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[post]轮档挡好-- Chocks in 地面电源设备接好--Ground power connected 收到-- Roger 现在关闭发动机--Shutting down engines 准备牵引-- Ready for pushback 所有舱门已关好--All doors checked closed 松刹车

-- Brakes off 松刹车-- Release parking brakes 刹车已松-- Brakes off 刹车已松-- parking brake Released 可以牵引 --Clear for pushback 23 号跑道起飞--Runway( or face)two three 05 号跑道起飞--Runway( or face)zero five 牵引完成 --Pushback complete 刹车 --Brakes on 刹车 --Set parking brake 刹车刹好 --Brakes on 刹车刹好-- Parking brake set 准备启动 1(或 2)号发动机--Start number one(or two) 可以启动 1(或 2)号发动机--Clear number one(or two) 已经供气(如需气源车)--Pressure on 启动结束 --Start complete 断开地面设备-- Disconnect ground equipment 插销移开 –Pin Removed 稍等 --Standby 稍等启动-- Standby for start 稍等推出-- Standby for pushback 在左(或右)方打手势--Hand signal on the left(or right aircraft crew, air crew 机组, 机务人员 pilot 驾驶员, 机长 co-pilot, second pilot 副驾驶员 navigator 领航员 steward 男服务员 stewardess, hostess 空中小姐 radio operator 报务员 Bairliner 班机 monoplane 单翼飞机 glider 滑翔机 trainer aircraft 教练机 passenger plane 客机

propeller-driven aircraft 螺旋桨飞机 jet (aircraft) 喷射飞机 amphibian 水陆两用飞机 seaplane, hydroplane 水上飞机 turbofan jet 涡轮风扇飞机 turboprop 涡轮螺旋桨飞机 turbojet 涡轮喷射飞机 transport plane 运输机 helicopter 直升机 supersonic 超音速 hypersonic 高超音速 transonic 跨音速 subsonic 亚音速 Airbus 空中客车 Boeing 波音 Concord 协和 Ilyusin 依柳辛 McDonald-Douglas 麦道 Trident 三叉戟 Tupolev 图波列夫 hatch 舱口 aeroengine, air engine 航空发动机 navigation light 航行灯 fuselage, body 机身 nose 机头 wing 机翼 aileron 副翼 wing flap 襟翼 tail plane 水平尾翼 starboard wing 右翼 port wing 左翼 pilot"s cockpit 驾驶舱 parachute 降落伞 passenger cabin 客舱 propeller 螺旋桨 pressurized cabin 密封舱 undercarriage 起落架 undercarriage wheel 起落架轮 elevator 升降舵 radio navigation device 无线电导航设备 radio directive device 无线电定向设备 luggage compartment 行李舱 (fuel) tank 油箱

auxiliary (fuel) tank 副油箱 main (fuel) tank 主油箱 autopilot 自动驾驶仪 ground crew 地勤人员 airport 航空港, 民航机场 airfield, aerodrome, airdrome 机场 airport beacon 机场灯标 airport meteorological station 机场气象站 main airport building, terminal building 机场主楼 emergency landing runway, forced landing runway 紧急着陆跑道 taxiway 滑行跑道 runway 跑道 omnirange radio beacon 全向式无线电航空信标 fuel depot 燃料库 control tower 塔台 tarmac 停机坪 radio beacon 无线电信标 boarding check 登机牌 plane ticket 飞机票 flight, flying 飞行 bumpy flight 不平稳的飞行 smooth flight 平稳的飞行 ramp 扶梯 altitude, height 高度 air route, air line 航线 extra flight 加班 economy class, tourist class 经济座 non-stop flight 连续飞行 climbing, to gain height 爬升 circling 盘旋 forced landing 迫降 connecting flight 衔接航班 speed, velocity 速度 ceiling 上升限度 cruising speed 巡航速度 top speed 最高速度 first class 头等 night service 夜航 airsick 晕机 direct flight, straight flight 直飞 landing 着陆 to rock, to toss, to bump 颠簸

to taxi along 滑行 to lose height, to fly low 降低 to take off, take-off 起飞 to board a plane, get into a plane 上飞机 to get off a plane, alight from a plane 下飞机 to face the wind 迎风 ATA 章节目录 AIRFRAME SYSTEMS ________________ AIR CONDITIONING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 AUTOFLIGHT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 COMMUNICATIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 ELECTRICAL POWER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 EQUIPMENT/FURNISHINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 FIRE PROTECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 FLIGHT CONTROLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 FUEL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 HYDRAULIC POWER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 ICE AND RAIN PROTECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 INDICATING/RECORDING SYSTEMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 LANDING GEAR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 LIGHTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 NAVIGATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 OXYGEN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 PNEUMATIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 WATER AND WASTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 AIRBORNE AUXILIARY POWER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 STRUCTURE _________ DOORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 WINDOWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 POWER PLANT ___________ POWER PLANT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 ENGINE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 IGNITION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 AIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 ENGINE CONTROLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 ENGINE INDICATING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 EXHAUST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 OIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 STARTING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 缩写 ABBREVIATION LIST A A/C air conditioning 空气调节 A/G air/ground

A/L autoland 自动落地 A/P autopilot 自动驾驶 A/S airspeed 空速 A/T autothrottle 自动油门, adjustment/test 调整/测试 ABNORM abnormal 不正常的 AC alternating current 【电】交流电 ACARS ARINC Communications Addressing and Reporting System ACCEL acceleration, accelerate 使增速 ACM air cycle machine 空气循环机 ADC air data computer 大气资料电脑 ADF automatic direction finder 自动方位寻找器 ADI attitude director indicator 姿态指示器 ADP air driven pump, air driven hydraulic pump 气动液压泵 ADV advance 推进 AFCS automatic flight control system 飞控系统 AGL above ground level 地标位 AI anti-ice 防冰 AIDS aircraft integrated data system 整合资料系统 AIL aileron 副翼 ALT altitude 高度 ALTM altimeter 高度计 ALTN alternate 交替的 ALTNT alternate 交替的 AMB ambient 环绕的 AMM Airplane Maintenance Manual 修护手册 ANN announcement 通告 ANNUNC annunciator 通告器 ANT antenna 天线 AOA angle of attack 功角 APB auxiliary power breaker 辅助的动力断电器 APD approach progress display 接近行进显示 APL airplane 飞机 APPR approach 接近 APPROX approximately 近乎 APU auxiliary power unit 辅助的动力单元 ARINC Aeronautical 航空学的 Radio Incorporated【美】有限责任的 ARINC IO ARINC I/O error ARNC STP ARINC I/O UART data strip error 通用非同步收发传输器 ASA autoland status annunciator 自动落地状况通告器 ASP audio selector panel 音频选择面板 ASYM asymmetrical 非对称的 ATC air traffic control 空中交通管制 ATC/DABS air traffic control/discrete address beacon system ATT attitude 姿态

