermocouple and high limit heater control: 1. Open electrical cabinets for access to thermocouples. 2. Remove all thermocouples (Figure 81) and watch Main Screen for alarms from each zone. 3. Replace all thermocouples and acknowledge alarms. Figure 81. Remove 4. On the Main Screen set a high limit control for well below the Thermocouples Annually current temperature (at least 100 degrees).
To Test For Alarms.

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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5. If the high limit control (Figure 82) does not shut down the heater circuits, replace it. 6. Repeat steps 1, 2, and 3 for each high limit control.

Figure 82. High Limit Heater Control.

7.2.3.

E-stop Circuit

Every six months check each Emergency Stop operator: 1. Power up the machine. 2. Push in an E-stop operator (Figure 83). 3. The system should go to a zero energy state. 4. Repeat step 1 and step 2 for each E-stop.

Figure 83. Typical E-Stop Operator.

7.3. Heater Lamp Replacement
Inspect lamps for foreign substances. Clean with lint-free cloth and alcohol as needed. Caution!
Never touch a lamp with a bare hand. Contact with a bare hand to a lamp will substantially reduce the life of the lamp. Always use powder-free nitryl or latex gloves when handling the lamps!

!

Warning!

!

Make certain all cleaning vapors are absent before starting system.

Warning!

!

Never attempt to work on furnace components until furnace has cooled to a temperature below 40°C (104°F). Failure to observe this warning can result in serious injury.

1. Turn off system and follow lock-out procedures. 2. After furnace has cooled to a safe temperature remove furnace side panels. 3. Remove lamp box covers from both sides of the zone requiring lamp replacement.
Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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MAINTENANCE 77

4. Remove lamp (Figure 84). a. Identify lamp to be replaced. b. Remove wire connector by rotating the insulating cover counterclockwise and exposing the screw clamp connection. c. Using a screwdriver, loosen the side clamp Figure 84. Heater Lamp Enclosure. screw and slide the wire out of the end of the clamp body. d. Do the same on the opposite side of the machine. 5. Pick fiber mounting gaskets (three) out of the recess in the lamp mounting ceramic bushings at both ends of the lamp (Figure 85). 6. Slide lamp out and discard according to manufacturer's recommendation. 7. Wearing powder-free nitryl or latex gloves, push new lamp into position, and carefully Figure 85. Lamp Has Three Gaskets. pack in the new mounting gaskets, (Part #176621) using three gaskets-per-lamp-end. 8. Connect the wires together and reattach the wire connector. 9. Re-install the lamp box covers and the side panels.

7.4. Thermocouple Tube or Process Port Tube Replacement
7.4.1.
? ? ? ? ? ?

Required Tools
Unifrax QF-180 adhesive (Despatch PN 173086) Utility knife with razor style blade Vacuum cleaner Putty knife Spray bottle with water Ceramic tube .375 x .25 x 3.38 (Despatch PN 173079)

7.4.2.

Tube Replacement Procedure
Warning!

!

Never attempt to work on furnace components until furnace has cooled to a temperature below 40°C (104°F). Failure to observe this warning can result in serious injury.

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this manual may be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form or by any means including graphic, electronic, or mechanical methods or photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems without the written permission of Despatch Industries, unless for purchaser's personal use.

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7.4.2.1. Preparation & Thermocouple Replacement 1. The furnace must be cool. 2. Remove the furnace side panels. 3. Remove the fasteners that hold the clamshells together. a. Remove each clamshell nut from both sides of the furnace. b. Save the nuts. The clamshell nuts must be re-attached after closing the clamshell. 4. Lower the clamshell bottom. 5. Perform lock-out tag-out procedure to remove all energy from the furnace. 6. If replacing a thermocouple tube and thermocouple also needs replacing: a. Mark with permanent marker the height of the thermocouple Figure 86. Loosen Nut To at the point of insertion into the nut before removing Remove Thermocouple. thermocouple. This ensures post-replacement temperature readings similar to pre-replacement readings. Be sure to match and mark the height/point of insertion on new thermocouple. Mark height of the old b. Remove the thermocouple by loosening the nut on the thermocouple and match that outside of the chamber (Figure 86) and slide the height with the new thermocouple out. thermocouple when replacing. 7. After tube replacement (Section 7.4.2.2): a. If replacing thermocouple, install new thermocouple at the height designated by previous thermocouple. Then carefully tighten the new locking nut and ferrule. b. If reusing older thermocouple, install at the marked height. Then carefully tighten the new locking nut and ferrule. Caution!

!

Tighten nut only enough to prevent movement. Do not over tighten as the tube can be crushed or the encased leads compromised.

7.4.2.2. Tube Replacement Procedure (When Thermocouple Tube and Process Port Tube Present) 1. If a tube is still in place (Figure 87), gently cut the adhesive holding it and pull the tube out into the chamber. 2. Cut only the adhesive at the tube—do not cut the ceiling or lower sheets. 3. With tube cut free, pull it out of the furnace. 4. Clean and scrape all remaining glue from the ceramic tube or replace old tube with a new tube (Despatch PN 173079). 5. Clean and vacuum all loose insulation and dust from the area of repair.
Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.

Figure 87. Thermocouple Tube Replacement.

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MAINTENANCE 79

6. Pre-wet insulation in the hole (for the tube) and area immediately around the repair. 7. Apply adhesive (Despatch PN 173086) directly to the full length of the outside of replacement tube. 8. Apply a small amount of adhesive to insulation in the hole where the tube will be installed. 9. Slowly slide the tube into the hole in the insulation, being careful not to get adhesive inside the tube. 10. Apply a small amount of adhesive to insulation in the hole where the tube will be installed. 11. If insulation is broken from the tube, fill void or fracture by following the fracture repair procedure (7.5.2). 12. If a thermocouple had been removed, carefully slide it back into the furnace taking care not to disrupt or push out the replaced ceramic tube. 13. After repairs completed, restore furnace to a working condition. 14. Cure adhesive by heating to 90° C for two hours then 120° C for one additional hour.

