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专题十三 猜测词义


专题十三 猜测词义 Passage1(2015 课标Ⅰ,C) SalvadorDali(1904—1989)wasoneofthemostpopularofmodernartists.ThePompidouCentreinParisisshowingitsr espectandadmirationfortheartistandhispowerfulpersonalitywitha

nexhibitionbringingtogetherover200paintings,sculp tures,drawingsandmore.Amongtheworksandmasterworksonexhibitionthevisitorwillfindthebestpieces,mostimportan tlyThePersistenceofMemory.ThereisalsoL EnigmesansFinfrom1938,worksonpaper,objects,andprojectsforstagean dscreenandselectedpartsfromtelevisionprogrammesreflectingtheartist sshowmanqualities. ThevisitorwillentertheWorldofDalithroughaneggandismetwiththebeginning,theworldofbirth.Theexhibitionfoll owsapathoftimeandsubjectwiththevisitorexitingthroughthebrain. TheexhibitionshowshowDalidrawstheviewerbetweentwoinfinities(无 限).“Fromtheinfinitysmalltotheinfinitylarge,contractionandexpansioncominginandoutoffocus:amazingFlemishaccu racyandtheshowyBaroqueofoldpaintingthatheusedinhismuseum-theatreinFigueras,”explainsthePompidouCentre. Thefineselectionofthemajorworkswasdoneinclosecollaboration(合 作)withtheMuseoNacionalReinaSofiainMadrid,Spain,andwithcontributionsfromotherinstitutionsliketheSalvadorDa liMuseuminSt.Petersburg,Florida. 1.WhichofthefollowingbestdescribesDaliaccordingtoParagraph1? A.Optimistic. B.Productive. C.Generous. D.Traditional. 2.WhatisDali sThePersistenceofMemoryconsideredtobe? A.Oneofhismasterworks. B.Asuccessfulscreenadaptation. C.Anartisticcreationforthestage. D.OneofthebestTVprogrammes. 3.HowaretheexhibitsarrangedattheWorldofDali? A.Bypopularity. B.Byimportance. C.Bysizeandshape. D.Bytimeandsubject. 4.Whatdoestheword“contributions”inthelastparagraphreferto? A.Artworks. 答案 [语篇解读] SalvadorDali 是最著名的现代艺术家之一,为了对他表示尊敬和钦佩,巴黎 Pompidou 中心组织了 一次他的作品展。 1.B 2.A 3.D 4.A Passage1(2015 课标Ⅱ,A) Mycolortelevisionhasgivenmenothingbutaheadache.IwasabletobuyitalittleoverayearagobecauseIhadmyrelative sgivememoneyformybirthdayinsteadofalotofclothesthatwouldn tfit.Iletasalesclerkfoolmeintobuyingadiscontinued model.Irealizedthisadaylater,whenIsawnewspaperadvertisementsforthesetatseventy-fivedollarslessthanIhadpaid.Th esetworkedsobeautifullywhenIfirstgotithomethatIwouldkeepitonuntilstationssignedoffforthenight.Fortunately,Ididn tgetanychannelsshowingall-nightmoviesorIwouldneverhavegottentobed. ThenIstarteddevelopingaproblemwiththesetthatinvolvedstatic(静 电)noise.Forsomereason,whencertainshowsswitchedintoacommercial,aloudnoisewouldsoundforafewseconds.Grad ually,thisnoisebegantoappearduringashow,andtogetridofit,Ihadtochangetoanotherchannelandthenchangeitback.Som etimesthistechniquewouldnotwork,andIhadtopickupthesetandshakeittoremovethesound.Iactuallybegantobuildupmy armmuscles(肌肉)shakingmyset. Whenneitherofthesemethodsremovedthestaticnoise,Iwouldsithelplesslyandwaitforthenoisetogoaway.AtlastIen deduphittingthesetwithmyfist,anditstoppedworkingaltogether.Mytriptotherepairshopcostme$62,andthesetisworking wellnow,butIkeepexpectingmoretrouble. 1.WhydidtheauthorsayhewasfooledintobuyingtheTVset? B.Projects. C.Donations. D.Documents.