ATTND attendant 服务员 AUTO automatic 自动装置的 AUX auxiliary 辅助的 AVM airborne vibration monitor 空中震动监视器 B B/CRS back course 回程 BARO barometric 气压计的 BAT battery 电池;蓄电池 BFO beat 扑动 frequency oscillator 频率振汤器 BITE built-in test equipment 装备自我测试 BK brake 煞住(车) BKGRD background (干扰录音或无线电广播的)杂音 BPCU bus power control unit 汇流排电力控制单元 BRKR breaker 断电器 BRT bright 发亮的 BTB bus tie 束缚 breaker 汇流排联系断电器 BTL bottle 瓶子 C C/B circuit breaker 【电】断路器,断路开关 C center 中央 CADC central air data computer 中央大气资料电脑 CAPT captain (飞机的)机长 CB circuit breaker 【电】断路器,断路开关 CCA central control actuator 中央控制致动器 CCW counterclockwise 逆时针方向的 CDU control display unit 控制显示器 CH channel 频道 CHAN channel 频道 CHG change 改变 CHR chronograph 记时器 CHRGR charger 充电器 CK check 检查 CKT circuit 【电】电路;回路 CL close 关闭;盖上;合上 CLB climb 倾斜向上 CLR clear 变乾净;变清楚 CLSD closed 关闭的;封闭的;闭合的 CMD command 命令 CMPTR computer 电脑 CNX cancelled 取消,废除;中止 COL column 圆柱 (报纸的)栏,段 COMM communication 通讯 COMP compressor 压缩机 COMPT compartment 隔间

CON continuous 连续的,不断的 COND condition 状态 CONFG configuration 结构;表面配置 CONFIG configuration 结构 CONN connection 连接 CONT control 控制 CP control panel 控制面板 CPCS cabin pressure control system 舱压控制系统 CPS cycles per second 每秒循环 CRS course 方向 CRT cathode 阴极 ray 射线 tube 阴极射线管 CRZ cruise 巡航 CSEU control system electronics unit 控制系统电子元件 CT current 电流 transFORMer 变压器 CTN caution 注意 CTR center 中央 CU control unit 控制元件 CUST customer 顾客;买主 CW clockwise 顺时针方向的 CWS control wheel steering 掌舵 D DA drift 漂移 angle DADC digital air data computer 数位化大气资料电脑 DC direct 直系的,指挥 current DEC decrease 减少, decrement 减少率 DECEL decelerate 降低速度 DECR decrease 减少 DEG degree 度数 DEPR depressurize 洩压; 压下 DEPT departure 离开;出发 DEST destination 目标, 目的地 DET detector 探测器 DETNT detent (机械上的)止动装置;棘爪 DEV deviation 误差;偏航 DFDR digital flight data recorder DG directional 方向的 gyro 回转仪罗盘 DH decision 决定 height 高度,海拔 DIFF differential 依差别而定的;鉴别性的 DIR direct 指挥 DISC disconnect 使分离,分开,断开 DISCH discharge 释放,排出(液体,气体等) DISCONT discontinued 停止,中断 DISENG disengage 解开,解除;使脱离 DISP dispatch 派遣

DIST distance 距离;路程 DK deck (船的) 舱面,甲板 DME distance measuring equipment 测距仪 DMU data management unit 资料管理单元 DN down 向下 DPCT differential protection current transFORMer【电】变压器 DR door 门 DSCRT IO discrete 分离 I/O error DSPLY display 显示 DSPY display 显示 E EADI electronic attitude director indicator 数位化姿态指示器 ECON economy 节约, 经济 ECS environmental control system 环控系统 EDP engine driven pump, engine hydraulic pump 引擎液压泵 EEC electronic engine control 引擎电控 EFDARS expanded flight data acquisition and reporting system EFI electronic flight instruments 电子化飞行仪表 EFIS electronic flight instrument system EGT exhaust gas temperature 排气尾温 EHSI electronic horizontal situation indicator 水平状况方位指示器 EICAS engine indicating and crew alerting system 引擎状况警告指示 ELEC electrical 与电有关的,电气科学的 ELEV elevation 高度;海拔 EMER emergency 紧急情况 ENG engage 啮合,接合, engine ENT entrance 入口,门口, entry ENTMT entertainment 娱乐 EPC external power contactor 外电源接触器 EPR engine pressure ratio 推力比 EPRL engine pressure ratio limit 推力比范围 EQUIP equipment 装备 ERR error 错误 ESS essential 必需品 EVAC evacuation 撤空;排泄物 EVBC engine vane and bleed control 引擎放气控制 EXH exhaust 排出;排气 EXT external 外部的 EXTIN extinguish, extinguished 灭火器 EXTING extinguishing 熄灭 F F/D flight director 飞行引向器 F/F fuel flow 燃油流量 F/O first officer

FAA Federal 美国联邦 Aviation Administration 行政机构 FCC flight control computer 飞行控制电脑 FCEU flight controls electronic unit 飞控电子单元 FCU fuel control unit 燃油控制器 FDR feeder 餵食器 FIM Fault Isolation Manual 故障隔离手册 FL flow 流量 FL/CH flight level change FLD field(飞机)场,;(广阔的一大片)地(知识)领域;专业;(活动)范畴 FLT flight (飞机的)班次 FLUOR fluorescent 发亮的 FMC flight management computer 飞行管理电脑 FMS flight management system 飞行管理系统 FREQ frequency 频率 FRM Fault Reporting Manual 错误报告手册 FSEU flap/slat electronic unit 副翼电控单元 FT feet 复, foot 单 英尺 FWD forward 前面的 G G/S glide slope, ground slope 下滑坡度 GA go-around 重飞 GB generator breaker 发电机断电器 GCB generator circuit breaker 发电机断路器 GCR generator control relay 发电机控制继电器 GCU generator control unit 发电机控制组件 GEN generator 发电机 GHR ground handling relay 地面操作继电器 GND ground 地面 GP group 团体 GPWS ground proximity warning system 地面接近警告 GR gear 齿轮;传动装置; (飞机的)起落架 GRD ground 地面 GS ground speed 地速 GSSR ground service select relay 地面勤务选择继电器 GSTR ground service transfer relay 地面勤务转换继电器 GW gross 总量 weight 总重 H H/L high/low 高/低 HDG heading 【航】航向 HF high frequency 高频 HORIZ horizontal 水平 HP high pressure 高压 HSI horizontal situation indicator 水平状况方位指示器 HTR heater 加热器

HYD hydraulic 液压的 I IAS indicated airspeed 指示空速 IDENT identification 识别;鉴定 IDG integrated drive generator IGN ignition 点火,发火;点火开关 ILLUM illuminate, illuminated 被照明的;发光的 ILS instrument landing system 仪降 IMP imperial (度量衡)英制的 IN in, input 输入 INBD inboard 内侧的 INC incorporated 结合的, increase 增大, increment 增加 INCR increase 增加 IND indicator 指示器 INFC interface 分界面 INFLT inflight 飞行过程中的 INHIB inhibit 抑制 禁止 INIT initiation 入门;开始实施 INOP inoperative 不活动的 INPH interphone 对讲机 INST instrument 仪器;仪表 INT interphone 对讲机 INTLK interlock 连结 INTPH interphone 对讲机 INTMT intermittent 时断时续的;周期性的 IP intermediate pressure 中间的压力 IRS inertial reference system 惯性参考系统 IRU inertial 惯性的 reference unit 惯性参考组件 ISLN isolation 隔离 ISOL isolation 隔离 IVSI instantaneous 瞬时的 vertical speed indicator 垂直速度指示器 M MCDP maintenance control display panel 修护控制显示面板 MCP mode control panel 模式控制面板 MCU modular 模件 concept 观念 unit MDA minimum decision altitude 最小判断高度 MIC microphone 扩音器;麦克风 MIN minimum 最小量,最小数;最低限度 MM Maintenance Manual 修护手册 MOD module 组件;单元 MON monitor 监视器;监控器 MOT motion (机械的)装置,运转 MPU magnetic pickup 检波器 MSG message 信息