7.5. Insulation Repair
7.5.1. Introduction
Alumino-Silicate board style insulation is used in the Infrared Furnace. Insulation is arranged in two layers throughout the furnace, each 1-1/2-inches (3.81 cm) thick. At the top and bottom portions of the furnace, between two layers of insulation is a machined pocket that acts as a plenum for the process purging gas. Watch these insulation layers for fractures. Some hairline fractures typically occur in the insulation material over time— which is normal. If the fracture is large and extends to the inside of the insulation, it can create an unobstructed path for the incoming process purging gas. If the gas is unobstructed, it leaks into the chamber without being pre-heated. The larger the fracture the more likely it is non-preheated gas will leak into the chamber. Several fracture repair procedures have been tested by the Despatch factory (see below for best recommended practice). We have also tested areas of fractures for temperature uniformity. In these areas we have found no measurable difference in uniformity caused by the fractures. The fractures may be caused by shipping damage and shrinking of the insulation as it temperature-cures. Fracture repairs are largely for aesthetic purposes and structural repairs, rather than performance repairs. For large fractures or insulation that appears to be separating from the furnace, please contact the Despatch customer service.
Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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7.5.2.

Fracture Repair

7.5.2.1. Fracture Repair Required Tools ? Unifrax LDS Moldable 11oz. tube (Despatch PN 253842) ? Utility knife with razor style blade ? Vacuum cleaner ? Putty knife ? Spray bottle with water ? Caulking gun ? Lamp gasket washers (Despatch PN 176621—Qty 50) 7.5.2.2. Fracture Repair Procedure Warning!

!

Never attempt to work on furnace components until furnace has cooled to a temperature below 40°C (104°F). Failure to observe this warning can result in serious injury.

1. The furnace must be cool. 2. Remove furnace side panels. 3. Remove fasteners that hold the clamshells together. a. Remove each clamshell nut from both sides of the furnace sections. b. Save the nuts. Clamshell nuts must be re-attached after installing the conveyor belt and closing the clamshell. 4. Lower the clamshell bottom. 5. Perform lock-out tag-out procedure to remove all power from the furnace. 6. If lamps or quartz conveyor support rods are in the way of the fracture repair, carefully remove them. When replacing lamps, use new lamp gasket (Despatch PN 176621) three-per-each-end of the lamp (See Figure 85). Caution!
Never touch a glass rod with a bare hand. Contact with a bare hand to a glass rod will substantially reduce the life of the glass rod. Always use powder-free nitryl or latex gloves when handling the glass rods!

!

7. Inspect and prepare each fracture. a. If small, open each fracture to about 1/4-inch (6 mm) using the utility knife.
Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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b. The fracture should be opened into a notch or V-shape as deep as it is wide (1/4inch or 6 mm wide by 1/4-inch or 6 mm deep). (Figure 88) 8. After the fracture has been prepared, clean the area and vacuum all loose fibers and dust. For a good bond, the area must be clean. 9. Using a spray bottle, wet the area to be repaired. 10. Follow the procedure on the package of LDS Figure 88. Repair Insulation Fracture. moldable. 11. Apply the moldable directly to the fracture. 12. Putty knife the moldable into the fractures, forcing it into the voids using a prewetted putty knife. If the repair is made to the ceiling insulation, make sure that the moldable stays in the fracture and does not fall. 13. Touch-up work can be done before the moldable has cured by wetting the putty knife before doing the touch-up. 14. After repairs are complete, restore the furnace. 15. Cure at room temperature overnight or accelerated curing can be accomplished by running the furnace at 46° C (115° F) for two hours.

7.5.3.

Zone Divider Replacement

7.5.3.1. Required Tools ? Cotronics 907-3 regular consistency adhesive paste Despatch PN 174802 ? Utility knife with razor style blade ? Vacuum cleaner ? Putty knife ? Spray bottle with water ? Ceramic pin .375 x 2.00 alumina Despatch PN 173080 (2 per zone divider) ? New zone divider 7.5.3.2. Preparation Warning!

!

Never attempt to work on furnace components until the furnace has cooled to a temperature below 40°C (104°F). Failure to observe this warning can result in serious injury.

1. The furnace must be cool. 2. Remove furnace side panels.
Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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3. Remove the fasteners that hold the clamshells together. a. Remove each clamshell nut from both sides of the Furnace sections.. b. Save the nuts. The clamshell nuts must be re-attached after installing the conveyor belt and closing the clamshell. 4. Lower the clamshell bottom. 5. Perform lock-out tag-out procedure to remove all power from the furnace.

7.5.3.3. Lower Zone Divider Replacement If a lower zone divider (Figure 89) needs to be replaced, follows this procedure: 1. Support conveyor belt. 2. Remove conveyor support quartz rods using powder free nitryl or latex gloves. 3. Remove the old zone divider and replace with new zone divider. Zone divider 4. Replace the conveyor support quartz rods using powder free nitryl or latex gloves. Figure 89. Replace Lower Zone Dividers. 5. Lower conveyor belt.

7.5.3.4. Upper Zone Divider Replacement If an upper zone divider needs to be replaced, follow this procedure. 1. Cut out the ceramic pins inserted into the side walls that hold the zone divider (Figure 90). 2. Only cut the material at the zone Ceramic pins hold divider to remove the pin—do not cut zone divider the side walls. The zone divider is an expendable part since it is being replaced. 3. With pins cut free, support the zone Figure 90. Replace Upper Zone Dividers. divider by hand and remove both attachment pins. 4. Remove the zone divider. It should fall into your hand but could require pulling. 5. Clean and scrape off all remaining glue on the ceramic pins or replace with new pins. 6. Clean and vacuum the chamber in the zone divider replacement area. 7. Install a new zone divider by sliding the new divider into the furnace open cavity. 8. Install the zone divider ceramic pin into the side wall to support and hold the zone divider in place.
Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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MAINTENANCE 83

9. The area on the zone divider where the adhesive will be placed needs to be pre-wetted with the water spray bottle before the ceramic pins are installed (the adhesive application surface must be pre-wetted with water for adhesion and proper drying). 10. Use a putty knife and adhesive paste (PN 174802) to attach the ceramic pins to the zone divider. Only attach the pins to the zone divider, not to the side walls. 11. After the repairs are complete, restore the furnace. 12. Cure the adhesive by heating to 90° C (194° F) for two hours then 120°C (248° F) for one additional hour.

