(一) 阅读下面的短文，然后按照要求写一篇 150 词左右的英语短文。 Everyone has an experience they would rather forget. Some are embarrassing, some are moving, and some teach us a lesson. Here is
a story of mine. Last Sunday I went fishing. After setting up my fishing rod with bait, I sat down on the bank of the lake. But two hours later, I didn’t catch any fish. I got very angry and began to pack up my stuff, preparing to go back home. Just then, I saw an old man sitting near me. To my surprise, his basket was full of fish, so I went over to him, wanting to know why. “Excuse me, but how long have you sat here?” I asked. “About four hours,” he answered. “Four hours?” I couldn’t believe my ears. “Yes. It’s very important to be patient,” the old man said. “Don’t consider fishing a tiring sport. Just enjoy it.” Suddenly, I understood what he said. I must learn to be patient. Then I sat there and waited for fish patiently. I felt a fish touch the bait, but I didn’t move and waited for the right moment to reel it in. At last, I caught it. This made me very happy. In the following six hours, I caught over 10 fish. On my way home, I thought what had happened on the bank. I gradually realized that the secret of success was patience. [写作内容] 1) 以约 30 个词概括短文的要点； 2) 然后以约 120 个词写一篇记叙文，描写你认识到耐心的重要性的一次经历，并包括如下 的要点： a) 叙述你认识到耐心的重要性的一次真实或虚构的经历； b) 你是如何认识到耐心的重要性的； c) 耐心对你的生活、学习有什么影响。
Write down the summary in 30 words
Part I. 关于概括的问题
记叙文：who，what，result(结果)，why(条件或原因)，meaning(不一定要有，视文章内容而定) 说明文：phenomenon/problem，feature(特点)，process(过程)，function(功能)，tendency(发展趋势) 议论文：theme(论题)，opinion(作者的观点)，supporting sentences（论据） ，conclusion（结论） 新闻报道: the first sentence / paragraph; contents (examples or figures); conclusion / prediction (the last sentence) 书信类：可参照记叙文的做法(特别注意题目要求的写作格式)
2. 各种文体概况的思路以及模板 思路：
记叙文 议论文 说明文 主题句 故事的写作目的/ 主题（一句） 文章论点（一句） 说明的对象/ 观点/ 现象 支撑句 故事大意（两三句） 文章论据（两三句） 解释/ 分述
Ⅳ.积累模板 Some Summary Models for You (1) 记叙文概要模板 a.点明写作目的类： The writer tells us…（主题）by showing us an example of…, who/which…（故事情节）. b.作者经历类： In the passage, the writer mainly tells us his experience of doing sth, which…… c. 他人经历类： This passage is mainly about sb’s experience of doing sth….. (2) 议论文概要模板 The article gives the view that……should/shouldn’t…（主题）.…..（补充论据）. The passage highlights(强调) the importance of sth….. The author argues that… (3) 说明文概要模板 a. 现象揭示类： This article points out the common phenomenon ----（主题), which….（补充解释）. b. 利弊对比类： The article compares the disadvantages/ benefits of A and B. A…while B… The passage discusses the impact(影响)of sth. On the positive side…, but it may also…. c. 研究显示类： The study reveals(揭露) that… The purpose of the report is to show that…
Part II. 写概括的具体方法
Ⅰ.The Steps of Writing a Summary A.定时态：如果阅读材料是过去时，那么基本时态用过去时；如果是现在的，那么基本时态用 现在时；不过，模板的开头语一般为现在时如 The passage tells us that----- - --. B.定人称：一般情况下采用第三人称来写作。（特殊如书信的，可能会使用第一、二人称；）
1)Use words of similar meanings 同义替换法 I didn’t catch any fish owing to the fact that I was not patient. I didn’t catch any fish_________ I was not patient. 2)Adopt the opposite way when saying a sentence 正话反说法 You will fail. = You will ____________. 3)Change the part of speech 词性转换法 Patience is very important. Patience is of _____________________ . 4)Change the structure of a sentence 句式变化法 语态变换：Parents should give children more praise. →Children should ________ more praise. 简单句变复合句： Children should be encouraged more. This will help them learn faster. Children should be encouraged more, _______ will help them learn faster.. 5)Use the shortest possible transitions 连词衔接法 注意使用一些短而精的连词， but, and, so, while, however, then, yet, for, therefore, thus, including, 如 instead of 等。 We should encourage children. We should not scold them. We should encourage children__________ scolding them. 6) Change the order of the words.词序改变法
Skill1: Omit (省略) the details Skill2: Omit the repetitions Skill3: Omit the examples Skill4: Use general(概括性) words instead of specific(具体的) words ) Skill5: Put the main points of a dialogue in indirect speech II.练习篇---- 学以致用。 (Task1: Please follow the example to choose the proper skill from the above ones.) 1,Then, you can think of a way to make both sides happy. Here are some tips 1)Make time to talk. You could talk about your school life and your plans for the future. 2)..Keep a diary. It can help you understand more about yourself and your feelings. 3). Show your parents you are growing up. Wash your own clothes and help around the house. Summary:________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________
