1. 定语: 用于修饰、限制名词、代词或相当于 名词的短语或句子的成分。在中文中, 定语 一般放在所修饰的名词或代词之前; 而在 英文中则不同: 单纯的形容词、分词作定语 时, 放在所修饰词之前；副词、分词短语和 从句作定语时, 要放在所修饰词之后。如： 那
个子高大聪明清秀的男孩是李小明的弟弟。 That tall bright smart boy is Li Ming's brother.
孩子们读喜欢读有图片的书 Children all like to read the books which have picture. 你能回答下面的问题吗？ Can you answer these questions below? 一个看到同样姿势的人认为它的意思是钱。 A person seeing the same gesture will think it means money. 一位来访的朋友在双颊脸上各被吻一下作为问 侯。 A visiting friend is greeted with a kiss on the cheek.
修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语 从句。定语从句一般紧跟在它所修 饰的先行词之后。
3. 先行词： 被定语从句修饰的词叫先行词。 4. 关系词：
关系词有关系代词和关系副词 关系代词有: that, which, who, whom, whose, as等。 关系副词有: when, where, why
关系词通常有下列三个作用： A. 引导定语从句； B. 代替先行词； C. 在定语从句中担当一个成分。 The man who is shaking hands with my father is a policeman.
1.who 指人, 在定语从句中作 主语。
Those who want to go to the museum must be at the school gate at 7 tomorrow morning.
Yesterday I helped an old man who had lost his way.
That is the teacher who teaches us physics.
2. whom 指人, 在定语从句中 做宾语, 常可省略。
Mr. Liu is the person (whom) you talked about on the bus.
Li Ming is just the boy (whom) I want to see.
The professor (whom) you are waiting for has come.
The girl (whom) the teacher often praises is our monitor.
注意: 关系代词whom 在口语 或非正式文体中常可用who来 代替, 也可省略。 The man ( whom / who ) you met just now is my old friend.
3. which 指物, 在定语从句中做 主语或宾语, 做宾语时常可省略。
Football is a game which is liked by most boys.
The factory which makes computers is far away from here.
He likes to read books which are written by foreign writers.
The house which is by the lake looks nice.
This is the pen (which) he
bought yesterday. The film (which) they went to
see last night was not interesting at all.
4. that 指人时, 相当于 who 或 whom; 指物时, 相当于which。 在定语从句中作主语或宾语, 作宾语时常可省略。
The number of people that / who come to visit this city each year reaches one million.
Where is the man (that/whom) I saw this morning?
The person (that/whom) you introduced to me is very kind.
Yesterday I received a letter
that/which came from Australia.
The season that/which comes
after spring is summer.
5. whose 通常指人, 也可指物, 在定语从句中做定语。
I visited a scientist whose name is known all over the country. I once lived in the house whose roof has fallen in.
注意: 指物时, 常用下列结构来 代替。
The classroom whose door is broken will soon be repaired. The classroom the door of which is broken will soon be repaired.
Do you like the book whose cover is yellow?
Do you like the book the cover of which is yellow?
(三) “介词+关系代词”引导的 定语从句
关系代词在定语从句中作介词 宾语时,从句常常由“介词+关 系代词”引出。
The school (which/that) he once studied in is very famous.
The school in which he once studied is very famous.
Tomorrow I’ll bring here the magazine (which/that) you asked for. Tomorrow I’ll bring here the magazine for which you asked.
This is the boy (whom/who/ that) I played tennis with yesterday. This is the boy with whom I played tennis yesterday.
We’ll go to hear the famous singer (whom/who/that) we have often talked about.
We’ll go to hear the famous singer about whom we have often talked.
The manager whose company I work in pays much attention to improving our working conditions. The manager in whose company I work pays much attention to improving our working conditions.
拆开, 介词仍放在短语动词的 后面。如: look for, look after, take care of 等。
This is the watch (which/that) I am looking for. This is the watch for which I
The babies (whom/who/that) the nurse is looking after are very healthy. The babies after whom the nurse is looking are very healthy.
2. 若介词放在关系代词前, 关系 代词指人时只可用whom, 不可
用who, that; 关系代词指物时
只可用which, 不可用that。 关系代词是所有格时用whose。
The man with whom you talked just now is my neighbour.
The man with who you talked just now is my neighbour.
The plane in which we flew to Canada was really comfortable.
3. “介词+关系代词” 前还可有 some, any, none, all, both,
neither, many, most, each, few 等代词或者数词。
In the basket there are quite many apples, some of which have gone bad.
He loves his parents deeply, both of whom are very kind to him.