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this manual may be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form or by any means including graphic, electronic, or mechanical methods or photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems without the written permission of Despatch Industries, unless for purchaser's personal use.

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7.6. Belt Maintenance
7.6.1.
? ?

Required Tools
IR Belt tool 10” long (Figure 91) (Despatch PN 188324) Come-along winch

7.6.2.

Belt Cleaning Procedure

When conveyor drum surfaces become dirty from the process materials or foreign objects, clean the drums to prevent belt slippage: 1. Remove all panels around the conveyor entrance and exit tables. 2. Disconnect and remove equipment for access to the back of the drums. 3. Use a hard plastic brush to clean the conveyor drums all the way around. 4. Vacuum dirt and residues off drum surfaces. 5. Repeat Steps 3 and 4 as necessary until the drum surfaces are clean.

Warning!

!

Wear protective eye goggles to prevent serious Injury.

Figure 91. Attach IR Belt Tool To Prepare for Belt Shortening.

7.6.3.

Adjust Belt Tracking by Aligning Drive and Tail Drums

Conveyor belt tracking may appear to be off for a few different reasons. when in fact it is still within spec running properly. Slight amounts of run-out may occur over time but are generally within specifications. Conveyor belt tracking may occur for a number of reasons, including: ? Misalignment of drums—see procedure below ? Belt run-out

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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It is essential the drive drum is parallel and square to the tail drum. If the two drums are not parallel, the conveyor belt will not track straight.

Check that drive and tail drums are parallel and square. To align the drive drum to the tail drum (Figure 92): 1. Drop a plumb bob from the tail drum shaft on one side of the tail drum to the floor. a. Place masking tape on the floor below the plumb bob. b. Mark the tape below the plumb bob. Call this point A.

Make sure the plumb bob line is snug against the side of the drum as illustrated in Figure 92.

Figure 92. Location of plumb bob line.

2. Repeat steps 1a and 1b on the other side of the tail drum. Call this second location point C. 3. Remove the two top panels on the Furnace section exit. 4. Mark the floor below the drive drum on the Furnace section exit by repeating steps 1 and 2. Call these points B and D. (Figure 93) 5. Using a 100-foot tape rule, measure from point A to point B. (Figure 94) 6. Measure from point C to point D. 7. The two measurements should be within 16 mm or 0.062 in.

Figure 93. Mark the floor with a plumb bob.
Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

Figure 94. Measure from Floor Marks.

8. If the drive drum shaft is not parallel with the tail drum shaft, adjust as follows. a. Loosen the two mounting screws on each drive drum bearing (Figure 95). b. Loosen the adjusting screw lock nut. c. Example: for instance, if line A-B is 2 cm longer than line C-D, adjust the position of the drive drum shaft.

Figure 95. Drive drum bearing.

It may be necessary to adjust the tension of the drive chain by moving the position of the drive motor when doing steps 8d and 8e.

d. Move point B 1.0 cm closer to point A by turning the Adjusting Screw outward and lightly tapping the bearing until snug against screw. e. Move point D 1.0 cm further from point C by turning the Adjusting Screw clockwise. 9. Using a plumb bob, remark points B and D and re-measure A-B and C-D. 10. If line A-B is equal in length to line C-D, tighten the four mounting screws. 11. If the two measurements are not equal (within 0.15 mm), continue to measure and adjust the position of the two drive drum bearings. (Figure 96)
Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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MAINTENANCE 87

Figure 96. Example of adjusting the drive drum position.

7.6.4.

Belt Shortening Procedure

1. Locate convenient place below system to work on belt. 2. Attach the IR Belt Tool to the conveyor belt roughly two feet (0.6 meter) apart (Figure 91). 3. Attach a come-along to both sides to pull sides together (Figure 97). 4. Remove one link of wire and another link to the desired shortening distance. 5. Splice conveyor belt together (Figure 99).
Figure 97. Pull Tools Together to Produce Slack.

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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7.6.5.

Alternate Belt Shortening Procedure

When the conveyor belt has too much slack, the belt can slip on the drive drum. Shorten the belt using this procedure: 1. Remove all panels around conveyor exit table. 2. Run conveyor slowly until locating seam link. 3. Stop conveyor when seam link is on top of conveyor exit drum. 4. Retract the tension arm and take up swing arm assembly to remove tension from belt. 5. Insert two 3-inch long by 3/16-inch square keys (or similar material) through the belt and clamp to the quartz rod holder (underneath belt) to keep Figure 98. Example Belt Threading. the belt from moving. 6. Pull enough slack from bottom belt section to relieve tension from seam link. 7. Remove splice wire from belt by pulling from the side. 8. Pull more slack from bottom half of belt (overlay the top half) to until the desired tension is achieved. 9. Engage bottom belt on key stocks to stop belt from moving. 10. Cut off excess belt from bottom section, making sure the weave direction is opposite the top Figure 99. Conveyor Belt Splice. section on that link (Figure 100). 11. Connect new seam with new splice rod. 12. Adjust tension arm arms so that take up drum is parallel to exit drum.

Note how weave is in opposite direction

Figure 100. Spice Belt with Weave in Opposite Direction
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CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

MAINTENANCE 89

7.6.6.

