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Grammar and usage

Overview of subjunctive mood

【学习目标】 1.能区分虚拟语气和真实语气。 2.理解并掌握不同的词在虚拟语气中的运用。 3.能在具体语境中熟练并正确使用虚拟语气。 I. 高考真题再现 1. (2013 福建卷) – Do you think George has passe

d the driving test? -- No. If so, he ______ his car to our college yesterday. A. would drive B. drove C. would have driven D. had driven 2. (2013 重庆卷) – It rained cats and dogs this morning. I’m glad we took an umbrella. -- Yeah, we would have got wet all over if we _________. A. hadn’t B. haven’t C. didn’t D. don’t 3. (2013 陕西卷) My mom suggests that we _______ eat out for a change this weekend. A. should B. might C. could D. would 4. (2013 北京卷) If we _________ a table earlier, we wouldn’t be standing here in a queue. A. have booked B. booked C. book D. had booked 5. (2013 安徽卷) I _______ to my cousin’s birthday party last night, but I was not available. A. went B. had gone C. would go D. would have gone 6. (2013 天津卷) If he had spent more time practicing speaking English, he ________ able to speak it much better now. A. will be B. would be C. has been D. would have been 7. (2013 浙江卷) Eye doctors recommend that a child’s first eye exam ______ at the age of six months old. A. was B. be C. were D. is 8. (2013 江苏卷) I should not have laughed if I ________ you were serious. A. thought B. would think C. had thought D. have thought 9. (2010 江苏卷) George is going to talk about the geography of his country, but I’d rather he ______ more on its culture. A. focus B. focused C. would focus D. had focused II. 虚拟语气的考点及难点 (I) if 引导虚拟语气用法 1. If I ____________(be) you, I ________________(seize) the chance to go abroad. 2. If you _______________(ask) your father, you ______________(get) permission now. 3. If you _______________(take) my advice, you __________________(pass) the exam. 4. If it ______/____________/_______________(rain), we _______________(go) climbing. (Ⅱ) if 省略倒装用法 1. If I were at school again, I would study harder. = _____________________________, I would study harder. 2. If you had come earlier, you would have caught the bus. = _____________________________, you would have caught the bus. 3. If it should rain tomorrow, we would not go out. = _____________________________, we would not go out. 4. If it were not for the expense, I would go abroad now. = _____________________________, I would go abroad now. * 归 纳 总 结 : 当 if 引 导 的 从 句 中 含 有 ______________________ 时 , 可 省 略 if , 同 时 把 _______________ 提到从句句首;但当从句中含有 not 时,_______________。

(Ⅲ) 含蓄条件句虚拟语气 1. But for his help, we ______________________(not make) such great progress. 2. Without the dreams of the youth, this invention ___________________(postpone) for a century. 3. He must have missed the train, or he ________________________(arrive) here then. 4. It was not a matter of money. Even a poor man ____________________(do) the same, I think. 5. Given more time, he _______________________(do) the work better. *归纳总结:有时为了表达的需要,在虚拟语气中并不总是出现 if 引导的条件从句,而是通过其 他的手段来代替条件从句,如________________________这些词,有时还会通过 __________________________. 6. Thank you for all your hard work last week. I don’t think we ______ it without you. A. can manage B. could have managed C. could manage D. can have managed 7. Yesterday, Jane walked away from the discussion, otherwise, she __________ something she would regret later. A. had said B. said C. might say D. might have said 8. But for friction, people __________ neither walk, or even stand up. A. can B. were able to C. will be able to D. could 9. __________ the flood, the ship would have reached its destination on time. A. In case of B. In spite of C. Because of D. Without 10. _________ the help of their group, we would not have succeeded in the investigation. A. Besides B. Regardless of C. But for D. Despite (Ⅳ) 虚拟条件句两个常用的句式 1. If it were not for water, no plant could grow. = _____________/ ______________ / _________________ water, no plant could grow. 2. If it hadn’t been for the doctor, he would have died. = _____________/ ______________ / _________________ the doctor, he would have died. *归纳总结:If it weren’t for 和 If it hadn’t been for 是两个很常用的虚拟语气句型,其意为 ____________,其倒装形式分别为 _________________ 和__________________ 。 此句型可以与一些词比如 等替换。 3. If it ________ for the snow, we _______ the mountain yesterday. A. were not, could have climbed B. were not, could climb C. had not been, could have climbed D. had not been, could climb 4. ___________ for the Internet, we couldn’t get information so quickly. A. If it was not B. If it shouldn’t be C. Were it not D. Had it not been 5. 要不是因为免费的票,我昨天是不会去听这个音乐会的。(一句多译) _________________________/ _________________________/_________________________/ _________________________the free ticket, I _______________________ the concert yesterday. (Ⅴ) wish, if only, as if 虚拟语气的用法 1. I wish it ________________(not rain) now and I could go out. = If only it ________________(not rain) now and I could go out. 2. How I wish I ______________ (meet) that film star yesterday. 3. I wish she _________________(visit) us tomorrow. 4. She looks as if she _____________(be) ten years younger. 5. The old man appears so energetic as if he __________________(live) for another century. 6. She speaks English so fluently as if she ___________________(study) English in America. *归纳总结虚拟语气中 wish, if only, as if 的用法:

7. 我多么希望今天早上能够睡久一点,但是我不得不起床来上学。 _________________________________________________________________________________ 8. 发现四周没人,Tom 打碎玻璃后若无其事的离开了。 _________ no one around, Tom left ________________________________ after _______________. 9. Look at the terrible situation I am in! If only I ___________ your advice. A. follow B. would follow C. had followed D. have followed 10. – Have you read the novel? -- No, but I wish I _______. A. have B. had C. did D. have had (Ⅵ) 虚拟语气中两个需要注意的句型 1. It is (high/about) time that we ________________ (end) the silly argument. 2. It is time for us _____________(go) to school. 3. I would rather he ____________(be) now.= I wish he ___________(be) now. 4. I would rather he ____________ (visit)us tomorrow. = I wish he ___________(visit) us tomorrow. 5. I would rather he ____________(visit) us yesterday.= I wish he ___________(visit) us yesterday. 6. He would rather _________(visit) us than ____________(stay) at home. *归纳总结:① It is (high/about) time (that) 从句用_______________________________________. ② would rather _________ than __________ would rather 加从句时,that 通常省略,如果从句是对现在、将来的虚拟,从句用 ________________; 如果从句是对过去的虚拟, 从句用__________________; would rather 可以与______________互换。 7. Isn’t it about time you ___________(begin) to do homework? 8. Excuse me. It is time for you ___________(have) your temperature ____________(take). 9. I raised objections at the meeting, but now I __________________________________________/ ________________________________________________________________(宁愿没那么做). (Ⅶ) (should) + do 虚拟语气 1. He demanded that we _______________(make) better use of the library. 2. He made a request that Alice ______________(attend) the conference. 3. His advice is that the worsening situation ________________(deal) with. 4. It is proposed that he ________________(go) there at once. 5. It is essential that this factor _______________(take) into account. 6. It is a pity that he __________________(miss) such a golden chance. 7. Her face suggested that she ________(be) ill. So I suggested she _____________(send) to hospital in a second. 8. Tom insisted that Mike ____________(apologize) to his teacher, but Mike insisted that he _______(do) nothing wrong. *归纳总结: ① 在一些动词如__________________________________________引导的宾语从 句中要用虚拟语气。 ② 在一些名词如___________________________________________引导的表语从 句和同位语从句中要用虚拟语气。 ③ 在 It is + v-ed/ adj./ n. that 句型中用虚拟,常见的词有____________________ __________________________________________________________________. ④ 当 suggest 表示_______ 时, 从句用虚拟, 表示_______ 时, 从句用陈述语气。 当 insist 表示_______ 时,从句用虚拟,表示_______ 时,从句用陈述语气。 (Ⅷ) 虚拟语气 VS 真实语气 A. ① If he _________________ (return) tomorrow, I will wait for him

② If he _________________ (return) tomorrow, I would wait for him. B. ① Look at the dark clouds floating in the air. It looks as if it ____________________ (rain). ② They talked as if they _________________(be) friends for years though they met for the first time. *归纳总结: ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ (Ⅸ) 虚拟语气和真实语气的混合使用 判断以下画线前面部分是虚拟还是真实 A. 虚拟 B. 真实 1. They got two free tickets to Canada_____, otherwise they’d never have been able to afford to____. 2. But for the fact that I was giving a lecture_____, I would have gone to the airport to meet you____. 3. I should have given you more help______, but I was occupied in my project_______. Choose the best answers: 4. They should have arrived at lunchtime, but their flight ________ delayed. A. were B. had been C. was D. should be 5. We lost our way in that small village, otherwise we ________ many places of interest yesterday. A. would visit B. had visited C. visited D. would have visited 6. – We could have walked to the station. It was so near. -- Yes, a taxi ______ by no means necessary. A. had been B. wasn’t C. was D. were 7. –I failed again. I wish I ______ harder. -- But you _________. A. had worked, hadn’t B. worked, don’t C. worked, didn’t D. had worked, didn’t Consolidation 1. ________ anything, give me a call and I'll be glad to help you. A. Had you required B. Should you require C. You required D. You had required 2. —I didn't attend the lecture yesterday. —I________, either, if my mother hadn't reminded me. A. wouldn't B. wouldn't have C. didn't D. hadn't 3. 35 passengers died in the bullet train accident. But for the heroic train driver, many more people ___. A. had died B. would die C. would have died D. died 4. – That team ____ victory in the final. -- Yeah, but one player lost control of the ball in the last minute. A. could enjoy B. must enjoy C. could have enjoyed D. must have enjoyed 5. If only the committee _______ the new environmental regulations and put them into effect as soon as possible. A. should approve B. will approve C. would approve D. would have approved 6. – John is really expert at fighting cybercrime. -- Yes, but he _______ his potential if it had not been for his desire to meet the new challenges. A. never realized B. would never realize C. would never have realized D. had never realized 7. People love the convenience of bottled water, but if they __________ the problem it causes, they ________ try carrying water in a reusable steel container instead of a plastic one. A. realized, will B. had realized, will C. realized, would D. have realized, would 8. The sleeping baby would be scared _________ a sudden loud noise. A. was there B. there was C. should there be D. there should be

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