Up to now, he has written ten stories, three of which are about country life.
There are forty students in our
class in all, most of whom are
from big cities.
(四)关系副词引导的定语从句 1. when 指时间, 在定语从句中 作时间状语。 I still remember the day when I first came to this school. The time when we got together finally arrived.
October 1, 1949 was the day when the People’s Republic of China was founded. Do you remember the years when he lived in the countryside with his grandparents.
2. where 指地点, 在定语从句中 作地点状语。 Shanghai is the city where I was born. The house where I lived ten years ago has been pulled down.
I visited the farm where a lot of cows were raised. Is this the place where they
fought the enemy?
3. why指原因, 在定语从句中 作原因状语。
Please tell me the reason why you missed the plane. The reason why he was punished is unknown to us. I don’t know the reason why he looks unhappy today.
注意: 关系副词引导的定语从句 经常可以用“介词+关系代词” 引导的定语从句来表示。 From the years when/in which he was going to primary school in the country he had known what he wanted to be when he grew up.
(五) 限制性定语从句和非限制性 定语从句 A. 限制性定语从句形式上不用 逗号“,”与主句隔开。意义上 是先行词不可缺少的定语, 如 删除, 主句则失去意义或意思 表达不完整。
B. 非限制性定语从句通常用 “，”与主句隔开，只是对 先行词的补充说明, 如删除, 主句仍能表达完整的意思。 译法上译成先行词的定语 “??的” 通常译成主句的 并列句。
关系词的使用上 A. 作宾语时可省略 B. 不可省略 A. 可用that B. 不用that A. 可用who 代替 whom B. 不可用who 代替 whom
限制性定语从句举例： The teacher told me that Tom was the only person that I could depend on. China is a country which has a long history. In the street I saw a man who was from Africa.
非限制性定语从句举例 ： His mother, who loves him very much, is strict with him. China, which was founded in 1949, is becoming more and more powerful.
Last summer I visited the People’s Great Hall, in which
many important meetings are held every year.
注意区分下列几组句子的 不同含义： 1. Her brother who is now a soldier always encourages her to go to college. 她那当兵的哥哥总是鼓励她上
Her brother, who is now a soldier, always encourages her to go to college.
她哥哥是当兵的，他总是鼓励 她上大学。 (含义：她只有一个哥哥。)
2. All the books that have pictures in them are well written.
All the books, which have pictures in them, are well written. 所有的书都带插图，这些书都 写得很好。 (含义：没有不带插图的书。)
(一)限制性定语从句中只能用 that 引导定语从句的情况。 1. 当先行词是everything, anything, nothing (something 除外), all, none, few, little, some 等代词时, 或当先行词受every, any, all, some, no, little, few, much 等代词修饰时。
Have you taken down everything that Mr. Li said?
There seems to be nothing that is impossible to him in the world. All that can be done has been done.
There is little that I can do for
you. He stayed in the library and
looked up any information that they needed.
注意: 当先行词指人时, 偶尔也 可用关系代词who。 Any man that/who has a sense of duty won’t do such a thing.
All the guests that/who were invited to her wedding were
2. 当先行词被序数词修饰时。 The first place that they visited
in London was the Big Ben.
修饰时。 This is the best film that I have ever seen.
4. 当先行词被 the very, the only 修饰时。
This is the very dictionary that I want to buy. After the fire in his house, the old car is the only thing that he owns.
注意: 当先行词指人时, 通常用 关系代词 who。 Wang Hua is the only person in our school who will attend the meeting.
5. 当先行词前面有who, which 等疑问代词时。
Who is the man that is standing by the gate? Which is the T-shirt that fits me most?
6. 当先行词为人与动物或人与 物时。 They talked about the persons and things that they remembered at school. Look at the man and his donkey that are walking up the street.
(二) 关系代词as和which 引导 的定语从句 as和which 引导非限制性定语 从句时, 其用法有相同之处, 也
1. As 和which都可以在定语 从句中做主语或宾语, 代表前面 整个句子。 He married her, as/which was natural.
He is honest, as/which we can see.
2. as 引导的非限制性定语从句 可以放在主句之前、主句之后, 甚至还可以分割主句。 which 引导的非限制性定语从句只可 放在主句之后。另外, as 常常 有“正如、正像”的含义。
As is known to all, China is a developing country.
He is from the south, as we can know from his accent.
John, as you know, is a famous
writer. Zhang Hua has been to Paris
more than ten times, which I don’t believe.
注意: 当主句和从句之间存在着 逻辑上的因果关系时, 关系词 往往只用which。如： Tom was late for school again and again, which made his teacher very angry. These tables are made of metal, which made them very heavy.