MSTR master 主要的;总的 MSU mode selector unit 模式选择组件 MTG miles to go 英里 MU management unit 管理组件 MUX multiplexer 多路传输 N N/A not applicable 可应用的 NAC nacelle 引擎舱;气球吊篮 NAV navigation 导航 NCD no computed data 无法计算资料 NEG negative 否定的; 反面的【电】负的,阴极的【数】负的 NEUT neutral 中立的 NLG nose landing gear 鼻轮起落架 NO. number 数,数字 NORM normal 正常的,正规的,标准的 NRM normal 正常的,正规的,标准的 NVMEM RD non-volatile memory read error 故障读错误排除才能消除 NVMEM WR non-volatile memory write error 故障写错误排除才能消除 O 02 oxygen 氧气 OBS observer 观察员 OK okay 对,很好地 OPR operate 运转 OPT option 选择权 OPRN operation 操作 OUT output 输出 OUTBD outboard 外部的 OVHD overhead 头顶(船舱)顶板 OVHT overheat 过热 OVRD override 权力高於;优先於; 越过 OXY oxygen 氧气 P P/RST press to reset 压下清除故障 P/S pitot 皮托管(流速计);皮托静压管/static 静态的 PA passenger address 客舱广播 PASS passenger 旅客 PCA power control actuator 电控致动器 PCT percentage 百分比 PDI pictorial deviation indicator 偏航图表示 PES passenger entertainment 娱乐 system PLA power level angle PLT pilot (飞机等的)驾驶员,飞行员 PMG permananet magnet generator 永磁发电机 PNEU pneumatic 气动

PNL panel 【电】配电盘;控电板 POR point of regulation 调节 POS position, positive (电池的)阳极【数】正的 PPOS present 当前的 出席的 position PRESS pressure 压力 PRG FLOW program flow error 流量程序错误 PRIM primary 首要的,主要的 PROC procedure 程序;手续;步骤 PROG MEM ROM memory error 唯读记忆体错误 PROJ projector 投射器 PROT protection 保护,防护; PS pitot static 皮托管(流速计);皮托静压管 PSI pounds per square inch 每平方寸上的压力磅数 PSS passenger service system 客服系统 PSU passenger service unit 客服组件 PTT push to talk 发话 PTU power transfer unit 动力传送组件 PWR power 动力 Q QAD quick-attach-detach 快拆卸;使分离 QTS quarts 一夸脱的容器 QTY quantity 数量 R R/T rate of turn 回转速率 R/W MEM RAM memory error 随机存取记忆体错误 R right 右边的 RA radio altimeter, radio altitude 雷达高度 RAT ram air turbine 冲压驱动 RCVR reciever 接受 RDMI radio distance magnetic indicator 磁场距离指示 REC recorder 记录器 RECIRC recirculate 再循环 REF reference 参考 REFRIG refrigeration 冷冻 REG regulator 调节器 REL release 释放,解放 REP representative 代表性的,典型的 REQ required 必须的 RES reserve 储备 RESSTART power interrupt restart error 动力中断重新起动错误 REV reverse 倒退,使倒转 RF right front 右前 RH right hand 右手 RLSE release 释放,解放

RLY relay 【电】继电器 RLY/SW relay/switch RMI radio magnetic indicator 磁场方位指示 RMT OUT high-speed ARINC output error 汇流排输出错误 RN right nose ROT rotation 旋转 RPM revolutions 循环,(一)周期回转,旋转 per minute RPTG reporting 报导 RR right rear 後方 RST reset 重新设定 RTO rejected 丢弃 takeoff 起飞 RUD rudder (飞机的)方向舵 RW right wing 右翼 RWY runway (机场的)跑道 S SAM stabilizer trim/elevator asymmetry limit module 尾舵飞操组件 SAT static air temperature 静压空气温度 SEC second 第二次 SEI standby engine indicator 紧急直接引擎指示 SEL select 选择 SELCAL selective calling 飞航呼叫 SERV service 服务 SG signal generator 信号产生器 SLCTD selected 选择 SLCTR selector 选择器 SOV shut off valve 关断阀 SP speed 速度 SPD speed 速度 SPD BK speed brake 速煞 SQL squelch 压扁 SSB single side band STA station 驻地(各种机构的)站,所, STAB stabilizer 安定装置;安定翼 STBY standby 备用 STS system status 系统状况 SURF surface 表面 SW switch 开关 SWITCH IN switch input error SYNC synchronous 同步的 SYS system 系统 SYST system 系统 T T/R thrust reverser 反推力器 T.O. takeoff 起飞

TACH tachometer 转速计 TAI thermal 热的 anti-ice TAS true airspeed 真空速 TAT total air temperature 总温 TCC turbine case cooling 涡轮(机)冷却 TE trailing edge 後缘(飞机的)襟翼,阻力板 TEMP temperature 温度,气温 TFR transfer 转换 THR thrust 推力 THROT throttle 节流阀 THRSH threshold 门槛 THRT thrust 推力 THRU through 穿过;通过 遍及,在...各处;在...之间,在...之中 TIE bus tie 系,拴,捆,扎 汇流排联系 TLA thrust lever angle 推力杆角度 TMC thrust management computer 推力管理电脑 TMS thrust management system 推力管理系统 TMSP thrust mode select panel 推力选择面板 TO TO/takeoff 起飞 TOL tolerance 【机】公差,容限 TR transFORMer【电】变压器 rectifier【电】整流器 TRP thrust rating panel 推力等级面板 TUNE tuner (频率))调整器;【无】调谐器 TURB turbine 涡轮(机) TURBL turbulent, turbulence【气】湍流;(气体等的)紊流 U UBR utility 有多种用途的;通用的 bus relay 汇流排继电器 UPR upper USB upper side band 【机】传送带 (无线电的)波段,频带 V V/NAV vertical navigation 【经】纵向联合的 导航 V/S vertical speed 垂直的速率 VERT vertical 垂直的 VERT SPD vertical speed 垂直的速率 VFY verify 验证 VG vertical gyro 垂直回转仪罗盘 VHF very high frequency 超高频无线电 VIB vibration 震动 VLD valid 合法的;有效的 VLV valve 【机】阀,活门 VOL volume 量;额 VOLT voltage 电压;伏特数 VOR VHF omni range receiver 方向无线识标 VOX voice 声音