2. Sometimes, kids don’t think their parents are fair to them. When you want to dress in a modern way, your mum doesn’t like you to wear a mini-skirt. When you are making phone calls to friends, they ask whether you’re speaking to a boy or a girl. Summary: _______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Kate looked at Paul disapprovingly, “You use too much salt on your food, Paul. It’s not at all good for you!” Paul put down his knife and frowned, “Why on earth not! If you didn’t have salt on your food it would taste awful…like eating wood or sand…just imagine bread without salt in it!” Summary: _______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 4. She brought home several Chinese and English novels, a few copies of Time and Newsweek, and some textbooks. She intended to read all of them during the winter vacation. Summary: _______________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________
Part Ⅲ. 实战应用 （一）——记叙文
① 要素串联法（记叙文） 记叙文主要是记叙所发生的事情和经历。常见的形式有：故事、日记、新闻报道、游记等。 记叙文通常要交待清楚五要素的内容，即 where, when, what, who, how, 给读者一个内容完整、 细节清晰的故事。事情的叙述通常按时间的顺序叙述，让读者易于把握所叙述内容之间的内在 关联，我们必须抓住记叙文的写作特点或思路，从而更好地理解文章主题，概括出比较中肯的 短文中心大意。
(一) 阅读下面的短文，然后按照要求写一篇 150 字左右的英语短文。 One morning, Mr Hare was running on the road. Suddenly he saw Mr Tortoise, who was also running on the road towards him. Mr Hare ran up to Mr Tortoise and laughed at him. Mr Tortoise got angry and wouldn't take failure lying down, so he suggested having a race to see who could first get to the big tall tree by the roadsides. Mr Hare agreed with him without hesitation. The race began. Mr Hare and Mr tortoise started from the same line at the same time. When Mr Hare was far ahead of Mr Tortoise and even couldn't see Mr Tortoise, he thought that Mr Tortoise fell behind and couldn't catch up with him. So he stopped and lay down to have a nap. But soon he fell asleep. At the same time, Mr Tortoise kept on running and running. When Mr Hare woke up, he found Mr Tortoise had already sat under the tree and was smiling at him! [写作内容] 1) 以大约 30 个词概括短文的要点；
[写作指导] 按记叙文的五大要素来概括要点，如下表： What(事情) Who(人物) When(时间) Where(地点) How(情节) Mr. Hare lost a race with Mr. Tortiose Mr. Hare and Mr. Tortoise one morning on the road be proud—lie down and nap—lose
切记不得直接引用原文中的句子，语言要简洁明了，最好用两个句子概括原文要点。 (二) 阅读下面的短文，然后按照要求写一篇 150 词左右的英语短文。 Years ago in Scotland Clark and his wife worked and saved, making plans for their family to travel to the United States. Finally they had saved enough money and gotten passports. The entire family were filled with excitement. However, seven before their departure, the youngest son was bitten by a dog. The doctor sewed up the boy but hung a yellow sheet on the Clarks' front door. Because of the possibility of rabies, they were separated for fourteen days. The family's dream was dashed. They would not be able to make the trip to America as they planned. The father, filled with disappointment and anger, wept bitter tears and cursed both his son and God for their misfortune. Five days later, the tragic news spread throughout Britain--- Titanic, which was on her maiden voyage on April 14, 1912, had sunk, taking hundreds of lives with it. The Clark family should have been on that ship, but because the son had been bitten by a dog, they were left behind. When Mr. Clark heard the news, he hugged his son and thanked him for saving the family. He thanked for God for turning what he had felt was a tragedy into a blessing. [写作内容] 1) 以大约 30 个词概括短文的要点； 2) 以大约 120 个词写一篇记叙文，描写你或你的朋友因祸得福的一次经历，并包含以下内容： a) 叙述你或你的朋友因祸得福的一次真实或虚构的经历； b) 谈谈这次经历对你或你的朋友的影响。 [写作指导] 概括要点：可按记叙文的五大要素来概括要点, 如下表： What(事情) Who(人物) When(时间) Where(地点) How(情节) saved after missing Titanic the Clark family Years ago (April, 1912) Scotland one son was bitten—unluckily not board Titanic—luckily saved
This story is about a tragedy turning into a blessing. The Clark family, who were unlucky to missing boarding Titanic because one son was bitten by a dog, were luckily saved fortunately.