Belt Replacement Procedure

This procedure assumes automation attached to the Furnace entry and exit tables, resulting in limited access to the conveyor belt.
Wear powder-free nitryl or latex gloves to prevent damage if a glass rod is touched.

1. Remove side panels. 2. Loosen the clutch so the belts can be pulled more easily through the furnace (Figure 60). 3. Find a place where the conveyor belt is most accessible: a. Cut apart the old conveyor belt. b. Attach a pull-wire and pull the old conveyor belt out of the furnace. Warning!
The conveyor belt coil is heavy and difficult to handle. Dangerous pinch points develop when the conveyor belt shaft is placed onto the conveyor support bars. Exercise extreme caution and avoid standing or placing feet or hands below the coil. If the coil is dropped, damage to property, serious injury or death can result.

!

4. After the old conveyor belt has been removed, use the pull-wire to pull the new conveyor belt through the furnace. 5. Position the new conveyor belt coil for ease of pulling using the pull-wire. 6. Ensure the conveyor belt mesh faces the correct direction before proceeding. Install the belt by unrolling from the top of the coil, with stand-offs (optional) on top (outside) and mesh facing the correct direction (Figure 101).

Direction of travel into furnace.

Figure 101. Face Mesh Arrows Pointing into the Furnace.

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7. Using a splice wire, attach each conveyor belt section together. a. Hold the ends of the conveyor belts together. b. Make sure the edges of the conveyor belt trailing and leading ends are even. c. Insert a splice wire into the belt as shown at the right (Figure 102).

8. Pull each new conveyor belt section into the furnace and splice to the conveyor belt until complete (Figure 103).

Figure 102. Splice Conveyor Belts Together.

9. Connect the two ends of the new conveyor belt together. a. Hold the trailing and leading ends of the conveyor belt together b. Make sure the edges of the conveyor belt trailing and leading ends are even. c. Insert a splice wire into the belt as shown in Figure 102.

Figure 103. Conveyor Belt Path.

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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10. Make sure that the conveyor belt tracks without wandering or skewing to one side. Turn on the conveyor belt drive and run for about an hour to make sure that the belt tracks without a problem. (Figure 104) a. Start the conveyor belt drive motor. b. Tighten the tensioning nut. c. The conveyor belt should not slip when fully loaded but should slip if the belt strikes an obstruction and cannot continue to move. See Figure 105 for minimum and maximum tension drum positions. 11. Replace all side panels.
Figure 104. Drive Drum Sprocket and Slip Clutch.

Figure 105. Tension Drum Position: Minimum (22 cm) and Maximum (40 cm).

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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Maintenance 92

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7.7. Replace Lamps in (Optional) Automation Light Source
If your CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace is equipped with a light source for automation, follow these steps to replace the lamps: 1. Power light source OFF. 2. Remove screws (Figure 106) 3. Slide the light source from the slot 4. Remove plexiglass cover, being careful not to scratch the cover. 5. Replace lamp(s) using Despatch Part Number 186524. Remove screws to slide light source from slot. 6. Replace cover 7. Replace light source in furnace Figure 106. Slide Automation Light Source out to Replace 8. Replace screws.
Lamps.

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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8.

Appendices

8.1. Complete List of Alarm Messages
CDF/CF Alarm Messages
Alarm Type High Idle Temperature I/O Network Failure Dryer Zone 1 High Temperature Alarm Dryer Zone 2 High Temperature Alarm Dryer Zone 3 High Temperature Alarm Dryer Zone 4 High Temperature Alarm Furnace Zone 1 High Temperature Alarm Furnace Zone 2 High Temperature Alarm Furnace Zone 3 High Temperature Alarm Furnace Zone 4 High Temperature Alarm Furnace Zone 5 High Temperature Alarm Furnace Zone 6 High Temperature Alarm Excessive Lift Force Furnace Zone 1 Upper Lamp Burnout Furnace Zone 1 Lower Lamp Burnout System Response Announce only Announce only Disables heaters and shuts down a running process. Disables heaters and shuts down a running process. Disables heaters and shuts down a running process. Disables heaters and shuts down a running process. Disables heaters and shuts down a running process. Disables heaters and shuts down a running process. Disables heaters and shuts down a running process. Disables heaters and shuts down a running process. Disables heaters and shuts down a running process. Disables heaters and shuts down a running process. Announce only Announce only Alarm Description One or more Heat Zone Temperature above Cooldown threshold while Shutdown Control PC has permanently lost communications with the remote I/O rack Dryer Zone 1 control temperature exceeds high alarm limit Dryer Zone 2 control temperature exceeds high alarm limit Dryer Zone 3 control temperature exceeds high alarm limit Dryer Zone 4 control temperature exceeds high alarm limit Furnace Zone 1 control temperature exceeds high alarm limit Furnace Zone 2 control temperature exceeds high alarm limit Furnace Zone 3 control temperature exceeds high alarm limit Furnace Zone 4 control temperature exceeds high alarm limit Furnace Zone 5 control temperature exceeds high alarm limit Furnace Zone 6 control temperature exceeds high alarm limit Furnace half has reached end of travel. Lamp burnout sensor open when heater power demand is high. Lamp burnout sensor open when heater power demand is high.