VTR video tape reproducer (录音,录影的)播放装置 W W/D wiring 线路 diagram 图解 W/W wheel well 轮舱 WARN warning 警告;警报 WG wing 机翼 WHL wheel 轮子 ; 变换方向 WHLS wheels 车轮 WPT waypoint 位子点 WSHLD windshield 挡风玻璃 WX weather 天气 WXR weather 气象雷达 X X-CH cross channel 交叉频道 X-CHAN cross channel 交叉频道 XDCR transducer 变换器 XMISSION transmission 传送 XMIT transmit 发射 XMTR transmitter 发射机 XPNDR transponder 询答机 Y Y/D yaw damper 阻尼器 Air Glossary(航空缩略语) A AAC - Army Air Corps AAIB - Air Accident Investigation Branch of the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions. aae - above aerodrome elevation. Also see aal. aal - above aerodrome level. Also see aae. ab initio - elementary flying training, literally "from the beginning",. abm abeam - an aircraft is abeam a point when that point is at ninety degrees left or right of the aircraft"s track, but term usually used to indicate a general position rather than a specific point. a/c - aircraft. ACARS - Aircraft Communication Adressing and Reporting System. AC - alternating current.

ACC - Area Control Centre. And ACZ Aerodrome Control Zone. See ATZ below. ACMS - aircraft condition monitoring system. ACR - aerodrome control radar. accelerate-stop distance - calculated distance required for an aircraft to accelerate to V1 (which see), reject take-off and brake safely to a halt. A/D - aerodrome. AD - Airworthiness Directive, issued by airworthiness authorities to correct a defect found in an aircraft type after certification. Compliance is mandatory and may be required immediately and before further flight, within a specified period of time or number of flying hours, or when next due for routine maintenance. ADA - Advisory aispace - Advisory Area or Advisory Route. ADC - air data computer. ADELT - automatically deployable emergency locator transmitter. ADF - automatic direction finder/finding. Radio compass which gives a relative bearing to the non-directional radio beacon to which it is tuned. ADI - attitude deviation indicator. An advanced type of artificial horizon, part of a flight director system providing pitch and roll inFORMation and commands. ADIZ - Air Defence Identification Zone. An area of airspace extending upwards from the surface, usually along a national boundary, within which identification of all aircraft is required in the interests of national security. ADR - Accident Data Recorder. ADS - Automatic Dependence Surveillance. ADT - Approved Departure Time. AEF - Aerodromes Environmental Federation. AEW - Airborne early warning Aerad - UK-published flight guide and navigational chart system.

aerodrome/airport elevation - highest point of an aerodrome"s usable runway(s) expressed in feet above mean sea level (amsl). AFB - air force base, usually U.S. or Canadian. AFCS - automatic flight control system, an advanced autopilot. Also IFCS, integrated flight control system. AFDS - Autopilot and flight director system. AFI - assistant flying instructor. Also AFIC, assistant flying instructor course, FIC, flying instructor course. AFIS - Aerodrome Flight InFORMation Service, providing inFORMation to, but not control of, aircraft using that aerodrome. AFIS(O)- Aerodrome Flight InFORMation Service (Officer) AFS - Aerodrome Fire Service. AFS - Aeronautical Fixed Service - telephone/teleprinter network, includes AFTN. AFS - auto flight system. AFTN - Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunications Network. A ground- based teleprinter network transmitting flight plans, weather inFORMation etc. AGO - air-to-ground operator A/G - air-to-ground. agl - above ground level. AHRS - attitude-heading reference system. A sensor deriving aircraft attitude and heading inFO RMation from gyros and accelerometers. AIAA - area of intense aerial activity, usually military. AIC - Aeronautical InFORMation Circular. Bulletins issued at intervals by the CAA relating to matters of airworthiness, administration, operating procedures, safety etc. AICs are colour-coded according to subject, e.g. safety circulars are pink, thus "Pink 12" issued in December 1990. AIDS - Airborne integrated data system.

AIP - Aeronautical InFORMation Publication. The UK Air Pilot, statutory bible of aeronautical inFORMation published by the CAA. Airep - FORM for reporting position and Met conditions in flight. Airmet - CAA"s telephone aviation weather service, covering Southern, Northern and Scottish regions of the UK. Also Metdial and Metplan, privately-operated aviation weather services. For full details see Pilot, February 1991. AIS - Aeronautical In FORM ation Service. CAA unit based at London-Heathrow Airport, providing flight-planning services and inFORMation for pilots. Publishes AICs, above. AIZ - Aerodrome InFORMation Zone. See ATZ below. ALERFA - alert phase of search-and-rescue procedure. alt - altitude. Height above sea level. alternate - aerodrome specified on a flight plan to which an aircraft chooses to divert if a landing at its intended destination is not possible (for reasons of poor weather, for example). altimeter setting - barometric pressure reading in millibars, hectopascals or (in USA) inches of mercury (Hg) used to set a pressure altimeter"s sub-scale to QFE or QNH . AM - Amplitude modulation. AME - authorized medical examiner. A doctor approved by the CAA (or foreign licensing authority) to conduct examinations for the issue or renewal of aircrew medical certificates. amsl - above mean sea level (sometimes asl in USA). anhedral - sloping down from root to tip. Opposite: dihedral. ANO - Air Navigation Order. Statutory legal instrument defining the laws of air navigation, pilot licensing etc, in the UK. Other aviation legislation includes the Rules of the Air and Air Traffic regulations and the Air Navigation (General) Regulations AoA - angle of attack. Also alpha, thus "high alpha", high angle of attack. AOA - Airport Operators" Association. AOC - Air Operator"s Certificate, issued by the CAA and required by aircraft operators flying scheduled or charter public transport flights, including cargo, air-taxi and pleasure-flying work.

Also Air Officer Commanding in RAF parlance. AoE - airport of entry (usually in USA). AOG - aircraft on ground, a term used to denote urgency when requesting spares or service from suppliers or manufacturers, meaning that the aircraft cannot fly again until the parts have been supplied. AOPA - Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association. A/P - airport or autopilot. A & P - Airframe and Powerplant Mechanic (USA). APA - Aerodromes Protection Agency, the federation of associations for the advancement of British general aviation facilities. APHAZ - Aircraft Proximity Hazards Assessment Panel, which investigates near-miss reports filed by air traffic controllers (see also JAWG). APP - Approach (control). APU - auxiliary power unit. Large transport aircraft and some business jets have an APU, typically a small turbine, to provide power for engine-starting and for running systems when on the ground, obviating the need for external power or ground power unit, GPU. ARB - Airworthiness Review Board. ARCAL - aircraft radio control of aerodrome lighting. Aresti - key shorthand notation system devised by Spaniard José L Aresti whereby aerobatic display routines or competition sequences can be drawn up on paper like a musical score. Now largely superseded by the simpler FAI Aerobatic Catalogue system. ARINC - Aeronautical Radio Incorporated. A non-profit corporation owned by airlines to set standards for airline avionics and provide communications services. ARP - aerodrome reference point. articulated rotor - blades can flap, drag and feather. ARV - air recreational vehicle. ASDA - accelerate-stop distance available.