② 主题概括法（议论文） 第一、找关键词、全文或段落的主题句。 任何一篇文章都是围绕某个主题展开的，因此，许多文章中最明显的特点之一是有一个反复出 现的中心词，即高频词，也叫做主题词。抓住了它，便容易抓住文章的中心。一般地说，主题 词通常是名词、动词或形容词。 第二、根据原文的词句(一般指关键词和全文或段落的主题句), 进行改写: 或用相应的同义词， 或进行句型转换(如主动句改为被动句等等). 千万不要原封不动地抄写原文的词句. 第三、用连词连接各部分，使它连贯； 第四、整合中心要点，使用形容词、介词短语、非谓语动词短语合并、简化句子，使之符合概 括短文内容要点的词数(30 个词左右)。 议论文通常用来讲明道理、议论是非、提出观点和看法。作者先正面或反面提出论点，然 后用事实论证论点，最后以重申论点或提出建议的方式得出结论。议论文的主题句通常在首段 或尾段，或者在各段的首句或尾句。 尽可能客观简要地转述阅读材料的观点。可以采用如下方法概括：The writer of this article thinks that… 或者你认为本材料的观点代表了一些人的思想，就可以说 Some people think… 还 可以从中立的角度或用“无人称”的方式来说 The article gives the view that… （一） Scientists find that hard-working people live longer than average men and women. Career women are healthier than housewives. Evidence shows that the jobless are in poorer health than the job-holders. A study shows that whenever the employment rate increases by 1%, the death rate increase correspondingly by 2%. All this comes down to one point: work is helpful to health. Why is work good for health? It is because work keeps people busy, away from loneliness. Researches show that people feel unhappy, worried and lonely when they have nothing to do. Instead, the happiest are those who are busy. Work serves as a bridge between man and reality. By work, people come into contact with each other. By collective activities, they find friendship and warmth. This is helpful to health. The loss of work means the loss of everything. It affects man spiritually and makes him likely to disease. Besides, work gives one a sense of fulfillment and a sense of achievement. Work makes one feel his value and status in society. When a writer finishes his writing or teacher sees his students grow, they are happy beyond words. Summary: _______________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 主题词： Study hard and enjoy yourselves。 论点—观点 work is helpful to health 论证—理由 a. hard work can keep a person busy; b. hard work can make one feel fruitful and proud of himself; c. the above factors can lead to a healthy body.
（二） Students should think now about what extracurricular (课外的) activities they'd like to participate in.
Participating in extracurricular activities may help you deepen your physical, creative, social, political, and career interests by bringing you into communication with other like-minded people you didn’t previously know. You can join groups as a way to get support from other students. A club or group can also be a great way to meet people who are different from you. Lots of youth programs bring people together with those who are different as a way to break down the barriers between people. Participating in extracurricular activities helps you in other ways, too. It looks good on college and job applications and shows admissions officers and employers you're well-rounded and responsible. Specific activities help with specific goals. The most basic reason for joining a club or team is that it gives you something better to do than staring at the wall, wandering the hall, or sleeping all afternoon. People who are participating are less likely to pick up bad habits, like smoking or drinking. Summary: Summary: _______________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 主题词： Study hard and enjoy yourselves。 论点—观点 论证—理由 work is helpful to health a. hard work can keep a person busy; b. hard work can make one feel fruitful and proud of himself; c. the above factors can lead to a healthy body.