3. 当先行词受such, the same 修饰时, 关系词常用as。 I’ve never heard such stories as he tells. He is not such a fool as he looks.
This is the same dictionary as I lost last week.
注意: 当先行词受the same 修饰 时, 偶尔也用 that引导定语从句,
She wore the same dress that
she wore at Mary’s wedding. She wore the same dress as her
younger sister wore.
(三) 以the way为先行词的限制
性定语从句通常由in which或 that引导, 而且通常可以省略。
The way (that/in which) he
answered the questions was
surprising. I don’t like the way (that/in
which) you laugh at her.
用关系代词还是关系副词引导 定语从句主要看关系词在定语 从句中的作用(即所担当的成分)。
Compare : A. I know a place where we can have a picnic.
I know a place which/that is famous for its beautiful natural scenery.
B. I will never forget the days when we spent our holidays together. I will never forget the days that/which we spent together.
C. This is the reason why he was dismissed. This is the reason that/which he explained to me for his not attending the meeting.
(五) but 有时也用作关系词引 导定语从句。 There are very few but admire his talents.
(but = who don’t)
(六) 定语从句与同位语从句 的区别 1. 定语从句修饰限定先行词， 它与先行词是修饰关系; 同位 语从句说明先行词的具体内容, 它与先行词是同位关系。
The plane that has just taken off is for Paris. The fact that he has already
died is quite clear.
2. 定语从句由关系代词或关系 副词引导, 关系词在从句中 担当相应的句子成分, 关系 代词在从句中作宾语时经常 可省略。
同位语从句主要由连词that 引导, 在从句中一般不担当 成分; 有时也由where, when, how, who, whether, what等 连词引导, 这些连词则在 从句中担当成分。
The news that he told me is true. The news that he has just died is true. The problem that we are facing now is how we can collect so much money.
The problem how we can collect so much money is difficult to solve.
The news that he told me is true. 定语从句 The news that he has just died is true. 同位语从句
The question that he raised puzzled all of us. 定语从句 The question whether he is sure to win the game is hard to answer. 同位语从句
3. 同位语从句与先行词一般可 以用动词 be 发展成一个完整的 句子, 而定语从句则不能。
A.The idea that we could ask the teacher for advice is wonderful.
The idea was that we could ask the teacher for advice.
B. The fact that the earth moves around the sun is known to all.
The fact is that the earth moves
around the sun.
C. Pay attention to the problem how we can protect the wild animals. The problem is how we can
protect the wild animals.
课后练习 1. Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play, of course, _____ made the A others unhappy. A. which B. who C. this D. what
2. After living in Paris for fifty years he returned to the small town _______ he grew up as a D child. A. which B. when C. that D. where
3. The gentleman _______ you B told me yesterday proved to be a thief. A. who B. about whom C. whom D. with whom
4. Please take any seat ____ is D free. A. which B. where C. in which D. that
5. The old man has two sons, _______ is a soldier. A A. one of whom B. both of them C. all of whom D. none of them
6. This is the ship _______ we D crossed the Pacific (太平洋). A. by which B. by that C. where D. in which
7. New York is famous for its sky-scrapers (摩天大楼)_____ B has more than 100 storeys. A. the higher of them B. the highest of which C. the highest of them D. some of which
8. My home village is no longer
the same _____ it used to be. B
A. which C. where B. as D. when
9. In the office I never seem to have time until after 5:30 p.m., D ______ many people have gone home. A. whose time B. that C. at which D. by which time
10. The boy _____ composition B won the first prize is the youngest in the group. A.who B. whose C. that D. which
11. The weather turned out to be very good, ______ was more B than we could expect. A. what B. which C. that D. it
12. Mr. Wang is a boss, ______ A factory Li Ping worked. A. in whose B. whose C. in whom D. of which
13. I don’t like the way_____ D you speak to her. A. / B. that C. in which D. All A, B, and C
14. I shall never forget the years _____ I lived in the B country with the farmers, ____ has a good effect on my life. A.that, which B. when, which C. which, that D. when, who
15. _____ is known to all, C China will be an advanced and powerful country in 20 or 30 year’s time. A. What B. That C. As D. It
16. Is this book _____ you want C to borrow from the library? A. that B. which C. the one D. /
17. Such a book ______ you C showed me is difficult to understand. A. that B. which C. as D. like
18. The speaker spoke of some writers and some books _____ B were popular then. A. / B. that C. which D. who
19. This is the store ______ we A visited the famous shop assistants. A. where B. there C. that D. which
20. I’m going to spend my holiday in Beijing, _____ live C my old parents. A. which B. that C. where D. there