Announce only

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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CDF/CF Alarm Messages
Alarm Type Furnace Zone 2 Upper Lamp Burnout Furnace Zone 2 Lower Lamp Burnout Furnace Zone 3 Upper Lamp Burnout Furnace Zone 3 Lower Lamp Burnout Furnace Zone 4 Upper Lamp Burnout Furnace Zone 4 Lower Lamp Burnout Furnace Zone 5 Upper Lamp Burnout Furnace Zone 5 Lower Lamp Burnout Furnace Zone 6 Upper Lamp Burnout Furnace Zone 6 Lower Lamp Burnout Low Cooling Water Flow Conveyor Speed Control Failure Dryer Zone 1 Temperature Control Failure Dryer Zone 2 Temperature Control Failure Dryer Zone 3 Temperature Control Failure Dryer Zone 4 Temperature Control Failure Furnace Zone 1 Temperature Control Failure System Response Announce only Alarm Description Lamp burnout sensor open when heater power demand is high. Lamp burnout sensor open when heater power demand is high. Lamp burnout sensor open when heater power demand is high. Lamp burnout sensor open when heater power demand is high. Lamp burnout sensor open when heater power demand is high. Lamp burnout sensor open when heater power demand is high. Lamp burnout sensor open when heater power demand is high. Lamp burnout sensor open when heater power demand is high. Lamp burnout sensor open when heater power demand is high. Lamp burnout sensor open when heater power demand is high. Cooling Water flow switch open when flow is enabled. Measured conveyor speed is not within expected tolerance of setpoint when conveyor is enabled. Control temperature is not within expected tolerance of setpoint when heat is enabled. Control temperature is not within expected tolerance of setpoint when heat is enabled. Control temperature is not within expected tolerance of setpoint when heat is enabled. Control temperature is not within expected tolerance of setpoint when heat is enabled. Control temperature is not within expected tolerance of setpoint when heat is enabled.

Announce only

Announce only

Announce only

Announce only

Announce only

Announce only

Announce only

Announce only

Announce only

Announce only Announce only Announce only

Announce only

Announce only

Announce only

Announce only

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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MAINTENANCE 95

CDF/CF Alarm Messages
Alarm Type Furnace Zone 2 Temperature Control Failure Furnace Zone 3 Temperature Control Failure Furnace Zone 4 Temperature Control Failure Furnace Zone 5 Temperature Control Failure Furnace Zone 6 Temperature Control Failure Dryer Zone 1 Thermocouple Open Dryer Zone 2 Thermocouple Open Dryer Zone 3 Thermocouple Open Dryer Zone 4 Thermocouple Open Furnace Zone 1 Thermocouple Open Furnace Zone 2 Thermocouple Open Furnace Zone 3 Thermocouple Open Furnace Zone 4 Thermocouple Open Furnace Zone 5 Thermocouple Open Furnace Zone 6 Thermocouple Open Cooling Water Supply Thermocouple System Response Announce only Alarm Description Control temperature is not within expected tolerance of setpoint when heat is enabled. Control temperature is not within expected tolerance of setpoint when heat is enabled. Control temperature is not within expected tolerance of setpoint when heat is enabled. Control temperature is not within expected tolerance of setpoint when heat is enabled. Control temperature is not within expected tolerance of setpoint when heat is enabled. Thermocouple leads are disconnected.

Announce only

Announce only

Announce only

Announce only

Announce only

Announce only

Thermocouple leads are disconnected.

Announce only

Thermocouple leads are disconnected.

Announce only

Thermocouple leads are disconnected.

Announce only

Thermocouple leads are disconnected.

Announce only

Thermocouple leads are disconnected.

Announce only

Thermocouple leads are disconnected.

Announce only

Thermocouple leads are disconnected.

Announce only

Thermocouple leads are disconnected.

Announce only

Thermocouple leads are disconnected.

Announce only

Thermocouple leads are disconnected.

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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CDF/CF Alarm Messages
Alarm Type Open Cooling Water Return Thermocouple Open Temperature High Limit System Response Announce only Alarm Description Thermocouple leads are disconnected.

UPS on Backup Power UPS Battery Low Maximum Exhaust Pressure Exceeded Conveyor Belt Failure Dryer Zone 1 Heater Failure Dryer Zone 2 Heater Failure Dryer Zone 3 Heater Failure Dryer Zone 4 Heater Failure Furnace Zone 1 Heater Failure Furnace Zone 2 Heater Failure Furnace Zone 3 Heater Failure Furnace Zone 4 Heater Failure Furnace Zone 5 Heater Failure Furnace Zone 6 Heater Failure Control Switch in Maintenance Mode High Cooling Water Supply Temperature High Cooling Water Return Temperature Low Air Pressure

Disables heaters and shuts down a running process. Prevents starting a process. Disables heaters and shuts down a running process. Announce only Announce only Disables heaters and shuts down a running process. Announce only Announce only Announce only Announce only Announce only Announce only Announce only Announce only Announce only Announce only Announce only Announce only

High Temperature Limit Relay Tripped

System is operated on Backup Power

UPS Battery Low Exhaust pressure exceeded the limit defined by the System Parameters Measured belt speed is below Low Alarm limit when conveyor is enabled Control temperature is below Low Alarm limit when heat is enabled Control temperature is below Low Alarm limit when heat is enabled Control temperature is below Low Alarm limit when heat is enabled Control temperature is below Low Alarm limit when heat is enabled Control temperature is below Low Alarm limit when heat is enabled Control temperature is below Low Alarm limit when heat is enabled Control temperature is below Low Alarm limit when heat is enabled Control temperature is below Low Alarm limit when heat is enabled Control temperature is below Low Alarm limit when heat is enabled Control temperature is below Low Alarm limit when heat is enabled Control switch is in Maintenance Mode Cooling water supply temperature exceeds expected limit. Cooling water return temperature exceeds expected limit. CDA Pressure Switch open when CDA enabled

Announce only

Announce only

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
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MAINTENANCE 97

CDF/CF Alarm Messages
Alarm Type Low Air Flow System Response Disables heaters and shuts down a running process. Disables heaters and shuts down a running process. Alarm Description CDA Flow Switch open when CDA enabled

Cooling Fan VFD Fault

Cooling Fan(s) VFD drive has faulted

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8.2. PID Loop Parameters
8.2.1. Working with the PID Loop Tuning and Control Screen
The PID Control screen (Figure 107) provides for adjustment of the control parameters for conveyor speeds and dryer and furnace zones. PID loop tuning reduces value drift, oscillation, uncontrolled over-limit response and slow response. Descriptions for parameters are listed in Table 11. See Table 12 for the complete list of PID Loop Parameters.
Loop Parameters Attribute Trace List

Loop Selection Figure 107. PID Loop Tuning and Control Screen.

