61AATCC Test Method 61-1994
An American National Standard
Colorfastness to Laundering, Home and Commercial: Accelerated
Developed in 1950 by AATCC Committee RA60; r
evised 1952, 1954, 1957, 1960, 1961, 1970, 1972, 1986(title change), 1989, 1993, 1994; reaffirmed 1956, 1962, 1965, 1968, 1969, 1975, 1980, 1985; editorially revised 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1981, 1983, 1984, 1991. Similar to ISO 105-C06. 1. Purpose and Scope These accelerated laundering tests are designed for evaluating the color fastness to laundering of textiles which are expected to withstand frequent laundering. The fabric color loss and surface changes resulting from detergent solution and abrasive action of five typical hand, home or commercial launderings, with or without chlorine, are closely approximated by one 45-minute test. However, the staining effect produced by five typical hand, home or commercial launderings cannot always be predicted by the 45-minute test. Staining is a function of the ratio of colored to undyed fabrics, fiber content of fabrics in the wash load and other end-use conditions which are not always predictable. 2. Principle Specimens are tested under appropriate conditions of temperature, detergent solution, bleaching and abrasive action such that the color change is similar to that occurring in five hand, home or commercial launderings. The color change is obtained in a conveniently short time. The abrasive action is a result of the frictional effects of fabric against container, the low liquor ratio and the impact of the steel balls on the fabric. 3. Terminology colorfastness, n. --the resistance of a material to change in any of its color characteristics, to transfer of its colorant(s) to adjacent materials, or both, as a result of the exposure of the material to any environment that might be encountered during the processing, testing, storage or use of the material. laundering, n. –of textile materials, a process intended to remove soils and/or stains by treatment (washing) with an aqueous detergent solution and normally including subsequent rinsing, extracting and drying. 4. Safety Precautions NOTE: Theses safety precautions are for information purposes only. The precautions are ancillary to the testing procedures and are not intended to be all inclusive. It is the user’s responsibility to use safe and proper techniques in handling materials in this test method. Manufacturers MUST be consulted for specific details such as material safety data sheets and other manufacturer’s recommendations. All OSHA standards and rules must also be consulted and followed. Good laboratory practices should be followed. Wear safety glasses in all laboratory areas. All chemicals should be handled with care. An eyewash/safety shower should be located nearby for emergency use. Manufacturer’s safety recommendations should be followed when operating laboratory testing equipment. 5. Apparatus and materials
Apparatus. Launder-Ometer or similar apparatus for rotating closed containers in a thermostatically controlled water bath at 40±2 rpm (see 12.1). Stainless steel cylinders (see 12.1) 500mL(1 pt), 7.5×12.5 cm (3.0×5.0 in.) (1A Test). Stainless steel cylinders, 9.0×20.0 cm 3.5×8.0 in.) (2A, 3A, 4A and 5A Tests). Adapter plates for holding cylinders of 5.1.3 on Launder-Omter shaft (see 12.1). Stainless steel balls (see 12.1). AATCC Chromatic Transference Scale (see 12.3). Gray Scale for Color Change (see 12.3). Gray Scale for Staining (see 12.3). Teflon gaskets (see 7.4.2, 12.1 and 12.9). Preheater /storage module (see 12.11). Pipette graduated in tenths of a milliliter and graduated cylinder measuring in milliliters. Materials. Multifiber test fabric No.1 contains bands of acetate, cotton, nylon, silk, viscose rayon and wool. Multifiber test fabrics No.10A, FA and FAA contain bands of acetate, cotton, nylon, polyester, acrylic and wool (see 12.2). Cotton fabric 80×80, bleached, desized (see 12.2). AATCC 1993 Standard Reference Detergent WOB (without optical brightener) (see 10.5, 12.3). AATCC Standard Reference detergent 124 (contains optical brightener) (see 10.5, 12.3). Water, distilled or deionized (see 12.4). Sodium hypochlirite (see 12.5). Sodium carbonate. 