ASI - airspeed indicator, a flight instrument which measures the speed of an aircraft through the air. ASR - altimeter setting region, a geographical area for which the lowest value of QNH is forecast hourly and relayed by air traffic control centres. Also airport surveillance radar and air-sea rescue. ASTOVL - advanced short take-off and vertical landing. ATA - actual time of arrival. Also Air Training Association. ATC - air traffic control. ATCA - air traffic control assistant ATC(C) - air traffic control centre; ATCO - air traffic control officer.. ATIS - automatic terminal inFORMation service, a continuous recorded broadcast of routine non-control airport inFORMation, usually at large airports. ATPL - Air Transport Pilot"s Licence, needed to act as pilot-in- command of a commercial air transport aircraft exceeding 20,000 kg all-up weight. ATO - assisted take-off e.g. J(et) or (R)ocket assisted. ATS - air traffic service. Also ATSU, ATS Unit. ATSORA - air traffic services outside regulated airspace. ATC(U) - air traffic control unit. ATZ - Aerodrome Traffic Zone. An area of protected airspace surrounding an aerodrome bounded by a circle of 2 nm or 2.5 nm radius (depending on runway length) centred on the mid-point of the longest runway. Permission is required for entry into and movement in an ATZ. AUW - all-up weight, a term for the total loaded weight of an aircraft, made up of empty weight plus useful load; maximum auw is the maximum allowable weight, including fuel and payload, specified in an aircraft"s Certificate of Airworthiness. Sometimes referred to (in USA especially) as gross weight and maximum gross weight respectively. Also MTWA, maximum total weight authorised; BOW Basic operating weight, the weight of an aircraft with all equipment, lubricants, fuel and operating crew, but without payload; MLW, maximum landing weight, above which fuel must be burned off or jettisoned before landing or there may be risk of structural damage.

avgas - aviation gasoline, usually followed by the octane rating. Used by piston-engined aircraft. Also LL, low lead. avtur - aviation turbine fuel (kerosene). Used by turboprops and jets. AWR - airborne weather radar. Awy - airway. B BA - British Airways BAA - British Airports Authority. BAeA - British Aerobatic Association. BALPA - British Airline Pilots Association. base leg - The crosswind segment of an aerodrome circuit bringing the aircraft from the downwind leg to final approach BAUA - Business Aircraft Users Association. BCAR - British Civil Air Requirements. Airworthiness standards laid down by the CAA for certification of aircraft on the UK Civil Aircraft Register. BCP - break cloud procedure. BCPL - Basic Commercial Pilot"s Licence, the minimum qualification necessary in the UK to receive payment for acting as a pilot. Also CPL, Commercial Pilot"s Licence, and SCPL, Senior Commercial Pilot"s Licence (no longer issued). beta mode - manually-controlled mode for CS propellers on turboprop aircraft enabling reverse pitch to be selected for braking or to aid ground manoeuvring. BFR - Biennial Flight Review (USA). Holders of U.S. FAA Private Pilot Licences must undergo a flight check with an FAA-approved examiner every two years. No UK equivalent. BGA - British Gliding Association. BHAB - British Helicopter Advisory Board. bhp - brake horsepower.

BHPA - British Hang-Gliding and Paragliding Association. Bleed air - Hot compressed air taken from turbine engines. BMAA - British Microlight Aircraft Association. Bottlang - Loose-leaf Euopean airfields manual for VFR operations. BRG - bearing, the horizontal direction to or from any point expressed in degrees of the compass. BWPA - British Women Pilots Association. C C - Celsius (temperature) or compass. CAA - Civil Aviation Authority. CAD/CAM - computer-aided design/manufacture. CAAFU - Civil Aviation Authority Flying Unit, based at Stansted Airport, which perFORMs such tasks as navaid checking and calibration and also examines candidates for instrument ratings and commercial pilot"s licences. CANP - Civil Aviation Notification Procedure. A voluntary system whereby civil operators notify their intention to fly at low level (at or below 1,000 feet agl, when crop-spraying or powerline inspecting for example), aimed at avoiding conflict with low-flying military aircraft. CAP - Civil Air Publication. InFORMation booklets issued by the CAA, e.g. CAP 53 The Private Pilot Licence. CAS - calibrated airspeed -- indicated airspeed corrected for air density and compressibility. casevac - casualty evacuation. CAT - clear-air turbulence. Also CATegory when referring to certain instrument landing systems which require special aircraft instrumentation, certification and pilot qualification beyond those needed for standard instrument approaches (e.g. a CAT IIIC ILS permits operation down to the surface of the runway without external visual reference, true zero-zero operation). CAVOK - pronounced CAV-okay (ceiling and visibility OK), visibility at least ten kilometres, with no cloud below 5,000 feet, with no Cbs, precipitation, thunderstorms, shallow fog or low drifting snow.

CAVU - ceiling and visibility unlimited. Cloudless (or scattered cloud) conditions with visibility in excess of ten kilometres. CCF - Combined Cadet Force CDI - course deviation indicator. The vertical needle of a VOR indicator which shows the aircraft"s position relative to the selected VOR radial. CDU - control display unit. ceiling - height above ground or water of the base of the lowest layer of cloud below 20,000 feet which covers more than half of the sky. An aircraft"s service ceiling is the density altitude at which its maximum rate of climb is no greater than 100 feet per minute. Its absolute ceiling is the highest altitude at which it can maintain level flight. CFI - chief flying instructor (certified flying instructor in USA). CFS - Central Flying School (RAF) CG - centre of gravity CH - compass heading. Check "A" - a thorough pre-flight inspection - the first of the day. CHIRP - Confidential Human Factors Incident Reporting system, whereby professional pilots and ATC staff may report in confidence incidents arising from human errors for analysis by the CHIRP Charitable Trust at Farnborough. CHT - cylinder head temperature (gauge). A device which, by means of a probe(s) gives a cockpit readout of the temperature of one or more of an aircraft engine"s cylinder heads. circuit - pattern around which aircraft fly when arriving at an airfield, usually rectangular in UK but not necessarily elsewhere. The circuit (known as the pattern in USA) is aligned with the active runway and may be either left- or right-handed. Dead side is the opposite side of the circuit pattern in operation from which arriving aircraft join for landing. See also final(s). C/L - centre-line (of a runway, for example). clamped - colloquialism referring to an airport closed to air traffic by bad weather clean - flaps, slats and undercarriage retracted and on military aircraft no external missiles etc. clearance - authorization from air traffic control to proceed as requested or instructed. Used for

