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语法复习-时态语态


动词的时态和语态

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动词的时态

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动词时态有哪些?

一般现在时 一般过去时 一般将来时 过去将来时 现在完成时 过去完成时 将来完成时 现在进行时 过去进行时
将来进行时

现在完成进行 过去完成进行

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/>
主动语态 一般现在时 一般过去时 一般将来时 过去将来时 现在完成时 过去完成时 将来完成时 现在进行时
does/do

被动语态
am/is/are done

did/was, were
will/shall do; 其他 would do; 其他 have/has done had done

was/were done
will be done would be done have/has been done had been done

will have done
am/is/are doing was/were doing will be doing have/has/had been doing

will have been done
am/is/are being done was/were being done

过去进行时 将来进行时 完成进行时

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一. 一般现在时

Ⅰ.一般现在时的基本用法 1.表示公认的事实或真理。没有时间性, 任何时候都是如此。
2.表示习惯性,经常性的动作和现在的事 实,状态,特征。 标志词: often, usually, occasionally, generally, sometimes, always, never, seldom, rarely, every day, once a year, on Sundays…

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Ⅱ.一般现在时表示将来
1.表示按时间表拟定或安排好的事情,或要 发生的动作.但限于少数动词(begin, come, leave, go, arrive, start, stop, return, open, close) (06四川) Look at the timetable. Hurry up! Flight A 4026 ____ off at 18:20. A.takes B. took C. will be taken D. has taken

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2. 在时间状语从句里 (03北京春,26) ---When will you come to see me, Dad? ---I will go to see you when you _____ D the training course. A.will have finished B. will finish C. are finishing D. finish

引导此类从句的连接词还有 before, after, till\until, once, as soon as, while, by the time, the moment/minute, immediately等
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3. 在条件状语从句中 (04上海) The number of deaths from heart disease will be reduced greatly if people _____to eat more fruit and D vegetables. A.persuade B. will persuade C. be persuaded D. are persuaded 引导此类从句的连接词还有in case, as/so long as, unless, if, providing\provided (that)等

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二. 一般过去时

用法: 1.表示过去具体时间发生的动作,经常与 表示过去时间的状语或状语从句连用。 2.叙述一动作或状态在过去持续了一段 时间后终止,或在过去某段时间发生了 若干次。
标志词: last night, yesterday, ago, the other day, at that time/moment, in 2007, just now…或由when, as引导的过去时间状 语从句
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(06陕西) C -You look very tired. ____at all last night? -No, not really. I’m tired out now. A.Do you sleep B. Were you sleeping C. Did you sleep D. Had you slept (06江西) My cousin went to Canada two years A ago. He ____ there for a few months and then went to America. A.worked B. would work C. would be working D. has been working
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三. 一般将来时 表示将来发生的动作或存在的状态。 构成:will /shall do be going to do be to do (00全国) --- You’ve left the light on. A --- Oh, so I have. _____ and turn it off.

A. I’ll go C. I go

B. I’ve gone D. I’m going

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四. 过去将来时 表示从过去观点看将要发生的事 (06湖南卷)

In a room above the store, where a A party____, some workers were busily setting the table. A. was to be held B. has been held C. will be held D. is being held.
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五. 现在完成时 1.表示动作已经完成,强调发生在过去,对 现在还有影响。 2.某一时刻开始的动作或状态到现在可能停 止,也可能继续下去。 3.现在完成时还可用在时间和条件状语从句 中,表示将来某时完成的动作。 4. 短暂时间动作的完成时不与for, since等表 示一段时间的短语连用.非延续性动词的否定 形式可以与表示延续时间的状语连用。即动 作不发生的状态是可以持续的。
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1.(04 广西) ---The window is dirty. --- I know. It _____ for weeks. D A. hasn’t cleaned B. didn’t clean C. wasn’t cleaned D. hasn’t been cleaned. 2. (06 北京) ----____ leave at the end of this month. B --- I don’t think you should do that until _____ another job. A. I’m going to; you’d found B. I’m going to; you’ve found C. I’ll; you’ll find D. I’ll; you’d find

