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英语句子成分分析


句子成分
定义 :构成句子的各个部分叫做句子成 分。句子成分有主要成分和次要成分;

主要成分:主语和谓语
次要成分:宾语、定语、状语、补足语 、表语、同位语和插入语。

1. I met my best friend Tom at school yesterday. ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ 主 谓 定 宾 同 状 语

语 语 语 位 语 语

㈠主语(subject)
句子说明的人或事物
? ? ? ? ? ? ? Jane is good at playing the piano.(名词) She went out in a hurry. (代词) Four plus four is eight. (数词) To see is to believe. (不定式) Smoking is bad for health. (动名词) The young should respect the old. (名词化的形容词) What he has said is true.(句子)

找出句中主语
The sun rises in the east. (名词) Twenty years is a short time in history. (数词) The poor are now living in the shelter. (名词化的形容词) Seeing is believing. (动名词) To see is to believe. (不定式) He likes dancing. (代词) What he needs is a book. (句子) It is important to have a healthy lifestyle. (It形式主语,不定式才是真正主语)

㈡谓语
说明主语的动作、状态和特征

? ? ? ? ? ?

简单谓语:由动词或动词词组组成 I saw the flag on the top of the hill? He looked after two orphans. 复合谓语 由情态动词或助动词+动词; He can speak English well. She doesn’t like dancing.

找出句中谓语
We are both quiet. (动词) I get up at six o’clock. (动词词组) I can play the guitar. (情态动词+动词) They didn’t exercise yesterday. (助动词+动词)

(三)宾语
动作的对象或承受者——一般位于及物动词或介词 的后面 Show your passport, please. (名词 ) She didn't say anything. ( 代词) How many do you want? - I want two. (数词) They sent the poor to hospital. (名词化的形容词) They wanted to go to Hainan. (不定式) I enjoy working with you. (动名词)

Did you write down what he said? (句子)

? 宾语分为直接宾语和间接宾语.直接宾语指 物或事,间接宾语指人或动物. ? He gave me some books. ↓ ↓ 间接 直接 宾语 宾语 ●please pass me the book. ●He bought his girlfriend some flowers.

找出句中宾语
He writes a letter. (名词 ) Thank you. ( 代词) I hate skating. (动名词) I’m planning to take a vacation.(不定式) It depends on where you are.(宾语从句)

(四)表语
在系动词后的部分就是表语 1. I am a doctor.

2. That sounds interesting.
3. Please keep quiet.

4. We will become successful.
5. I don’t feel well.

找出句中表语
1.Our teacher of English is an American. (名词) 2.Is it yours? (代词) 3.The weather gets cold. (形容词) 4.The speech is exciting. (分词) 5.Three times seven is twenty one? (数词)

(五)定语
修饰或限制名词或代词的词、词组或从句
? ? ? ? ? ? He is a clever boy. (形容词) His father is reading a story book.(名词) There are 57students in our class. (数词) Do you know betty’s sister? (名词的所有格) (动名词) He has a good eating habit. There is a sleeping baby in bed. (现在分词)

定语后置:
如果定语是由一个单词表示时,通常要前置。 而由一个词组或一个句子表示时,通常则后置

The girl in red is his sister. We have a lot of work to do. The girl standing under the tree is his daughter. Do you know the man who shopped just now?

(六)状语
状语的功用:状语说明地点、时间、原因、目的、 结果、条件、方向、程度、方式和伴随状况等。 ? We will have robots at home in 10 years. ? They are playing in the park. ? He was late because he got up late. ? He often went to school by bus. ? Please call me if it is necessary. ? This book is very interesting.

(六)宾语补足语
有些及物动词除了有一个直接宾语以外,还要有一个宾 语补足语,说明宾语的身份和状态以补充其意义不足, 使句子的意义完整。这类常用的及物动词有 : make, see, find

? I found the book interesting. ? I saw her playing the piano in the morning. ? He made the boy cry.

同位语
位于名词或代词后面,说明它们的性质和情况

We young people should respect the old. 名词
He himself will do the experiment. 代词

He is the oldest among them four. 数词
He told me the news that our team won the game. 从句

练习
一.指出下列句子划线部分是什么句子成分:

定语 主语 ? 1. The students were on the school bus. . 宾语
? 2. He gave me the newspaper. ? 3. I will answer your question after class. ? 4. It’s a beautiful Chinese picture!

谓语

状语

定语

谓语 状语 ? 5. They went hunting together early in the
morning.

?

?
? ? ? ? ? ?

定语 表语 6. My dream job is to be a doctor. 宾语 . 7. He took many photos of Beijing. 主语. 8. There is a book on the desk. 表语 9. He is leaving for Shanghai tomorrow. 表语 主语 . 10. His wish is to become a scientist. 宾语从句 11. I heard Canada is beautiful. 状语 12. I will stay at home if it rains tomorrow. 表语 13. The apples tasted sweet.

? 14. He found it important to master English. 形式宾语

Exercises:分析句子结构
1)You are a student. 2)He felt happy today. 3)What you said made me happy. 4)Could you give me some advice on how to learn English well? 5)After he finished his homework, he went away.

6)He likes pop music. 7)The sound sounds strange. 8)The food tastes good. 9)He gave me a book yesterday. 10)We all think it a pity that she didn’t come here.

人称代词 I我 you你 he他 she她 they他们 me我(宾格 )you你(宾格)him他(宾格)her她(宾格)them 他们(宾格) 物主代词 my我的 his他的 your你的(your你们的) their他们的 her她的 指示代词 this这 that那 these这些 those 那些 反身代词 myself我自己 himself他自己 themselves他 们自己 疑问代词 who谁 what什么 which哪个 不定代词 some一些 many许多 both两个;两个都 关系代词 which, who, whom, that引导定语从句 相互代词 each other 互相 one another互相

系动词
1)状态系动词(be动词) 例如: He is a teacher. (is与补足语一起说明主语的身份。) 2)感官系动词 (翻译成“…起来”) feel(感觉起来), smell(闻起来), sound, taste(尝起来), look 3)持续系动词 (译成“保持”) keep, stay 4)变化系动词 (译成“变得”) become, get, turn

按照句子的结构来分,英语的句子有以下三种类型: 1、简单句:简单句只有一个主语(或并列主语)和一个谓语动 词(或并列谓语动词)。如:My brother and I go to school at half past seven in the morning and come back home at seven in the evening. 2、并列句:并列句由并列连词或分号“;”把两个或两个以上 的简单句连在一起构成。如:It is late, so we must hurry. 3、复合句:复合句由一个主句和一个或一个以上的从句构成。 如: If we want to keep fit, we must always remember that prevention is better than cure. 从以上并列句和复合句的例句来看,我们不难看出它们实际上 是由几个简单句通过并列连词或从属连词连接起来的。因此,只 要我们掌握了简单句的几种基本句型,我们就可以通过在句中寻 找起连接作用的连词来分析复杂的句子。


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