ground and air manoeuvring, thus "cleared for take-off", "cleared flight-planned route", "cleared to descend" etc. Clouds - commonly-used abbreviations for cloud types: AC = altocumulus AS = altostratus CB = cumulonimbus CC = cirrocumulus CI = cirrus CS = cirrostratus CU = cumulus NS = nimbo stratus SC = stratocumulus ST = stratus C of A - Certificate of Airworthiness issued by the CAA indicating that an aircraft meets the Authority"s airworthiness standards. Cs of A are issued to individual aircraft, and also to generic aircraft types (Type Certification in the USA) when the first example of a type is registered. Cs of A on individual aircraft are granted in several categories, e.g. Private, Public Transport, Aerial Work etc. and much be renewed at intervals. Permits to Fly are authorisations granted to specialist aircraft and are accordingly restricted in the kinds of operation for which they may be used. C of E - Certificate of Experience, valid for private pilot licence holders for thirteen months, and renewed by flight test or evidence of completing the minimum required flying experience in the preceding thirteen-month period. Also C of T, certificate of test. C of G - centre of gravity. The point on an aircraft through which the entire aircraft"s weight may be assumed to act (i.e. around which the aircraft, if suspended, would balance). C of G limits are the most forward and rearward positions of the C of G permitted for safe operation. An aircraft loaded outside its C of G limits can be difficult or impossible to control. C of P - centre of pressure, the point through which the total effect of lift may be said to act on an aeroplane. Com(m)(s) - communication(s) CPL - Commercial Pilot"s Licence CR or C/R - counter-rotating. Usually in general aviation referring to twin-engined aircraft with "handed" engines whose propellers turn in opposite directions to eliminate propeller torque effect. CRM - cockpit resources management

crosswind (leg) - portion of an aerodrome circuit flown before downwind CRP - compulsory reporting point. CRT - cathode ray tube (like a television). Used in flight deck displays of new-generation airliners, business aircraft and military jets instead of conventional instruments. See also EFIS,. critical altitude - the highest density altitude at which it is possible to maintain the maximum continuous rated power or manifold pressure of an aero engine. critical engine - the engine on a multi-engined aircraft whose failure would most seriously effect perFORMance or handling of the aircraft, through asymmetric effects or loss of power to systems such as hydraulics. CRS course - the intended direction of flight in the horizontal plane expressed in degrees of the compass. c/s - call sign. CS - constant-speed (propeller). A variable-pitch propeller which maintains constant rpm by automatically changing blade angle. Also CSU, constant-speed unit. CTA - Control Area. An area of controlled airspace extending upwards from specified limit agl. CTR - Control Zone. An area of controlled airspace extending upwards from ground level to a specified upper limit. CVR - cockpit voice recorder. A tape recorder installed on the flight decks of commercial transport aircraft and helicopters and some business aeroplanes to record crew conversation, RT transmissions and cockpit background noises (e.g. trim-wheel operation, flap motor running) in case required for incident or accident investigation. CW - carrier wave or continuous wave. CWR - colour weather radar. CZ - Control Zone (USA). CZI - compressor zone inspection. D DA - Danger Area. DAAIS - Danger Area Activity InFORMation Service.

DACS - Danger Area Crossing Service. DADC - Digital air data computer (DADS - /system). D & D - Distress & Diversion Cells at Air Traffic Control Centres. RAF units which provide a 24-hour listening watch on VHF and UHF emergency frequencies and can locate and assist pilots who are lost or in emergency situations. dB - decibel(s) - a unit of sound DC - direct current DCT - direct dead side - opposite side of an airfield circuit pattern from which aircraft join for landing deadstick - descent and landing with engine(s) shut down and propeller(s) stopped. Decca - hyperbolic area navigation system, originally developed for maritime use, based on signals received from a chain of master and slave ground stations located in northern Europe. DEEC - digital electronic engine control density altitude - pressure altitude corrected for air temperature. derated - engine"s potential power deliberately limited, lengthening likely life. DETRESFA - distress phase of search-and-rescue operation. DF - direction-finding. A DF bearing can be provided by airfields or other facilities such as D & D cells (above) having suitable direction-finding equipment to locate an aircraft. DG - Directional gyro DGAC - Direction Général à l"Aviation Civile DH - decision height. The height on a precision approach at which a pilot must have the runway approach lights in sight to continue the descent, or if not, must initiate a go-around. DHFS - UK Defence Helicopter Flying School at RAF Shawbury DI - direction indicator. A gyro instrument which indicates the magnetic heading of an aircraft. The DI, also known as the directional gyro (DG), is free of the turning errors associated with

magnetic compasses but is prone to precession (wander) and must be reset against the magnetic compass at intervals. ALSO DI - is also used to refer to the daily inspection -- a thorough pre-flight check of an aircraft prior to the first flight of the day. dihedral - sloping up from root to tip. Opposite: anhedral. DIN(S) - digital interial navigation (system). DME - distance-measuring equipment. A combination of ground and airborne equipment which gives a continuous slant range distance-from-station readout by measuring time-lapse of a signal transmitted by the aircraft to the station and responded back. DMEs can also provide groundspeed and time-to-station readouts by differentiation. Doppler - Doppler effect (or shift) is the change in frequency of light, radio or sound waves when source and receiver are in relative motion. DoT - Department of Transport. downwind - The segment of an aerodrome circuit paralleling the active runway and flown on a reciprocal heading DP - dew point DR - dead (deduced) reckoning. Plotting position by calculating the effect of speed, course, time and wind against last known position. dry - when referring to aircraft hire charges means "without fuel", as opposed to wet, with fuel. DZ - dropping zone, for parachuting etc. E EAA - Experimental Aircraft Association, the American homebuilders" organisation. EADI - electronic attitude director indicator. An ADI with CRT cockpit display FORMing part of an EFIS, below. EAS - equivalent airspeed. EAT - estimated (or expected) approach time. EBAA - European Business Aircraft Association. ECAC - European Civil Aviation Conference.

ECOGAS - European Council of General Aviation Support. ECU - environmental control unit. ED - emergency distance. EET - estimated elapsed time. EFAS - electronic flash approach light system. EFATO - engine failure at (or after) take-off. EFIS - electronic flight instrument system, in which multi- function CRT displays replace traditional instruments for providing flight, navigation and aircraft systems inFORMation, FORMing a so-called "glass cockpit". Now common in commercial transports, corporate aircraft and helicopters, military fighters and some GA piston singles and twins. EGT - exhaust gas temperature (gauge). A device which provides a cockpit readout of the exhaust gas temperature of an aircraft"s (piston) engine(s), enabling the pilot to lean the mixture for maximum fuel efficiency. EHSI - electronic horizontal situation indicator. CRT-based HSI FORMing part of an EFIS. EICAS - engine indication and crew alerting system. CRT display which monitors engine perFO RMance and alerts the crew to system or airframe failure. Found in new-generation transports and business jets. EICMS - engine in-flight monitoring system ELT - emergency locator transmitter. A small radio transmitter fixed to an aircraft"s structure which is automatically activated by impact or water immersion and transmits a code on emergency frequencies enabling SAR satellites or search units equipped with DF to locate the crash or ditching site. Carriage mandatory in the USA, but not in UK. Sometimes styled ADELT, automatically deployable ELT, or ELB, emergency locator beacon. empty weight - weight of the basic aeroplane including all fixed equipment, plus unusable fuel, oil, hydraulic and other fluids. encoding altimeter - an altimeter which gives a digital output to the transponder (which see) for automatic transmission of the aircraft"s pressure altitude to ATC. EOBT - estimated off-blocks time.