C 1.The prize will go to the writer ______ story shows the most imagination. (2011全国卷I, 31) A. that B. which C. whose D. what 2. Ted came for the weekend wearing only some D shorts and a T-shirt, ____ is a stupid thing to do in such weather. (2011全国卷II, 7) A.this B. that C. what D. which 3. Mary was much kinder to Jack than she was B to the others, _________, of course, make all the others upset. (2011北京卷, 26) A. who B. which C. what D. that
4. You’ll find taxis waiting at the bus station A ____ you can hire to reach your host family. (2011上海卷, 39) A. which B. where C. when D. as 5. The old town has narrow streets and small D houses _____ are built close to each other. (2011山东卷, 32) A. they B. where C. what D. that
6. She showed the visitors around the museum, A the construction _____had taken more than three years. (2011江西卷, 34) A. for which B. with which C. of which D. to which
热身： 1. Last week, only two people came to look D at the house, _______ wanted to buy it. (安徽) A. none of them B. both of them C. none of whom D. neither of whom 2. He was educated at the local high school, A ______ he went on to Beijing University. (江苏) A. after which B. after that C. in which D. in that
3. His movie won several awards at the film
A festival, ______ was beyond his wildest
A. which B. that C. where D. it
4. Chan’s restaurant on Baker Street,
______ used to be poorly run, is now a B
successful business. (浙江)
A. that B. which C. who D. where
指代人 指代事物 所属关系
who, whom, that which, that whose, of which
二、关系代词that和which在很多情况下可以 互换, 但下列情况只用that。 that All ______ can be done has been done.
Do you have anything ________ you don’t understand? that
that There is little _______ can be believed about it.
The book doesn’t say much ________ amuses children. that
先行词是all, everything, nothing, anything, something, much, little, none等不定代词, 引导定语从句用that。
Hamburg is the most beautiful city _______ I’ve that
that This is the best TV _______ is made in China.
The first museum _______ he visited in China that
was the History Museum.
I’ve read all the books ________ you lent me. that No sample ________ we nave received is satisfactory. that that Please send us any information ________ you
have about the subject. He is the only person _________ was present that at the time.
先行词被any, some, no, much, few, little, every, all, very, only, last修饰时, 引导定语 从句用that。
The famous writer and his works ______ that
the radio broadcast have aroused great
interest among the students.
A victim is a person, animal or thing ______ that
suffers pain, death, harm, etc. 先行词中既有人又有事物时, 引导定语
Who _______ you have ever seen can do it that
better? that Who _______ you are talking to is the young fellow?
Who 做先行词时, 引导定语从句用that。
三、不用that, 而用which, who, whom的情况 which He made the same mistakes again, _______ made his
parents very angry. Yesterday I bought a dictionary, _______ cost me which more than 100 yuan. who Mr. Smith, _______ gave a talk several months ago, will come again. My uncle has come back from abroad, ________ I whom haven’t met for along time.
在非限制性定语从句中, 指事物用which, 指人用who或whom。
Her bag, in ________ she put all her money, which
has been stolen.
which This is the ring on ________ she spent 1000
Xiao Wang, with ________ I went to the whom
concert, enjoy it very much. 在介词后面, 指事物用which, 指人用whom。
The girl _____ which he had fought all his life for
no longer seemed important to him.
on He is the man _____ whom I think you can
He referred me to some reference books
______ which I am not very familiar. with Dolphins might be trained to cooperate with fishermen and help them by finding
or even catching fish, ______ all of which in
activities dolphins are expert.
3. 根据先行词判断, 所用的介词与先行词搭配
The rate ______ which wild animals are at
being destroyed has increased.
in the front of This is our classroom, _______________
which there is a teacher’s desk.
The committee consists of 20 members, 5 of whom _______ are women.
The book contains 50 poems, most of _______ which
was written in 1930s.
which There are two left, one of _______ is almost
finished, and the other of _______ is not quite. which I have a sentence, the meaning of _______ I which don’t understand.
名词/代词/数词+ of +which/whom
Where 引导的定语从句。 先行词是表示地点的名词或含有地点意义的抽象
名词， 用来引导定语从句。Where 在从句中作状语。
This is the town where (= in which) I spent my childhood. The table where (= at which) she is sitting is a new one. I’ll show you the point where you failed. where The plants grow well ________ there is a lot of rain.
注意 1 区分where引导的定语从句和状语从句
Where前面有被修饰的地点名词时, 是定语从句, 否则是状语从句。
When you read books, you had better make a mark at the spot where you have any questions.