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用于现在完成时的句型 1)It is the first / second time…. that… It is the first time that I have visited the city. It was the third time that the boy had been late. 2)This/ That is the best/only/ most … that…结构,that 从句要用现在完成时. This is the best film that I’ve (ever) seen.
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六. 过去完成时 1. 表示过去某一时刻或某一动作之前完成的 动作或状态 2. 表示本打算,计划, 希望, 认为,试图 做 而没有做 had hoped /wished /planned / meant /intended/thought/wanted/expected to do =hoped to have done 3.固定句型。 一…就… hardly/scarcely(一) +had done… when(就) did no sooner(一)+had done… than(就) did
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(04湖北) ---George and Lucy got married last week. Did you go to their wedding? ---No, I ____ . Did they have a big C wedding? A. was not invited B. have not been invited C. hadn’t been invited D. didn’t invite

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(04北京) C I arrived late; I ______ the road to be so icy. A.wouldn’t expect B. haven’t expected C. hadn’t expected D. wasn’t expecting

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(06天津) --- Did Linda see the traffic accident ? ---No, no sooner ___ than it happened. A A. had she gone B. she had gone C. has she gone D. she has gone

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七. 将来完成时 表示到将来某一时刻为止,将会完成 标志词:by the end of +将来的时间 by the time +一般现在时从句 (05天津卷) By the time Jane gets home, her aunt C _______for London to attend a meeting. A. will leave B. leaves C. will have left D. left

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八. 现在进行时
1.表示说话时正在进行的动作或状态。

2.现在进行时还可以表示现阶段正在进行, 而此刻不一定在进行的动作。 3. come/go/leave/arrive/start/get/stay 等 可用现在进行时表示即将发生的动作。 4. 常与always, continually, constantly等 动词连用。这种用法常表示说话人的某种 感情,如赞扬,遗憾,讨厌或不满等。
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(05 湖南) Since I won the big prize, my telephone hasn’t stopped ringing. People _____ to D ask how I am going to spend the money. A.phone B. will phone C. were phoning D. are phoning (06福建,24) Ladies and gentlemen, please fasten your seat belts. The plane________. B A. takes off B. is taking off C. has taken off D. took off
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九. 过去进行时 1.过去某一时刻正在进行的动作。 标志词:then, at that moment, this time yesterday, 上下文语境 2.过去某一时间段一直发生的动作. all the time, for a whole day/ morning (翻译成 “一直做…来着 ”) 3.某一动作发生时另一个动作正在发生,即 两个动作同时进行着。常用于句型“主语 +was/were+v.+ing+when+主语+过去时”
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(04 吉林) --- Has Sam finished his homework today? --- I have no idea. He ______ it this C morning. A.did B. has done C. was doing D. had done (06安徽) I ____ along the street looking C for a place to park when the accident ____. A. went; was occurring B. went; occurred C. was going; occurred D. had occurred
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十. 将来进行时 表示将来某时将正在进行的动作 (2003北京) At this time tomorrow _______ over B the Atlantic. A. we're going to fly B. we'll be flying C. we'll fly D. we're to fly
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十一. 现在完成进行时 表示一个持续到现在的动作(这动作可能 刚停止,也可能还在进行) (07湖南) Cathy is taking notes of the grammatical rules in class at Sunshine School, where she ____ D English for a year. A. studies B. studied C. is studying D. has been studying
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十二. 过去完成进行时

表示持续到过去某时的一个动作
(2005 江苏) They ________ on the program for A almost one week before I joined them, and now we ________ it as no good results have come out so far. A.had been working; are still working B. had worked; were still working C. have been working; have worked D. have worked; are still working
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几组时态的对比

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(1)一般过去时vs过去完成时

(06重庆) A I _____ in London for many years, but I’ve never regretted my final decision to move back to China. A.lived B. was living C. have lived D. had lived
点拨: 仔细阅读题干,把握语境,寻找有用信 息(即过去完成时一定表示 “过去的过 去”,若无明确依据,不可随意使用过去完 成时)

