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高中英语语法形容词和副词


形容词和副词
I 形容词及其基本用法 形容词修饰名词,说明事物或人的性质或特征。 1.直接说明事物的性质或特征的形容词是性质形容词,它有级的变化,可以用程度副词修 饰,在句中可作定语、表语和补语。例如:hot,happy ,等。 2.叙述形容词只能作表语,所以又称为表语形容词。这类形容词没有级的变化,也不可用 程度副词修饰。大多数以 a-开头的形容词都属于这一类。例如:

afraid 害怕的。 [误]She is afraid girl. [正]The girl is afraid. 这类词还有: afraid,alike,alive,alone,asleep,awake 以及 well,unwell,ill, faint,等。 3.形容词作定语修饰名词时,要放在名词的前边。但是如果形容词修饰以-thing 为词尾 的不定代词时,要放在这些词之后。例如:something nice. 4.以 1y 结尾的形容词 (1)大部分形容词加-1y 后可构成副词。 注意:friendly,deadly,lovely,lonely,likely,lively,brotherly 等是形容词。 【误】He spoke to me very friendly. [正]He spoke to me in a very friendly way. (2)有些以-1y 结尾的词既为形容词,也可为副词,如 daily,weekly,monthly,yearly, early 等。例如: China Daily is a daily newspaper. 《中国日报》是一份日报。 China Daily is published daily. 《中国日报》每天出版。 5.用形容词表示类别和整体 (1)某些形容词加上定冠词可以指一类人, 与复数谓语动词连用, the dead, living, 如 the the rich,the poor, the blind.the hungry 等。例如: The poor are losing hope.穷人将失去希望。 (2)有关国家和民族的形容词加上定冠词后,指这个民族整体,与动词的复数形式连用,如 the British,the English,the French,the Chinese 等。例如: The English have a wonderful sense of humor.英国人颇有幽默感。 6.多个形容词修饰名词时的顺序 多个形容词修饰名词时,其顺序为:限定词—数词—描绘性词— (大小/长短/形状/新 旧/颜色)一 出处—材料性质—类别—名词。例如: a small round table/a tall gray building/a dirty old brown shirt/a famous German medical school/an expensive Japanese sports car 记忆口诀:限数描大形.新色国材名。 II、副词及其基本用法 副词主要用来修饰动词、形容词、副词或其他结构。 1.副词的位量 (1)在动词之前。 (2)在 be 动词、助动词之后。 (3)有多个助动词时,副词一般放在第一个助动词之后。 (4)如果宾语过长,副词可以提前,以使句子平衡。例如: We could see very clearly a strange light ahead of us.

(5)副词 well,badly,hard 等只放在句尾。例如: He speaks English well. 2.副词的排列顺序 (1)先时间,后地点;小单位在前,大单位在后。 (2)表示方式的副词:短的在前,长的在后,并用 and 或 but 等连词连接。例如: Please write slowly and carefully. (3)多个不同副词排列:程度+地点+方式+时间副词: 注意:副词 very 可以修饰形容词,但不能修饰动词。 [误]I very like English. [正]l like English very much. 注意:副词 enough 要放在形容词、副词的后面。例如: I don’t know him well enough. You didn’t listen carefully enough. 3.兼有两种形式的副词 (1)close, closely close 意思是“近”,closely 意思是“密切地”。例如: He is sitting close to me. Watch him closely (2)late,lately late 意思是“晚”;lately 意思是“最近”。例如: You have come too late.你来得太晚了。 What have you been doing lately? 你近来在做什么? (3)deep,deeply deep 意思是“深”,表示空间深度;deeply 常表示感情上的深度,意为“深深地”。例如: He pushed the stick deep into the mud.他把棍子深深地插进泥里。 Even father was deeply moved by the film.甚至爸爸也被电影情节深深打动。 (4)high,highly high 表示空间高度;highly 表示程度,相当于 much。例如: The plane was flying high.这架飞机飞得很高。 He thinks highly of your opinion.他对你的观点评价颇高。 (5)wide, widely wide 表示空间宽度;widely 意思是“广泛地”。例如: He opened the door wide.他把门开得大大的。 English is widely used in the world.英语在世界范围内被广泛使用。 (6)free, freely free 意思是“免费”;freely 意思是“无限制地”。例如: You can eat free in my restaurant whenever you like. 无论什么时候,我这饭馆免费对你开放。 You may speak freely;say what you like. 你可以畅所欲言,想说什么就说什么。 形容词与副词的比较级 大多数形容词和副词有比较级和最高级的变化,即原级、比较级和最高级,用来表示事物的 等级差别。

1 单音节词和少数双音节词,在词尾加-er, est 来构成比较级和最高级。 构成法 一般单音节词末尾加-er, -est 以不发音的e结尾的单音节词 只加-r, -st 以重读闭音节结尾的单词,双 写末尾的辅音字母,再加-er, -est “以辅音字母+y”结尾的双音 节词,变y为i,再加-er,-est 少数以-er,-ow 结尾的双音节 词加-er, -est 其他双音节词和多音节词,在 前面加 more,most来构成比较 级和最高级 原级 tall nice big 比较级 taller nicer bigger 最高级 tallest nicest biggest

busy clever narrow important easily

busier cleverer narrower

busiest cleverest narrowest

More important Most important More easily Most easily

2.不规则变化 原级 good Well bad/badly ill old much,many little far

比较级 better worse older, elder more less farther,further

最高级 best worst oldest, eldest most 1east farthest/ furthest

3.As +形容词或副词原级 +as (1) 在否定句或疑问句中可用 so/as?as...例如: I can’t run as /so fast as you . (2) 当 as?as?中间有名词时,采用以下结构: as+ 形容词+ a(n)+ 单数名词; as+ many/much + 名词。例如: This is as good an example as the other is. I can carry as much water as you can. . (3)用表示倍数的词或其他程度副词作修饰语时,放在 as 的前面。例如: This room is twice as big as that one.这房间的面积是那间的两倍。 (4)倍数 + as + adj. + as=倍数+the+ n +of?