A.Hegotanoldermodelthanhehadexpected. B.Hecouldn treturnitwhenitwasbroken. C.Hecouldhaveboughtitatalowerprice. D.Hefailedtofindanymovieshowsonit. 2.Whichofthefollowingcanbestreplacethephrase“signedoff”inParagraph1? A.endedalltheirprograms B.providedfewerchannels C.changedtocommercials D.showedall-nightmovies 3.HowdidtheauthorfinallygethisTVsetworkingagain? A.Byshakingandhittingit. B.Byturningitonandoff. C.Byswitchingchannels. D.Byhavingitrepaired. 4.Howdoestheauthorsoundwhentellingthestory? A.Curious. C.Cautious. 答案 [语篇解读] 1.C 2.A 3.D 4.D Passage1(2015 北京,C) LifeintheClear Transparentanimalsletlightpassthroughtheirbodiesthesamewaylightpassesthroughawindow.Theseanimalstypic allylivebetweenthesurfaceoftheoceanandadepthofabout3,300feet—asfarasmostlightcanreach.Mostofthemareextrem elydelicateandcanbedamagedbyasimpletouch.SonkeJohnsen,ascientistinbiology,says, “Theseanimalslivethroughthei rlifealone.Theynevertouchanythingunlessthey reeatingit,orunlesssomethingiseatingthem.” Andtheyareasclearasglass.Howdoesananimalbecomesee-through?It strickierthanyoumightthink. Theobjectsaroundyouarevisiblebecausetheyinteractwithlight.Lighttypicallytravelsinastraightline.Butsomemate rialsslowandscatter(散 射)light,bouncingitawayfromitsoriginalpath.Othersabsorblight,stoppingitdeadinitstracks.Bothscatteringandabsorpti onmakeanobjectlookdifferentfromotherobjectsaroundit,soyoucanseeiteasily. Butatransparentobjectdoesn tabsorborscatterlight,atleastnotverymuch.Lightcanpassthroughitwithoutbending orstopping.Thatmeansatransparentobjectdoesn tlookverydifferentfromthesurroundingairorwater.Youdon tseeit— youseethethingsbehindit. Tobecometransparent,ananimalneedstokeepitsbodyfromabsorbingorscatteringlight.Livingmaterialscanstopligh tbecausetheycontainpigments(色 素)thatabsorbspecificcolorsoflight.Butatransparentanimaldoesn thavepigments,soitstissueswon tabsorblight.Acc ordingtoJohnsen,avoidingabsorptionisactuallyeasy.Therealchallengeispreventinglightfromscattering. Animalsarebuiltofmanydifferentmaterials—skin,fat,andmore—andlightmovesthrougheachatadifferentspeed.E verytimelightmovesintoamaterialwithanewspeed,itbendsandscatters.Transparentanimalsusedifferenttrickstofightsca ttering.Someanimalsaresimplyverysmallorextremelyflat.Withoutmuchtissuetoscatterlight,itiseasiertobesee-through. Othersbuildalarge,clearmassofnon-livingjelly-like(果冻状的)materialandspreadthemselvesoverit. Largertransparentanimalshavethebiggestchallenge,becausetheyhavetomakeallthedifferenttissuesintheirbodiess lowdownlightexactlyasmuchaswaterdoes.Theyneedtolookuniform.Buthowthey redoingitisstillunknown.Onethingi sclear:fortheselargeranimals,stayingtransparentisanactiveprocess.Whentheydie,theyturnanon-transparentmilkywhit e. 1.AccordingtoParagraph1,transparentanimals . 本文作者以幽默的口吻介绍了自己购买彩电后遇到的种种麻烦。 B.Anxious. D.Humorous.