6. Test Specimens The size of the specimens required for the various tests is as follows: 5.0×10.0 cm (2.0×4.0 in.) for 1A Test, 5.0×15.0 cm (2.0×6.0 in.) for 2A, 3A, 4A and 5A Tests. One specimen is need for each container. Replication may be needed for improved precision and accuracy. To determine staining in the 1A and 2A Tests, use multifiber test fabric. To determine staining in the 3A Test, use either multifiber test fabric or bleached cotton fabric. With respect to the 3A Test, the use of multifiber test fabric is optional but the staining of acetate, nylon, polyester and acrylic is present in disregarded unless one of these fibers is present in the fabric being tested or known to be in the final garment. Staining is not determined in the 4A and 5A Tests (see 12.6, 12.7). Sample preparation. Multifiber test fabric with individual components 0.8 cm (0.33 in.) wide. Prepare pieces with a 5.0cm (2.0 in.) square of multifiber cloth or white cotton fabric (as required) sewn, stapled or suitably attached along one 5.0cm (2.0in.) edge of the test specimen and in contact with the face of the material. When multifiber test cloth is used, attach it so that each of the six fiber stripes is along the 5.0cm (2.0 in.) edge of the specimen with wool on the right. The fiber stripes in the multifiber fabric will be parallel to the lengthwise direction of the test specimen. Multifiber test fabric with individual components 1.5cm (0.6 in.) wide. Prepare pieces with a 5.0 ×10.0cm (2.0×4.0 in.) rectangle of multifiber cloth sewn, stapled or suitably attached centered along one 10.0 cm (4.0 in.) edge of the test specimen and in contact with the face of the material.
Attach it so that each of the six fiber stripes will be parallel to the widthwise direction of the specimen. Attach and secure the wool stripe at the top of the specimen to avoid fiber loss. It is recommended that knitted fabrics be sewn or stapled at the four edges to equivalent size pieces of 80×80 bleached cotton fabric to avoid rolled edges and to assist in obtaining a uniform test result over the entire surface. For pile fabric specimens with a pile lay direction, attach the multifiber fabric at the top of the specimen with the pile lay direction pointing away from the top of the specimen. When the textile to be tested is yarn, specimens may be tested in one of two ways. Option 1. Knit yarn on an appropriate sample knitting machine. Prepare specimens and multifiber test fabrics according to Section 6.1-6.4.3. Keep one knitted specimen of each sample as an unwashed original. Option 2. Prepare two 120-yard skeins of each yarn. Fold the skein so that there is a uniform amount of yarn across a 2 in. width with a length appropriate for the procedure to be used. Keep on skein of each sample as an unwashed original. Sew or staple crock squares folded over each end of the layered yarn specimen. Attach a multifiber test fabric to one end. 7. Procedure Table 1 summarized the conditions of the tests. Adjust the launder-Ometer to maintain the designated bath temperature. Prepare the required volume of wash liquor. Preheat this solution to the prescribed temperature. Run 1A Test in 7.5×12.5 cm (3.0×5.0 in.) stainless steel cylinders. Run 2A, 3A, 4A and 5A Tests in 9.0×20.0 cm (3.5×8.0 in.) stainless steel cylinders. For the 1A, 2A and 3A Tests, add to the cylinder the amount of detergent solution designated in TableⅠ. For the 4A Test, place in cylinder 45 ml of detergent solution and 5 ml of 0.15% available chlorine solution making a total volume of 50 mL (see 12.5). For the 5A Test, pipette 0.80±0.04 ml of 5.0% available chlorine solution (5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution) into a graduated cylinder and add detergent solution to make a total volume of 150 ml (see 12.5). For all the tests, add the designated number of stainless steel balls to each container. The two options for preheating the containers to the test temperature are by use of the Lauder-Ometer or the preheater/storage unit. If the containers are to be preheated in the Launder-Ometer, proceed to 7.4.2. 7.4.1