EP - Elementary pilot rating of the British Hang Gliding and Paragliding Association EPNdB - effective perceived noise decibel. Unit of measurement of aircraft noise levels. ER - extended range. eshp - equivalent shaft horsepower. ETA - estimated time of arrival. Also ; ETD - estimated time of departure ETE - estimated time en route. ETOPS - extended-range twin operations, usually long over-water flights by airliners. ETPS - Empire Test Pilots School, based at the Aircraft & Armament Experimental Establishment, Boscombe Down. Eurocontrol - organisation, headquartered in The Netherlands, comprising Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands and UK for coordinating en route air traffic control in Europe. F FAA - Federal Aviation Administration, USA, equivalent of UK"s CAA. FAA - Fleet Air Arm, of UK"s Royal Navy. FADEC - full-authority digital engine control. FAF - final approach fix, the point at which a published instrument approach begins. FAI - Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, the international body for verification of aeronautical record attempts and sporting regulations. FAR - Federal Aviation Regulations (USA). FARA - FORMula Air Racing Association. FBL - fly by light i.e. control via optical fibres FBO - fixed-base operator, American term for commercial operators supplying fuel, maintenance, aircraft sales, rental, flight training, handling and other GA services at an airport. (So-called because the first FBOs were early barnstormers who chose to settle at one field.)

FBW - fly-by-wire. Aircraft control systems in which pilots" control inputs are transmitted to control surfaces electronically or via fibre optics rather than by mechanical linkage. Also see FBL. FCL - Flight Crew Licensing (Division), a CAA department handling all aspects of private and professional pilot, flight engineer and navigator licensing. FCS - flight control system. fcst - forecast. FDR - flight data recorder, popularly known as a "black box" (actually painted bright orange), by which various parameters of an aircraft"s flight perFORMance are recorded for analysis in the event of an incident or accident. feather - (of a propeller) - to set the angle of CS or VP propeller edge-on to the airflow to minimise drag and rotation following engine failure on multi-engined aircraft. Also applies to motor gliders which have feathering propellers to enhance engine-off soaring perFORMance. final(s) - final approach. The part of a landing sequence or aerodrome circuit procedure in which the aircraft has made its final turn and is inbound to the active runway. Downwind is the segment of the circuit paralleling the runway and flown on a reciprocal heading. Base leg is the crosswind segment bringing the aircraft from the downwind leg to final approach. The leg before downwind is called the Crosswind leg. FIC - Flight InFORMation Centre. FIR - Flight InFORMation Region. UK airspace is divided into two FIRs, London and Scottish. FIS - Flight InFORMation Service, providing a variety of services and inFORMation (but not control) to air traffic in the two FIRs above. FJ - fast jet. FL - flight level, a level of constant atmospheric pressure shown by an altimeter set to a standard 1013.2 millibars, expressed in rounds hundreds of feet, thus FL330 is 33,000 feet. flag - warning signal incorporated in certain navigation and flight instruments indicating that the instrument is not operating satisfactorily or that the strength of signals being received from ground stations is below acceptable limits. flat rating - throttling or other restriction of engine power ouput (usually in turboprops and turboshafts) at sea level to enable it to give constant predictable power at higher operating altitudes.

flameout - combustion failure in a turbine engine resulting in power loss. FLG - flashing. flicker effect - nausea, dizziness or vertigo which can be brought on by flickering at certain frequencies of a bright light source such as sunlight or strobe when viewed through a rotating propeller or rotor blades. FLIR - forward-looking infra-red. FLM - foot-launched microlight. FLPA - foot-launched powered aircraft, e.g. powered parachutes. FM - frequency modulation. FMC/S - flight management computer/system FMGC - flight management guidance computer. FMS - flight management system. FMU - flight management unit. FOD - foreign object damage, usually to turbine engines through ingestion of runway debris etc. FPL - filed flight plan. fpm - feet per minute, a measure of an aircraft"s rate of climb or descent. Similarly m/s or mps, metres per second. FSS - Flight Service Station (USA). FTO - flying training organisation. FTS - Flying Training School (RAF) ft/min - feet per minute G g - the acceleration force of gravity, normally 1g on earth. Zero g (0g) is weightlessness, as experienced by orbiting astronauts. g is expressed as positive (\) and negative (-) values. During a normal loop a pilot experiences positive g, tending to force him down in his seat. In an outside

loop, with the pilot"s head on the outside of the vertical circle, negative g forces him up against his straps. Aircraft structural load limits are expressed in positive and negative values, the positive limit usually greater than negative, except in specialist aerobatic types. g-loc - g-induced loss of consciousness. Pilot blackouts caused by excessive g or by too-rapid onset of g-forces. Experienced mostly by pilots of high-perFORMance military jets and competition aerobatic aircraft, has led to fatal crashes. GA - general aviation, all flying other than airlines and the military. GAAC - General Aviation Awareness Campaign. GAFOR - General Aviation Visual Flight Forecast. Met briefing service in operation in France, Germany, the Netherlands and some other European countries. gall imp/U.S. - gallons, imperial or USA. One imp gall = 1.201 U.S. gall. GAMA - General Aviation Manufacturers Association, an American trade organisation. GAMTA - General Aviation Manufacturers & Traders Association, UK. GAPAN - Guild of Air Pilots and Air Navigators. GASCo - General Aviation Safety Council GASIL - General Aviation Safety InFORMation Leaflet. Monthly safety and accident prevention bulletin for pilots and engineers published by the CAA. GCA - ground-controlled approach. A landing approach in which a ground controller gives verbal guidance in azimuth and elevation to a pilot using precision approach radar (PAR) to monitor the aircraft"s approach path. Still used by the military, but defunct in civil aviation. GFT - General Flying Test, taken by student pilots to qualify for the PPL, and also by candidates for the BCPL and CPL. Also NFT, navigation flight test, which is part of the practical examination for the PPL. Glonass - Russian equivalent of GPS/Navstar satellite navigation system. glove - non-movable part of a variable geometry wing. gnd - ground GNSS - Global Navigation Satellite Systems.

go-around to climb away from a runway after making an approach, either to make a further attempt at landing or to divert to an alternate airport (FORMerly "overshoot"). Goxio - VHF direction-finding (France) GP - glidepath gph - gallons per hour, an expression of fuel consumption or fuel flow (FF) in either imperial or U.S. gallons. Usually lb/hr for turbine-powered aircraft. GPS - Global Positioning System (Navstar). A U.S. developed satellite-based high-precision navigation system, intended primarily for military use but now in widespread use by commercial and private operators, though with reduced accuracy compared with military versions. GPWS - ground proximity warning system. A radar-based flight- deck system to give pilots audible warning by means of horns, hooters, taped or synthetic voices of terrain close beneath an aircraft"s flight path. GRADU - gradual (term used in Met reports). GRP - glassfibre-reinforced plastic; also CFRP, carbon-fibre reinforced plastic. Composite materials seeing increasing use in entire airframes for GA aircraft (e.g. Beech Starship) and for components for helicopters, airliners and military aircraft. GS - glideslope. The vertical guidance part of an instrument landing system which establishes a safe glidepath (usually three degrees) to a runway. G/S - groundspeed. The speed an aircraft makes over the ground, a product of its airspeed and wind speed. H H24 - continuous round-the-clock operation. Also HJ operates during day; HN operates during night; HO operates during times to meet operational requirements, and HX no specific operational hours. HAA - Historic Aircraft Association. HAI - Helicopter Association International. half-mill(ion) - 1:500,000 scale ICAO aeronautical chart. Hdg - heading. The direction in which an aircraft"s nose points in flight in the horizontal plane, expressed in compass degrees.