A.stayingroups B.canbeeasilydamaged C.appearonlyindeepocean D.arebeautifulcreatures 2.Theunderlinedword“dead” inParagraph3means A.silently B.gradually C.regularly 3.Onewayforananimaltobecometransparentisto A.changethedirectionoflighttravel B.gathermaterialstoscatterlight C.avoidtheabsorptionoflight D.growbiggertostoplight 4.Thelastparagraphtellsusthatlargertransparentanimals A.movemoreslowlyindeepwater B.staysee-throughevenafterdeath C.producemoretissuesfortheirsurvival D.takeeffectiveactiontoreducelightspreading 答案 [语篇解读] 1.B 2.D 3.C 4.D Passage1(2015 江苏,C) Supposeyoubecomealeaderinanorganization.It sverylikelythatyou llwanttohavevolunteerstohelpwiththeorga nization sactivities.Todoso,itshouldhelptounderstandwhypeopleundertakevolunteerworkandwhatkeepstheirinteres tinthework. Let sbeginwiththequestionofwhypeoplevolunteer.Researchershaveidentifiedseveralfactorsthatmotivatepeople togetinvolved.Forexample,peoplevolunteertoexpresspersonalvaluesrelatedtounselfishness,toexpandtheirrangeofexp eriences,andtostrengthensocialrelationships.Ifvolunteerpositionsdonotmeettheseneeds,peoplemaynotwishtoparticip ate.Toselectvolunteers,youmayneedtounderstandthemotivationsofthepeopleyouwishtoattract. Peoplealsovolunteerbecausetheyarerequiredtodoso.Toincreaselevelsofcommunityservice,someschoolshavelau nchedcompulsoryvolunteerprograms.Unfortunately,theseprogramscanshiftpeople swishofparticipationfromaninter nalfactor(e.g.,“Ivolunteerbecauseit simportanttome”)toanexternalfactor(e.g.,“IvolunteerbecauseI mrequiredtodos o”).Whenthathappens,peoplebecomelesslikelytovolunteerinthefuture.Peoplemustbesensitivetothispossibilitywhenth eymakevolunteeractivitiesamust. Oncepeoplebegintovolunteer,whatleadsthemtoremainintheirpositionsovertime?Toanswerthisquestion,research ershaveconductedfollow-upstudiesinwhichtheytrackvolunteersovertime.Forinstance,onestudyfollowed238voluntee rsinFloridaoverayear.Oneofthemostimportantfactorsthatinfluencedtheirsatisfactionasvolunteerswastheamountofsuff eringtheyexperiencedintheirvolunteerpositions.Althoughthisresultmaynotsurpriseyou,itleadstoimportantpracticalad vice.Theresearchersnotethatattentionshouldbegivento“trainingmethodsthatwouldpreparevolunteersfortroublesomesi tuationsorprovidethemwithstrategiesforcopingwiththeproblemtheydoexperience”. Anotherstudyof302volunteersathospitalsinChicagofocusedonindividualdifferencesinthedegreetowhichpeoplev iew“volunteer”asanimportantsocialrole.Itwasassumedthatthosepeopleforwhomtheroleofvolunteerwasmostpartofthei rpersonalidentitywouldalsobemostlikelytocontinuevolunteerwork.Participantsindicatedthedegreetowhichthesocialr olematteredbyrespondingtostatementssuchas“VolunteeringinHospitalisanimportantpartofwhoIam.”Consistentwithth eresearchers expectations,theyfoundapositivecorrelation(正相 关)betweenthestrengthofroleidentityandthelengthoftimepeoplecontinuedtovolunteer.Theseresults,onceagain,leadto concreteadvice:“Onceanindividualbeginsvolunteering,continuedeffortsmightfocusondevelopingavolunteerroleident ity...ItemslikeT-shirtsthatallowvolunteerstoberecognizedpubliclyfortheircontributionscanhelpstrengthenroleidentity ”. 文章介绍了如玻璃般透明的动物。体裁为说明文。 . . D.completely .