This bridge is three times as long as that one. = This bridge is three times the length of that one Your room is twice as large as mine.你的房间是我的房间的两倍大。 =Your room is twice the size of mine. 注意: (1)要避免重复使用比较级。 [误]He is more cleverer than his brother. [正]He is much clever than his brother. (2)要避免将主语含在比较对象中。 [误]China is larger than any country in Asia. [正]China is larger than any other country in Asia. (3)要注意对应原则,遵循前后一致的原则。 The population of Shanghai is larger than that of Beijing. It is easier to make a plan than t0 carry it out. (4)要注意定冠词在比较级中的使用。 [比较] Which is larger, Canada or Australia? Which is the larger country, Canada or Australia? [比较] She is taller than her two sisters. She is the taller of the two sisters. 5.可修饰比较级的词 (1)a bit, a little,rather,much,far,by far,many,a lot,lots,a great deal, any,still, (2)还可以用表示倍数的词或度量名词作修饰语。 (3)以上词(除 by far)外,必须置于比较级形容词或副词的前面。 6.the+最高级+比较范围 (1)形容词最高级前,通常必须用定冠词 the,副词最高级前可不用。例如: Sahara is the biggest desert in the world.撒哈拉沙漠是世界上最大的沙漠。 most 前面如果没有 the,不表示最高级的含义,只表示非常?。例如: It is a most important problem.这是个很重要的问题。 =It is a very important problem. 注意:使用最高级时,要注意将主语包括在比较范围内。 [误]Tom is the tallest of his three brothers. [正]Tom is the tallest of the three brothers. (2)下列词可修饰最高级:by far,far,much,mostly,almost。例如: This hat is nearly/almost the biggest.这帽子差不多是最大的了。 (3)最高级的意义有时可以用比较级形式表示出来。例如: Mike is the most diligent in his class.迈克是班上最勤奋的。 Mike is more diligent than any other student in his class. (4)“否定词语+比较级”,“否定词语+so?as?.”结构也可以表示最高级含义。例如 Nothing is so easy as this.没有比这更简单的了。 =Nothing is easier than this. = This is the easiest thing. 7.和 more 有关的词组 4

(1)the more?the more ? 越??就越?? 例如: The harder you work,the greater progress you’ll make. 越努力,进步就越大。 (2) more B than A = less A than B 与其说 A 不如说 B 例如: He is more lazy than slow at his work.= He is less slow than lazy at his work. 他工作时,与其说是反应慢,不如说是懒。 (3)no more?than?与??一样不?? 例如: He's no more careful than me.他和我一样,都不小心。 no less than?与??一样?? 例如: He is no less diligent than you.他和你一样勤奋。 (4)more than 不只是;非常。例如: She is more than kind to us a11.她对我们非常热心。 典型题精练 1. Allen had to call a taxi because the box was ___ to carry all the way home. (NMET 2003) A. much too heavy B. too much heavy C. heavy too much D. too heavy much 2. Our neighbor has ____ ours. (2003 Shanghai) A. as a big house as B. as big a house as C. the same big house as D. a house the same big as 3. The house rent is expensive. I've got about half the space I had at home and I'm paying ________ here. A. as three times much B. as much three times C. much as three times D. three times as much 4. Many students signed up for the ______ race in the sports meeting to be held next week. A. 800-metre-long B. 800-metres-long C. 800 meter length D. 800 metres length 5. As far as I am concerned, education is about learning and the more you learn,_________ A. the more for life are you equipped B. the more equipped for life you are C. the more life you are equipped for D. you are equipped the more for life 6. It was raining heavily. Little Mary felt cold so she stood ______ to her mother. A. close B. closely C. closed D. closing 7.All the people ______ at the party were his supporters. A. present B. thankful C. interested D. important 8.Boris has brains; In fact, I doubt anyone in the class has _____ IQ. A. a high B. a higher C. the higher D. the highest 9.Two middle-aged passengers fell into the sea. ______,neither of them could swim. A. In fact B. Luckily C. Unfortunately D. Naturally 10.---I'm very ______with my own cooking. It looks nice and smells delicious.

---Mm, it does have a ______ smell. A. pleasant, pleased B. pleased, pleased C. pleasant , pleasant D. pleased , pleasant 11. _______ role she played in the film! No wonder she has won an Oscar. A. How interesting B. How an interesting C. What interesting D. What an interesting 12. It is generally believed that teaching is _____ it is a science. (NMET 2001) A. an art much as B. much an art as C. as an art much D. as much an art as 13.Amercans eat ___ vegetables per person today as they did in 1910. A. more than twice B. as twice as many C.twice as many as D.more than twice as many 14.In that case,there is nothing you can do ______than wait. A.more B.other C.better D.any 15.I am surprised that you should have been fooled by such a(an)_____trick. A.ordinary B.easy C.smart D.simple 16.1 would be very______ if you could give me an early reply. A.pleasant B.grateful C.satisfied D.helpful 17.He left in such a hurry that I____ have time to thank him. A.almost B.even C.hardly D.nearly 18.While a person is asleep,a part of his brain is still_______. A.active B.alive C.awake D.wake 19.______to take this adventure course will certainly learn a lot of useful skills.(NMET2000) A.Brave enough students B.Enough brave students C.Students brave enough D.Students enough brave 20.You’re standing too near the camera.Can you move_______? A.a bit far B.a little farther C.a bit of farther D.a Little far


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