Scale Dialog & Plot Label Options

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MAINTENANCE 99

8.2.2.

PID Loop Screen Description
Parameter
Loop Parameters Loop Selection Attribute Trace List Scale Dialog Plot Label Options

Table 11. PID Loop Screen Parameter Descriptions (Refer to Figure 107)

Explanation See Table 12 for full explanation. Click to select a PID loop to tune. Stored values display in the PID Loop parameter boxes. Click on box to select attribute to plot. Click again (uncheck) to hide the plot of a specified signal Click to select the minimum and maximum values for each trace scale. X-Axis Label: Time Y-Axis Label: Conveyor Speed Y-Axis Label: Temperature Y-Axis Label: PID Output Lock in Manual or Auto plot settings. In manual mode, set own parameters. Show’s which graph currently working with

Set label options

Utilities - ConveyorHeaters Deriv filter tc

Click to enable or disable directly from the PID screen Derivative Filter Time Constant: Smooth out derivative action spikes, in seconds (from PID settings). Applied to all heat zone PID loops. Click up or down scroll keys to change value. Output Filter Time Constant: Smooth out abrupt output level changes, in seconds (from PID settings). Applied to all heat zone PID loops. Click up or down scroll keys to change value. Conveyor Derivative Filter Time Constant: Smooth out derivative action spikes for speed control, in seconds (from PID settings). Click up or down scroll keys to change value. Conveyor Output Filter Time Constant: Smooth out abrupt output level changes for speed control, in seconds (from PID settings). Click up or down scroll keys to

Output filter tc

Cnvyr Deriv filter tc

Convyr Output filter tc

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Parameter
RESTORE SAVE EXIT

Explanation change value. Click to abandon any changes and restore all settings Click to save the PID Loop settings Click to close the PID loop screen and return to the Main Screen

Table 12. PID Loop Parameters.

Parameter
Selected PID Loop Name PV Act SP SP

SP RR P

I

D

PID Mode Man Out Upper Out Max

Upper Out Min

Lower Out Max

Lower Out Min

Explanation Information box displaying the PID loop selected from the Loop Selection list Process Value: Current measured control value (measured from the I/O system) Actual Set Point: Real-time control process value (desired value calculated by the PID algorithm) Set Point: Actual set point value used for the current update. Click up or down scroll keys to change value. Set Point Ramp Rate: Rate at which the PID loop algorithm automatically ramps the actual set point (Act SP) to the target SP (in units per minute, from PID settings). Click up or down scroll keys to change value. Proportional Gain: PID gain parameter, in percent-perunit of deviation. Click up or down scroll keys to change value. Integral Rate: PID integral error parameter, in repeats-persecond (from PID settings). Click up or down scroll keys to change value. Derivative time: PID derivative component, in seconds (from PID settings). Click up or down scroll keys to change value. Toggle the PID mode between automatic and manual. Manual Output: Forced output level that can be set in PID settings (typically set at 0). Upper maximum limit of a value range for the analog level sent to a device, such as a motor drive or SCR controller. Click up or down scroll keys to change value. Upper minimum limit of a value range for the analog level sent to a device, such as a motor drive or SCR controller. Click up or down scroll keys to change value. Lower minimum limit of a value range for the analog level sent to a device, such as a SCR controller. Click up or down scroll keys to change value. Lower maximum limit of a value range for the analog
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MAINTENANCE 101

Parameter

Output

Explanation level sent to a device, such as a SCR controller. Click up or down scroll keys to change value. Calculated value sent to a device.

8.2.3.

PID Loop Tuning Procedure

For an in-depth explanation of PID Loop Tuning, refer to the following section, PID Loop Concept (8.2.4). To tune a PID Loop: 1. Open the PID Loop Tuning Screen. 2. Click the plot name in the Plot Selection list. 3. Click Scale Dialog and set the maximum and minimum values for the trace. 4. Click the desired check boxes in the Attribute Trace List. 5. Select a trace from each Trace Selection Box. 6. Choose a parameter on the PID Loop Parameters and adjust the value while observing the trace. 7. Continue until the trace flattens.

8.2.4.

PID Loop—The Concept

PID control loops are used for conveyor speed control, pressure control and heat zone temperature control. Programmable parameters used by these loops allow tuning to optimize control response. Ideally the control loop brings the process variable to the current set point immediately and holds it there without further deviation. Two issues prevent this ideal response: ? ? Time delays occur between the control loop output changes and when the process variable actually stabilizes at the level determined by the control loop output. The relationship between the stabilized process variable level and the control loop output is typically non-linear and is influenced by variable external factors. PID control loop tuning parameters allow the loop output to change with time to compensate for internal time delays, non-linear control responses, and external influences on the process.

The following paragraphs describe PID parameters, how to adjust their values, and PID tuning guidelines.

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8.2.4.1. PID Parameters Described The proportional term “P” is a proportional gain value expressed in per-cent output perdegree-of-error (deviation). For example, if the heater temperature set point is 350 degrees, the actual temperature is 335 degrees (deviation 350 – 335 = 15 degrees), and P is 2, then the proportional output will be 15 degrees x 2 = 30%. If converting from a proportional band (PB) value, use: P = 100 / PB. The integral term “I” is expressed as repeats-per-second. If the deviation is 15 degrees, as in the example above, and I is 0.1, then the integral contribution to the output will be to add 15 degrees x 0.1 = 1.5 degrees per second. If converting from repeats-per minute (RPM): I = RPM / 60 If converting from integral time, in minutes (TM): I = 1 / (TM x 60) If converting from integral time, in seconds (TS): I = 1 / TS The derivative term “D” is expressed in seconds. If, for example, the temperature deviation changes from 15 degrees to 13 degrees in 3 seconds, and D is 30, then the derivative contribution to the output is ((13? – 15?) / 3) x 30 = -20%. If converting from derivative time (DT) in minutes: D = DT / 60