1.Peoplevolunteermainlyoutof A.academicrequirements C.financialrewards

. B.socialexpectations D.internalneeds

2.WhatcanwelearnfromtheFloridastudy? A.Follow-upstudiesshouldlastforoneyear. B.Volunteersshouldgetmentallyprepared. C.Strategytrainingisamustinresearch. D.Volunteersareprovidedwithconcreteadvice. 3.Whatismostlikelytomotivatevolunteerstocontinuetheirwork? A.Individualdifferencesinroleidentity. B.PubliclyidentifiablevolunteerT-shirts. C.Roleidentityasavolunteer. D.Practicaladvicefromresearchers. 4.Whatisthebesttitleofthepassage? A.HowtoGetPeopletoVolunteer B.HowtoStudyVolunteerBehaviors C.HowtoKeepVolunteers Interest D.HowtoOrganizeVolunteerActivities 答案 [语篇解读] 1.D 2.B 3.C 4.A Passage1(2015 浙江,D) In2004,whenmydaughterBeckywasten,sheandmyhusband,Joe,wereunitedintheirdesireforadog.Asforme,Ishare dnoneoftheircaninelust. Butwhy,theypleaded.“BecauseIdon thavetimetotakecareofadog.”Butwe lldoit.“Really?You regoingtowalkt hedog?Feedthedog?Bathethedog?”Yes,yes,andyes.“Idon tbelieveyou.”Wewill.Wepromise. Theydidn t.Fromdaytwo(everyonewantedtowalkthecutepuppythatfirstday),neitherthoughttowalkthedog.Whil eIwasslowtoacceptthatIwouldbetheonetokeeptrackofhershots,toschedulehervetappointments,tofeedandcleanher,Mis tyknewthisondayone.Asshelookedupatthethreenewhumansinherlife(small,medium,andlarge),shecalculated, “Theme diumoneisthesuckerinthepack.” Quickly,sheandIdevelopedsomethingverysimilartoaVulcanmindmeld(心灵融 合).She dlookatmewiththosesadbrowneyesofhers,beamherneed,andthenwait,trustingIwouldunderstand—which,str angely,Ialmostalwaysdid.Innotime,shebecamemyfifthappendage( 附 肢),snoringonmyhome-officecouchasIworked,cradlingagainstmyfeetasIread,andsplayingacrossmystomachasIwatch edtelevision. Evenso,partofmecontinuedtoresentwalkingduty.JoeandBeckyhadpromised.Notfair,I dbalk(不心甘情愿地 做)silentlyassheandIwalked.“Notfair,”I dloudlyremindanyonewithinearshotuponourreturnhome. Thenoneday—January1,2007,tobeexact—myhusband sdoctorutteredanunthinkableword:leukemia( 白血 病).Withthat,IspenteighttotenhoursadaywithJoeinthehospital,doinganythingandeverythingIcouldtoeasehisdiscomfo rt.Duringthosesixmonthsofhospitalizations,Becky,12atthetime,adjustedtootheradultsbeinginthehousewhenshereturn edfromschool.Myworkcolleaguesadjustedtomytakingoffatamoment snoticeformedicalemergencies.Everypartofm ylifechanged;nopartofmyoldroutineremained. Saveone:Mistystillneededwalking.Atthebeginning,whenfriendsofferedtotakeherthroughherpaces,Ideclinedbec auseIknewtheyhadtheirownhouseholdstodealwith. Asthemonthswentby,IbegantorealizethatIactuallywantedtowalkMisty.ThewalkinthemorningbeforeIheadedtoth ehospitalwasaquiet,peacefultimetogathermythoughtsortojustbebeforetheday smedicaldramaunfolded.Theevening walkwasatimetoshakeofftheday supsetsandlettheworrytracksinmyheadgotowhitenoise. 本文为说明文,题材为社会生活类,内容是分析影响志愿者参与志愿者活动并坚持下去的原因。