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D (05北京)He ______ more than 5,000 English words when he entered the university at the age of 15. A.has learned B. would have learned C. learned D. had learned (05福建)Father ____ for London on D business upon my arrival, so I didn’t see him. A.has left B. left C. was leaving D. had left (07 山东) They ____ two free tickets to B Canada, otherwise they’d never have been able to afford to go. A. had got B. got C. have got D. get
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(2)一般过去时vs过去进行时 (04年春招)“Sorry to have interrupted you. Please go on.” “Where was I?” “You _____ you didn’t like your father’s C job.” A. had said B. said C. were saying D. had been saying (04广东)“You were out when I dropped in at your home.” “Oh, I ____ for a friend A from England at the airport.” A. was waiting B. had waited C. am waiting D. have waited
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(3)一般过去时vs现在完成时 (07全国I ) I know a little bit about Italy as my wife C and I _____ there several years ago. A.are going B. had been C. went D. have been (04重庆) She ____ her hairstyle in her hometown C before she came to Chongqing for a better job. A.would change B. has changed C. changed D. was changing
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(03NMET) All morning as she waited for the medical report from the doctor, her nervousness__________. C A. has grown B. is growing C. grew D. had grown
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(4)过去完成时vs现在完成时 (04北京春招) C I arrived late; I ____ the road to be so icy. A.wouldn’t expect B. haven’t expected C. hadn’t expected D. wasn’t expecting (04上海春招) Although he has lived with us for years, he ____ us much impression. D A. hadn’t left B. didn’t leave C. doesn’t leave D. hasn’t left
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动词的语态

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语态常考点:
主动语态表示被动含义的情况 1. 系动词无被动 (06全国) C The water _________ cool when I jumped into the pool for morning exercise. A. was felt B. is felt C. felt D. feels The roses smell sweet. Good medicine tastes bitter.

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2.不可使用被动语态的短语: take place, lose heart, belong to,

break out …
3. The book sells well. sell, read, write, wear, wash, open, begin, shut,

4. His telephone number is easy to remember.
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5. Nobody was to blame. 6. The novel is well worth reading.

7. The classroom wants (needs/requires) cleaning.

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动词时态语态怎么答?
1.慧眼识别标志词 2.主从时态须呼应 3.瞻前顾后巧搭配

4.仔细体会明语境
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动词时态语态怎么考?
1、单项选择 2、单词拼写 3、改错 4、书面表达

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单词拼写中的时态语态考查
2007 高考 broadcast/ 2. This football game was ____________ broadcasted (播出) live on TV across Europe. 3. They’re going to ____________ (庆 celebrate 祝)their victory with music and dancing. 5. Very few people __________ (成功) in succeed losing weight these days. 7. The doctor _________ (表扬) our praised daughter for her courage this morning.
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温馨提示:
单词拼写部分动词注重正确选择词汇,正 确的拼写,一般现在时/一般过去时两个时 态,以及正确选择现在分词/过去分词。

请注重基础词汇的复习,留意细节,细心 作答!

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短文改错中的时态语态考查
04 全国:You can watch your stars while enjoying your favorite music. But then, a concert cost so much. I may just listen to music._________ costs 05 全国:There are advantages for students to work while studying at school. One of them was that they can earn money._________ is 06全国:We had guests last night who have not stayed in a B&B hotel had before.______
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06四川: When our six children were young, suppertime is always being interrupted by neighborhood children ringing the bell.______ was 06四川:We hung a sign on the front door that was read: “ We’re having was dinner. Come back later.”_________ 07重庆:After having a short rest there and sharing the food we had brought, we started going down. It had rained even harder.______ had
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温馨提示:

改错部分要注重全文的把握

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书面表达中的时态语态考查:
落笔之前首先决定时态
动词时态的错误是高考英语书面表达中最常见的 错误之一,也是学生运用语言的能力差显著标志 之一。如2002年高考关于公园收不收门票的讨论 的介绍,陈述讨论的语句通常用Sixty of the students of our school think it is unnecessary to change an entrance fee. They think that …… 不少学生表达为Some people thought that……所以对某个调查的描述及讨论应使用一般 46 现在时,这是时态错误的焦点。


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