8.2.4.2. Adjust PID Values Increase or decrease the proportional term (P) to speed or slow the initial temperature response. A value too high causes instability—the resulting temperature (or belt speed) will oscillate. A value too low causes very slow temperature (or belt speed) response. Proportional values that provide stable control may not allow the process variable to reach the set point. The integral term, I, is used to make up the difference. Increase or decrease the integral term “I” to speed or slow the control system’s ability to reach the actual set point. A value too high causes severe overshoot or oscillation. A value too low prevents the temperature from stabilizing at the actual set point. Increase or decrease the derivative term “D” to prevent overshoot at higher proportional gain settings. A value too high causes unstable temperature control at the set point or prevents the temperature from stabilizing close to the set point. A value too low allows overshoot to occur.

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MAINTENANCE 103

8.2.4.3. PID Tuning Guidelines Tuning temperature control parameters is time-consuming. Once a temperature control response is observed and the need for tuning determined, change only one PID parameter at a time and observe the resulting effect. After adjusting and observing the result, make another adjustment if necessary.

8.2.5.

Despatch CDF Furnace Software PID Algorithm

The PID algorithm is a subroutine called up frequently while the program is running to calculate control power levels. General PID loop update sequence: 1. Execute Conveyor Belt Speed PID loop algorithm and update motor drive analog control signal level. 2. Execute Heat Zone 1 PID loop algorithm and update Heat Zone 1 Upper SCR and Lower SCR analog control signal levels. 3. Execute Heat Zone 2 PID loop algorithm and update Heat Zone 2 Upper SCR and Lower SCR analog control signal levels. 4. Execute Heat Zone 3 PID loop algorithm and update Heat Zone 3 Upper SCR and Lower SCR analog control signal levels. 5. Execute Heat Zone 4 PID loop algorithm and update Heat Zone 4 Upper SCR and Lower SCR analog control signal levels. 6. Execute Heat Zone 5 PID loop algorithm and update Heat Zone 5 Upper SCR and Lower SCR analog control signal levels. 7. Execute Heat Zone 6 PID loop algorithm and update Heat Zone 6 Upper SCR and Lower SCR analog control signal levels. 8. Execute Heat Zone 7 PID loop algorithm and update Heat Zone 7 Upper SCR and Lower SCR analog control signal levels. 9. Execute Heat Zone 8 PID loop algorithm and update Heat Zone 8 Upper SCR and Lower SCR analog control signal levels. 10. Execute Heat Zone 9 PID loop algorithm and update Heat Zone 9 Upper SCR and Lower SCR analog control signal levels. 11. Wait 200 milliseconds. 12. Repeat steps 1 – 11. These steps are repeated continuously while the program is running.

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8.2.6.

PID Loop Algorithm Definitions

Table 13 lists the PID loop algorithm definitions.

Table 13. PID Loop Algorithm Definitions.

Parameter
SPT

SP

SP (now) SP (old) SPRR

MR PV CV

DFTC OFTC Dev

Definition Target Set Point: The target final control set point value (desired belt speed or zone temperature from the current recipe) Set Point: The real-time control process value (desired belt speed or zone temperature calculated by the PID algorithm). Eventually, SP ramps to SPT and remains fixed at SPT. Actual value of SP for current update Remembered value of SP used in previous update Set Point Ramp Rate: Rate at which the PID loop algorithm automatically ramps SP from the current realtime value to SPT (in units per minute from PID settings) Manual Reset: Forced output level that can be set in PID settings (typically left at 0). Process Value: Current measured control value (measured belt speed or thermocouple temperature, from I/O system). Control Value: Control output level (used to control belt drive motor speed or heat zone SCRs, calculated PID algorithm result). Derivative Filter Time Constant: Used to smooth out derivative action spikes, in “seconds” (from PID settings) Output Filter Time Constant: Used to smooth out abrupt output level changes, in “seconds” (from PID settings) Deviation: At any given time, this is the current control error = SP – PV (calculated by PID algorithm) Proportional Gain: PID gain parameter, in “% per unit of deviation” (from PID settings) Integral Rate: PID integral error parameter, in “repeats per second” (from PID settings) Derivative Time: PID derivative component, in “seconds” (from PID settings) Actual time when PID algorithm is updated Remembered time of previous PID algorithm update Delta Time: At each update, the algorithm calculates the actual time (in seconds) that has elapsed since the previous
Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.

P I D Time (now) Time (old) dt

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CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

MAINTENANCE 105

Parameter
Dev (now) Dev (old) Int (now) Derive (now) Out (now) Out (old)

Definition update Real-time value of dev when PID algorithm is updated Value of dev remembered from previous algorithm update Value of integral remembered from previous algorithm update Calculated intermediate value of derivative based on D Calculated output level result from real-time update Output level result remembered from previous update

8.2.7.