Heavy - suffix used in RT callsigns to indicate that the aircraft is a large transport, alerting controllers and following aircraft to the possibility of wake turbulence . Hectopascal (hPa) - unit of pressure measurement, equivalent to one millibar (which see), now the ICAO-standard for altimeter setting. HEMS - helicopter emergency medical services. Hertz - standard radio equivalent of frequency in cycles per second. See also kHz and MHz. HF - high-frequency band, used for long-range radio communications in the 3-30 MHz range. Hg - inches of mercury, a unit of pressure measurement. HIAL - high intensity approach lighting. HIGE - hover in ground effect. Also see HOGE. HIRF - high intensity radiated (electromagnetic) fields. HIRL - high intensity runway lighting. HISL - high intensity strobe light. holding pattern - racetrack-shaped manoeuvre which keeps aircraft within a specified airspace while awaiting further clearance from air traffic control. HOCAC - hands on cyclic and collective - see HOTAS below. HOGE - hover out of ground effect. Also see HIGE. hot-and-high - airfield conditions of high altitude and high ambient temperatures that can severely limit aircraft perFORMance. See also density altitude. HOTAS - hands on throttle and stick. Ergonomic cockpit design technology, originally developed for military combat aircraft, enabling a pilot to fly the aircraft and manage all navigation, weapons and other systems from control column/throttle lever hand grips. HOTCC - hands on throttle, collective & cyclic - see HOTAS above. hp - horsepower. HRA - Highlands Restricted Area

hrs - hours HSD - horizontal situation display. HSI - horizontal situation indicator. A cockpit navigation display, usually part of a flight-director system, which combines navigation and heading. HUD - head-up display. A method of projecting instrument readouts or data which enables a pilot to see them while looking through the aircraft"s windscreen. Mostly used on military aircraft, but now in service on some commercial airliners. Hz - Hertz. I IAOPA - International Council of Aircraft Owners and Pilots Associations IAS - indicated airspeed. An aircraft"s speed through the air as indicated by the ASI, without correction for position error, altitude or outside air temperature. Also see CAS, RAS and TAS. IATA - International Air Transport Association. i/c - intercom ICAO - International Civil Aviation Organisation. IF - instrument flying. Also intermediate frequency. IFF - identification friend or foe. IFR - instrument flight rules prescribed for the operation of aircraft in instrument meteorological conditions (see below). Flight in most controlled airspace in the UK is conducted under IFR or Special VFR. Also used by military to denote in-flight refuelling. IGE - in ground effect. Helicopter perFORMance with an earth surface immediately below. Also OGE, out of ground effect. Helicopters can hover at a greater maximum altitude IGE (above a mountain slope, for example) than they can in free air, OGE. IGS - instrument guidance system. ILS - instrument landing system. The approach aid employing two radio beams to provide pilots with vertical and horizontal guidance during the landing approach. The localiser provides azimuth guidance, while the glide-slope defines the correct vertical descent profile. Marker beacons and high intensity runways lights are also part of the ILS.

IMC - instrument meteorological conditions: weather below VMC minima, see below. Also associated rating used in conjunction with UK PPL. INCERFA - uncertainty phase of search-and-rescue procedure. INS - inertial navigation system. A gyroscope-based system which senses acceleration and deceleration and computes an aircraft"s position in latitude and longitude with great accuracy. Used mostly by long-haul airliners, military aircraft and sophisticated business jets. Also IRS, inertial reference system. INTER - intermittent or fluctuating, term used in Met reports. IR - Instrument Rating IRAN - Inspect and repair as necessary IRE - Instrument Rating Examiner IRT - Instrument Rating Test ISA - International Standard Atmosphere -- a set of standard conditions or temperature and pressure which serve as a basis for comparison. ISA = pressure 1013.2 millibars, temperature 15 degrees C. Aircraft perFORMance figures quoted by manufacturers are often based on such a "standard day". ITT - inter-turbine temperature. Also TGT, turbine gas temperature TIT, turbine inlet temperature. IWR - Instrument weather rating. Proposed by the JAA as a replacement for the UK"s unique IMC rating J JAA - Joint Aviation Authority. JAR - Joint Aviation Requirements, being drawn up by eighteen European states, aimed at unifying airworthiness, flight crew licensing and other criteria among signatory nations. JAWG - Joint Airmiss Working Group. A civilian/military committee which reviews and reports on all airmisses which occur in UK airspace. JEFTS - Joint Elementary Flying Training Squadron based at RAF Barkston Heath, Lincolnshire Jeppesen - U.S.-developed navigational/approach chart system with worldwide coverage, similar to British Aerad system.

JPATS - Joint Primary Aircraft Training System. A USAF/U.S. Navy programme to select a common aircraft design as a basic pilot trainer for the two services, due to be decided next year. K kg - kilogram(s) kHz - kilohertz, the frequency of a radio carrier wave measured in thousands of cycles per second. 1 kHz = 1,000 Hertz. KIAS - knots indicated airspeed. km - kilomrtre(s) knot (kt) - one nautical mile per hour (never one knot per hour), the standard unit of aviation speed measurement. One knot equals 1.1515 mph; one nautical mile equals 6,080 feet. kV- kilovolt kW - kilowatt. L LARS - Lower Airspace Radar Advisory service, available to all aircraft flying in uncontrolled UK airspace from 3,000 feet amsl to FL95. See also MMARS, RAS and RIS, below. LAMS - Light Aircraft Maintenance Schedule, the CAA-approved schedule for fixed-wing light aircraft below 2,730 kg auw whose Cs of A are valid for three years subject to compliance with LAMS. lat - latitude. LATCC - London Area & Terminal Control Centre at West Drayton, near Heathrow. lb - pound(s) lbf - engine thrust in pounds force LCD - liquid crystal display lczt - (ILS) localizer (USA) l/d ratio - lift /drag ratio, a measurement of the efficiency of a wing aerofoil section LDA - landing distance available.

LED - light emitting diode LF - low-frequency radio waves with frequencies in the 30-300 kHz band. LITAS - low-intensity two-colour approach system. LLTV - low light level television. LLZ - localizer ((USA). LOC - localiser. The azimuth guidance portion of an instrument landing system. locator - medium-frequency non-directional radio beacon used as an aid to establishing yourself on final approach during an instrument landing procedure.. LOFT - Line-orientated flying training. Usually on large jet simulators to prepare newly-qualified commercial pilots for multi-crew airline operations LOM - Locator outer marker lon(g) - longitude Loran - low-frequency hyperbolic radio long-range navigation system which measures time difference between reception of synchronised signals transmitted from ground transmitters. Loran-C, operates in the 100-110 kHz frequency band with an operating range of 600-1,500 nm independent of line-of-sig


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