Whenseriousillnessvisitsyourhousehold,it snotjustyourdailyroutineandyourassumptionsaboutthefuturethatare nolongerfamiliar.Prettymucheveryoneyouknowactsdifferently. NotMisty.Takeherforawalk,andshehadnointerestinJoe sbloodcountsorbonemarrowtestresults.Onthestreetorint hepark,shehadonlyonethingonhermind:squirrels!Shewassojoyousthatevenontheworstdays,shecouldmakemesmile.O nadailybasis,sheremindedmethatlifegoeson. AfterJoediedin2009,Mistysleptonhispillow. I mgrateful—toapoint.Thetruthis,afteryearsofbalking,I vecometoenjoymywalkswithMisty.AsIwatchherchas eafterasquirrel,throwingherwholebeingintothehere-and-nowofanexercisethathasneveronceendedinvictory,sheremin dsme,too,thatnomatterhowharshthepresentorunpredictablethefuture,there salmostalwayssomemeasureofjoytobeex tractedfromthemoment. 1.Whydidn tthewriteragreetoraiseadogatthebeginningofthestory? A.Shewasafraidthedogwouldgetthefamilyintotrouble. B.Itwouldbeherbusinesstotakecareofthedog. C.Herhusbandanddaughterwereunitedasone. D.Shedidn twanttospoilherdaughter. 2.Whichofthefollowingistheclosestinmeaningto“Themediumoneisthesuckerinthepack.”(Paragraph3)? A.“Themiddle-agedpersonlovesmemost.” B.“Themedium-sizedwomanisthehostess.” C.“Themaninthemiddleistheonewhohasthefinalsay.” D.“Thewomanisthekindandtrustworthyoneinthefamily.” 3.ItcanbeinferredfromParagraph3that . A.Mistywasquiteclever B.Mistycouldsolvemathproblems C.thewriterwasaslowlearner D.noonewalkedMistythefirstday 4.Thestorycametoitsturningpointwhen A.Joediedin2009 B.Joefellillin2007 C.thewriterbegantowalkthedog D.thedogtriedtopleasethewriter 5.WhydidthewritercontinuetowalkMistywhileJoewasinhospital? A.Mistycouldn tlivewithouther. B.Herfriendsdidn tofferanyhelp. C.Thewalkprovidedherwithspiritualcomfort. D.Shedidn twantMistytobeothers companion. 6.Whatisthemessagethewriterwantstoconveyinthepassage? A.Oneshouldlearntoenjoyhardtimes. B.Adisastercanchangeeverythinginlife. C.Momentsofjoysuggestthatthereisstillhopeahead. D.Peoplewillchangetheirattitudetowardyouwhenyouareindifficulty. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文为记叙文,题材为个人情感类。文章叙述了作者的丈夫和女儿有一个共同的愿望——养一 只宠物狗。不过作者的丈夫和女儿在第一天照顾宠物狗之后,照顾它的担子就落到了作者身上。后来作者的 丈夫患白血病,在人生最困难的日子,Misty 的陪伴给了作者心灵的安慰。 1.B 2.D 3.A 4.B 5.C 6.C .