PID Algorithm Sequence Auto/Manual

1. Calculate dt = time(now) – time(old) (converted to seconds). 2. If SP (old) is not equal to SPT, ramp SP towards SPT according to the following formula: If SPT > SP (old), SP (now) = SP (old) + (SPRR x (dt / 60)); if SP (now) > SPT then make SP (now) = SPT. If SPT < SP (old), SP (now) = SP (old) – (SPRR x (dt / 60)); if SP (now) < SPT, then make SP (now) = SPT. If SP (old) = SPT, then SP (now) = SPT. 3. Calculate dev (now) = SP (now) – PV (PV is a real-time measured value). 4. Calculate int (now) according to the following formula: If (P > 0) AND [|dev (now)| <= (100 / P)] then int (now) = int (old) + [dev (now) x I x dt]; Otherwise, int (now) = 0. 5. Add manual reset to integral calculation: If (P > 0) then int (now) = int (now) + (MR / P). If int (now) < 0, then int (now) = 0. If int (now) > 100, then int (now = 100. 6. Calculate derive (now) according to the following formula: Let d’ = [(dev(now) – dev(old)) / dt] x D; Then deriv(now) = [(d’ x dt) + (deriv(old) x DFTC)] / (dt + DFTC).** 7. Calculate the algorithm output level, out(now), according to the following formula: Let o’ = P x (dev (now) + int (now) + derive (now)); Then out (now) = [(o’ x dt) + (out (old) x OFTC)] / (dt + OFTC).** If out (now) < 0, then out (now) = 0. If out (now) > 100, then out (now = 100. Remember current real-time values for next update: Time (old) = time (now); SP (old) = SP (now); Dev (old) = dev (now);
Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this manual may be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form or by any means including graphic, electronic, or mechanical methods or photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems without the written permission of Despatch Industries, unless for purchaser's personal use.

Int (old) = int (now); Derive (old) = derive (now); Out (old) = out (now). This completes the PID loop algorithm. The resulting value of out (now) is processed further by the PID loop update sequence as follows: If the loop was the belt speed control loop, the analog level supplied to the motor drive is out (now) scaled between the “Upper Out Min” and “Upper Out Max” range: Let R = (Upper Out Max – Upper Out Min); Let A’ = (out (now) / 100) x (R / 100); AOutput = (A x 100) + Upper Out Min. For example: if Upper Out Min is set to 30 and Upper Out Max is set to 60, then AOutput would vary proportionally from 30 to 60 as out(now) varies from 0 to 100. The motor drive would be controlled by a 4 – 20 mA signal proportional to AOutput; 4 mA at AOutput = 0, and 20 mA at AOutput = 100. In the example (Min = 30, Max = 60), if out(now) was 20, the drive control signal level would be 36%, or 9.76 mA. The Lower Out Min & Max settings for the conveyor belt speed loop have no effect. For a Heat Zone control loop, the same principle applies, except that the same value of out(now) is applied to calculations for both the Upper and Lower lamp bank SCR analog control levels. For example, if Upper Out Min is set to 40, Upper Out Max is set to 80, Lower Out Min is set to 0 and Lower Out Max is set to 20, then the upper lamp bank SCR analog control level would vary proportionally from 40 to 80 as out (now) varies from 0 to 100; the lower lamp bank SCR analog control level would vary proportionally from 0 to 20 as out(now) varies from 0 to 100. Again, as for the belt speed control, the final output range of 0 – 100% corresponds to an SCR control signal range of 4 – 20 mA. Note that a bank can be disabled by setting both the “Min” and “Max” settings to 0. * The PID settings screen has separate Deriv filter tc and Output filter tc settings for the conveyor loop and heat zone loops. All heat zone loops use the same Deriv filter tc and Output filter tc settings shown on this screen. Note that this application of Deriv filter tc and Output filter tc produces a filtered response to real-time changes in the derivative value or output value. The formulas used to calculate filtered values approximate an exponential response such as the following: derive (now) = derive (old) + ((d’ – derive (old)) x [1 – e(-dt/DFTC)] )
Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this manual may be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form or by any means including graphic, electronic, or mechanical methods or photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems without the written permission of Despatch Industries, unless for purchaser's personal use.

**

CDF/CF Infrared Drying/Firing Furnace Owners Manual Version 1.2

MAINTENANCE 107

or out (now) = out (old) + ((o’ – out (old)) x [1 – e(-dt/OFTC)]) (refer to above for symbol definitions and intermediate calculations of d’ and o’). For example, if the previous algorithm update produced out (old) = 30, and the realtime algorithm output calculated the intermediate output value o’ as 60, (with dt = 0.25 seconds, OFTC = 2 seconds), out (now) = 33.33 using the algorithm formula. The exponential formula would produce out (now) = 33.53. Note that if OFTC = 0, out (now) would always equal o’ (non-filtered response). However, using time constant values of zero in the software would cause division-by-zero errors in this case. The current formula avoids that potential situation, and does not require the software to calculate an exponential value (potentially slower math function).

8.3. Calibration Screen Tables
Use these tables with the Calibration section (Section 4.4.4)
Table 14. Analog Input Signals.
X Raw Data from I/O Interface Conveyor Speed Sensor (Reading counts/second) Heat Zone Control Temperature Controller Reading °C Heat Zone Control Temperature Controller Reading °C Heat Zone Control Temperature Controller Reading °C Heat Zone Control Temperature Controller Reading °C Heat Zone Control Temperature Controller Reading °C Heat Zone Control Temperature Controller Reading °C Heat Zone Control Temperature Controller Reading °C Heat Zone Control Y Calibrated Program Value Actual Conveyor Speed in/min Actual Heat Zone Temperature °C Actual Heat Zone Temperature °C Actual Heat Zone Temperature °C Actual Heat Zone Temperature °C Actual Heat Zone Temperature°C Actual Heat Zone Temperature °C Actual Heat Zone Temperature °C Actual Heat Zone

Analog Input Device
Furnace Conveyor Speed Sensor Dryer Heat Zone 1

Dryer Heat Zone 2

Dryer Heat Zone 3

Dryer Heat Zone 4 Furnace Heat Zone 1 Temperature Furnace Heat Zone 2 Temperature Furnace Heat Zone 3 Temperature Furnace Heat Zone 4

Copyright ? 2008 by Despatch Industries.
All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this manual may be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form or by any means including graphic, electronic, or mechanical methods or photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems without the written permission of Despatch Industries, unless for purchaser's personal use.

Analog Input Device
Temperature Furnace Heat Zone 5 Temperature Furnace Heat Zone 6 Temperature Cooling Water Supply Temperature Cooling Water Return Temperature VOC Condenser Pressure

X Raw Data from I/O Interface Temperature Controller Reading ° C Heat Zone Control Te

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