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chapter 2


大学英语 跨文化交际
Chapter 2 Cultural Dynamics
黑龙江大学外语部

Chapter 2 Cultural Dynamics

Learning objectives:

Chapter 2 Cultural Dynamics

Listen to

the lead-in case
The Ladies’ Room

Chapter 2 Cultural Dynamics

Chapter 2 Cultural Dynamics

1. The difference between enculturation and acculturation
Enculturation ( 社 会 文 化 适 应 ) is the socialization (社会化) process you go through to adapt to your society, while Acculturation(文化 适 应 ) refers to an individual’s learning and adopting the norms and values of the new host culture.

Chapter 2 Cultural Dynamics

2. Predictors of acculturation
a. Similarity of culture b. personal characteristics and experiences c. The effects of media and transportation

Chapter 2 Cultural Dynamics

b. personal characteristics and experiences
Younger people adapt more easily than older ones. Education background also plays a part, and a person’s personality (such as risktaking or being gregarious (群居的,合群的)and curious or not) can determine how readily they will desire to blend in with a new culture. Finally, previous travel, contact with overseas friends or family, and mass media influence also come into play.

Chapter 2 Cultural Dynamics

3. Categories of acculturation
a. Separation and segregation
Separation and segregation refer to maintaining one’s original culture and not participating in the new culture.

b. Integration
Integration takes place when individuals become an integral part of the new culture while maintaining their cultural integrity.

c. Assimilation
Assimilation is the degree to which an individual relinquishes an original culture for another. When individuals are assimilated into a mainstream culture, they lose their previous culture.

d. Marginalization (边缘化)

Marginalization, or deculturation, refers to losing one’s cultural identity and not having any psychological contact with the larger society. The person has feelings of “not belonging anywhere”

Chapter 2 Cultural Dynamics

The Process of Acculturation
Home New

Separation

Integration

Assimilation

Marginalization

Segregation

Chapter 2 Cultural Dynamics

4. Culture Shock (文化休克,文化冲击)
Case Analysis: Doubts

a. Culture shock
refers to the traumatic ( 创 伤 的 , 痛 苦 而 难 忘 的 ) experience that an individual may encounter when entering a different culture. may occur upon returning to the home country if a person has adjusted exceptionally well to the host culture.

b. Reverse culture shock

Chapter 2 Cultural Dynamics

5. Symptoms of culture shock
a. physical symptoms b. psychological symptoms

Chapter 2 Cultural Dynamics

a. physical symptoms
Physical symptoms are over-concerned about cleanliness of food, bedding, and dishes, extreme stress on health and safety; fear or physical contact with anyone in the new country; great concern over minor pains and skin eruptions; craving “home cooking”; use of alcohol and drugs; and a decline in work quality.

Chapter 2 Cultural Dynamics

b.psychological symptoms
Psychological symptoms are insomnia(失眠), fatigue, isolation and loneliness, disorientation (迷惑), frustration, criticism of new country, depression, nervousness, self-doubt, irritability (易怒), anger, and emotional and intellectual withdrawal.

Chapter 2 Cultural Dynamics

6. Aspects of culture shock

a. b. c. d.

Cultural stress Social alienation Social class and poverty-wealth extremes Financial matters

e. Relationships and family considerations

Chapter 2 Cultural Dynamics

a.Cultural stress

Chapter 2 Cultural Dynamics

b.Social alienation (社会疏离感)
An aspect of culture shock that can have adverse effects upon the new comers to a culture is social alienation and the feelings of loneliness that are associated with being isolated from friends and the home culture.

Chapter 2 Cultural Dynamics

c. Social class and povertywealth extremes

Class distinctions do exist in the United States but are so complicated and subtle that visitors from other countries often miss the nuances(细微差别) and even the existence of a class structure.

Chapter 2 Cultural Dynamics

d.Financial matters
Adapting to a new culture and reentering the home culture involve financial adjustments, such as cost and availability of housing, banking practices, use of credit cards and checks, and costs of schooling.

Chapter 2 Cultural Dynamics

e. Relationships and family considerations
Problems related with relationships such as failure of the spouse and other family members to adapt to the new culture are a major factor in the early return of expatriates(移居国外的人).

Chapter 2 Cultural Dynamics

7. Stages of culture shock

Chapter 2 Cultural Dynamics

a. The first stage (the “honeymoon” stage)

The first stage of initial contact, sometimes called the “honeymoon” stage or initial euphoria, is where everything is new and exciting.

Chapter 2 Cultural Dynamics

b. The second stage The third stage (the crisis or disenchantment stage)
The second stage involves disintegration of familiar cues and irritation and hostility (敌意, 敌对) with the differences experienced in the new culture.

Chapter 2 Cultural Dynamics

c. The third stage (the reintegration stage)
The third stage involves a reintegration of new cues and an increased ability to function in the new culture. In the third stage, the adjustment phase, you begin to accept the new culture.

Chapter 2 Cultural Dynamics

d. The fourth stage (the gradual adjustment stage)
In the fourth stage, gradual adjustment continues toward gradual autonomy(自主,独立) and seeing “good” and “bad” elements in both the home and new cultures.

Chapter 2 Cultural Dynamics

e. The fifth stage (the full adjustment stage)
The final, fifth stage is described as reciprocal (交互的,相互的) interdependence where the person has achieved biculturalism(二元文化主义)by becoming able to cope comfortably in both home and new cultures. Full adjustment can take years.

Chapter 2 Cultural Dynamics

Chapter 2 Cultural Dynamics

8. Strategies for Managing Culture Shock
3 a. Study the host culture 3 b. Study the local environment

3 c. Learn basic verbal and nonverbal language

skills
3 d. Develop intercultural relationships

3 e. Maintain an intimate social network
3 f. Assume the principle of difference/Remember

your perceptual context

3 g. Anticipate failure events

Chapter 2 Cultural Dynamics

Home work and After-class activities

1. Write a paper about the predictors and categories of acculturation 2. Surf on the Internet to collect the information about culture shock


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