When you read books, you had better make a mark where you have any questions.
The library ________ students often study where was on fire last night. which The library, _______ was built in the 1930s, needs repairing. The library ________ you visited yesterday which was built in 1990.
先行词是表示时间的名词, 用when引导 定语从句。在从句作状语。 I’ll never forget the day when (=on which) I met you. This was the time when (=at which) he left for Beijing. We will put off the outing until next week, when we won’t be busy.
I’ll never forget the day _________ we first when
met in the park. which\that I’ll never forget the time __________ I spent on campus. which\that I’ll never forget the time ___________ was spent with you.
先行词是表示原因的名词, 用引导定语从句。 从句作状语。 This is the reason why (= for which ) I didn’t come here. The reason __________ she gave was not true. which\that
whose 引导的定语从句 (表示所属关系) The river _________ banks are covered with whose trees flows to the sea. There are 20 students in this class , ______ are different. A.whose backgrounds B.the backgrounds of whom C.of whom the backgrounds D.the backgrounds of whose
As和 Which 的区别 1. These houses are sold at such a low price _______ people expected. as
as 2. He is not the same man _______ he was.
3. We moved the stone away from the road,
_______ took us an hour. which
as 4. He died of cancer, ______ is expected.
5. He must be from Canada, _____ is clear as
from his books.
6. He invited me to dinner, _______ was kind which
7. He made a long speech, ______ was expected. as which 8. He made a long speech, _______ was
unexpected. 9. Tom drinks a lot every day, _______ his which wife doesn’t like at all.
such + 名词 +as +从句 像??一样的, 像??之类
the same +名词+ as +从句
和??同类的 as 在从句中作主语、宾语或者表语 Which 代替前面的句子, 表示“这一点, 这件事” As 代替前面的句子, 表示“正如, 好像”
当从句是主系表结构时： As : 主句是一种判断, 从句说明理由(因为) Which: 主句是一个事实, 从句是一种评价。
1. After living in Paris for 50 years, he returned to
the small town _____ he grew up as a child. B
A. which B. where C. that D. when
2. I never forget the days _____ we spent together. A A. that B. when C. whose D. what 3. Have you seen the film “Brokenback Mountain” , _____ leading actor is world famous? C A. its B. it’s C. whose D. which
4. This is the book _______ I paid ten yuan. A A. for which B. for that C. which D. off which C 5. The teacher discussed with Jim, _____ problem was poor study habits. A. one of which B. one of whose C. whose D. which B 6. The gentleman _____ you told me yesterday proved to be a thief. A. who B. about whom C. whom D. with whom
7. There are two buildings, ____ stands nearly D a hundred feet high. A. the larger B. the larger of them C. the larger one that D. the larger of which 8. American women usually identify their best friend as someone _____ they can talk frequently. D A. who B. as C. about which D. with whom 9. The film brought the hours back to me_____ C I was taken good care of in that faraway village. A. until B. that C. when D. where
10. I can think of many cases _____ students C obviously knew a lot of English words and expressions but couldn’t write a good essay. A. what B. which C. where D. when 11. Do you know the girl to _____ your class B teacher is talking? A. that B. whom C. who D. which 12.The factory _____ his mother works is in D the east of the city. A. That B. which C. on which D. where
A 13. Is oxygen the only gas ____ helps fire burn? A. that B. 不填 C. which D. it 14. Her hand was struck out of the second story B window, ___ she could pick the apples on the tree. A. There B. from where C. in which D. from which C 15. Tom as well as his friends who ____ football matches ____ to school today. A. likes, hasn’t gone B. likes, haven’t gone C. like, hasn’t gone D. like, haven’t gone
定语从句的运用: A letter to Tom
湖吗? 我们在那还照过一张相呢。和我们一起 玩的那些小朋友还好吗? 另外, 我有一本绿色 封面的书丢在你那了, 请帮我寄来。
I have received the letter you posted last week.
Thanks for the photos you sent. I often think of the time we spent together. The monument on top of which there is a seagull is really beautiful. Do you still remember the lake where we had a picture taken? How are the children who played with us? Besides, I had a book left in your house the cover of which is green. Please send it to me.
Dear Tom, I have received the letter that you sent to me last week. Thanks for the photos which are in the letter sent by you. I always think of the happy time that we spent together. The roof which there is memorial that a sea gull on it is really very beautiful. Do you remember the lake which we took a photo there? And how is the children with whom we enjoyed the wonderful time. Besides, I left a book with the green cover in your home, which could you send for me.