段意合并法 (说明文、应用文) 第一步, 通读全文, 领略大意; 第二步,小结每一段的大意; 第三步, 根据每一段的大意以及作者的侧重点, 综合归纳全文的大意. 对于说明性或描述性短文，可以用概括性文字说明某一现象。比如，可以概括如下 “This article points out the common phenomenon…” 说明文，通常会有中心句，写概要时要注意要找出中心句，抓住关键词，然后用自己的话重组 文章的信息。 （一） You may not be very familiar with “ecotourism“-a new term in today’s tourism industry-but in an era of growing environmental consciousness，it is not too difficult for us to imagine and work out the meaning of this new form of holiday. Ecotourism is typically defined as travel to places where the unique flowers，plants，animals and the cultural heritage are the primary attractions.It is considered as a kind of responsible tourism which seriously takes ecology and culture into consideration. Therefore，programs involving the conservation and preservation of some natural and cultural sites also form a part of ecotourism.
Ecotourism is developing at great speed.According to a report by the World Tourism Organization，ecotourism in recent years has enjoyed an annual growth of about 5% worldwide.Over 80 activities have been listed for ecotourism，such as bird watching，hiking，diving，photography， mountaineering and participating in various kinds of local cultural events. Although big cities are still the major places that absorb tourists in our society today， looks like it some smaller towns and rural areas rich in ecological，cultural and historical resources may well become the new destinations for people to visit tomorrow. Summary: _______________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 这篇文章的主题段在第二段及最后一段，主要告诉人们什么是生态游。因此，在概括时要把文 章的主题段的中心词(cultural heritage，takes ecology and culture into consideration and historical resources)用自己的话表述出来。 为避免抄袭嫌疑， 原文的 takes ecology and culture into consideration 可以用 attracts tourists by natural and cultural heritage 来进行转述，同时还要注意词性的转换 （二） Advertising can be a service to customers. This is true when advertisements give reliable information about the goods advertised. Such information is needed if the customer is to make a sensible choice when he buys something. It is useful in that it lets him know of the kinds of goods in the shops. Printed advertisements do this job best. Customers can collect them and compare them. They can be taken along to the shops and their statements can be checked against and actual goods in the shops. Some advertisements are not very useful to the customers. Instead of helping the customer to satisfy his real needs, they set out to make him want things. They set out to make us believe that what they advertise will make us cleverer, prettier, more handsome, if only we use it. The voice on TV says, “ Getaway people use XYZ petrol.” The screen shows a picture of petrol pump for a fast expensive car owned by a boy with a pretty girlfriend. They drive off to the wonderful country or a lovely beach. Some people may feel that clever, successful people use XYZ petrol. Some might choose that petrol every time they fill up their cars. Skill: _______________________ Summary: _______________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________
附：练习参考答案： I. “定技巧：结合相关技巧，重新组句。”练习
1) because 2) not succeed 3) of great importance 4) be given； which 5) instead of II. 练习篇---- 学以致用。 1.Skill1: Omit the details There are some tips for children to follow so that they can get on well with their parents. 2. Skill2: Omit the examples. It is quite natural that we children look at the same problem differently from our parents. 3. Skill4: Put the main points of a dialogue in indirect speech. Kate suggested that Paul should eat less salt. But Paul disagreed. He said that food without salt would be tasteless. 4. Skill3: Use general(概括性) words instead of specific (具体的) words. She brought home a lot of books and magazines to read during the vacation. 5. Summary: On arriving home at about two in the morning, the writer failed to wake up his wife by the doorbell. He tried to climb towards the bedroom window, but was found by a policeman. Soon his shouting woke his wife.(40 words) 6. Skill: ①段意合并法 (topic sentences or key words，if no topic sentences) Summary: Advertising can be useful when it provides customers with reliable information，while some advertisements are not the case as they are produced only to persuade customers to buy what they don’t need.(31 words) 7. 主题概括法(适合于议论文) Summary: The author (The passage) discussed the benefit of extracurricular activities including being a way to improve students’ health, widen their social circle and introduce them to new ideas and people. (30 words)
The folktale mainly tells us that in a race Mr Hare proudly thought he would be sure to beat Mr
Tortoise and so he lay down to have a nap. As a result, he lost the race.
Ecotourism is a new fast ? developing form of holiday which attracts tourists by natural and cultural heritage，as well as historical resources.It can be a way to protect the environment.