Passage1(2015 安徽,D) Thereareanextremelylargenumberofantsworldwide.Eachindividual(个体 的)anthardlyweighsanything,butputtogethertheyweighroughlythesameasallofmankind.Theyalsolivenearlyeverywhe re,exceptonfrozenmountaintopsandaroundthepoles.Foranimalstheirsize,antshavebeenastonishinglysuccessful,largel yduetotheirwonderfulsocialbehavior. Incolonies(群 体)thatrangeinsizefromafewhundredtotensofmillions,theyorganizetheirliveswithacleardivisionoflabor.Evenmoream azingishowtheyachievethisleveloforganization.Whereweusesoundandsighttocommunicate,antsdependprimarilyonp heromones(外激 素),chemicalssentoutbyindividualsandsmelledortastedbyfellowmembersoftheircolony.Whenanantfindsfood,itprodu cesapheromonethatwillleadothersstraighttowherethefoodis.Whenanindividualantcomesunderattackorisdying,itsend soutanalarmpheromonetowarnthecolonytoprepareforaconflictasadefenseunit. Infact,whenitcomestotheartofwar,antshavenoequal.Theyarecompletelyfearlessandwillreadilytakeonacreaturem uchlargerthanthemselves,attackinginlargegroupsandovercomingtheirtarget.Suchistheirdevotiontothecommongoodo fthecolonythatnotonlysoldierantsbutalsoworkerantswillsacrificetheirlivestohelpdefeatanenemy. Behavinginthisselflessanddevotedmanner,theselittlecreatureshavesurvivedonEarthformorethan140millionyear s,farlongerthandinosaurs.Becausetheythinkasone,theyhaveacollective(集体 的)intelligencegreaterthanyouwouldexpectfromitsindividualparts. 1.Wecanlearnfromthepassagethatantsare . A.notwillingtosharefood B.notfoundaroundthepoles C.moresuccessfulthanallotheranimals D.toomanytoachieveanyleveloforganization 2.Antscanusepheromonesfor . A.escape B.communication C.warningenemies D.arranginglabor 3.Whatdoestheunderlinedexpression“takeon”inParagraph3mean? A.Accept. B.Employ. C.Playwith. D.Fightagainst. 4.Whichofthefollowingcontributesmosttothesurvivalofants? A.Theirbehavior. B.Theirsize. C.Theirnumber. D.Theirweight. 答案 [语篇解读] 1.B 2.B 3.D 4.A 本文是一篇说明文,题材为科普知识类。介绍了蚂蚁的分布、数量、大小及行为特点。

Passage1(2015 福建,D) Lifecanbesowonderful,fullofadventureandjoy.Itcanalsobefullofchallenges,setbacks( 挫 折)andheartbreaks.Whateverourcircumstances,wegenerallystillhavedreams,hopesanddesires—thatlittlesomethingm orewewantforourselvesandourlovedones.Yetknowingwecanhavemorecanalsocreateaproblem,becausewhenwegotoc hangethewaywedothings,upcometheoldpatternsandpitfalls(陷 阱)thatstoppedusfromseekingwhatwewantedinthefirstplace. Thistensionbetweenwhatwefeelwecanhaveandwhatwe reseeminglyabletohaveistheniggling(烦人 的)suffering,theanxietywefeel.Thisiswhereweusuallythinkit seasiertojustgiveup.Butwe renevermeanttoletgoofth epartofusthatknowswecanhavemore.Theintelligencebehindthatknowingisus—therealus.It sthepartthatbelievesinlif eanditspossibilities.Ifyoudropthat,youbegintofeelalittle“dead”insidebecauseyou redropping“you”. So,ifwehavethiscapabilitybutsomehowlifeseemstokeepusstuck,howdowebreakthesepatterns?

Decideonanewcourseandmakeonedecisionatatime.Thisisgoodadviceforanewadventureorjustgettingthroughtod ay schallenges. While,deepdown,weknowwecandoit,ourmind—orthemindsofthoseclosetous—usuallysayswecan t.Thatisn t areasontostop,it sjustthemind,thatlittlemanorwomanonyourshoulder,tryingtotalkyououtofsomethingagain.Ithasdon eitmanytimesbefore.It sallaboutstartingsimpleanddoingitnow. Decideandactbeforeoverthinking.Whenyoudothisyoumayfeelalittle,orlarge,releasefromthejailofyourmindandy ou llbeonyourway. 1.Itcanbeinferredfromthefirsttwoparagraphsthatweshould A.slowdownandliveasimplelife B.becarefulwhenwechoosetochange C.sticktoourdreamsunderanycircumstances D.becontentwithwhatwealreadyhave 2.Whatisthekeytobreakingtheoldpatterns? A.Tofocusoneverydetail. B.Todecideandtakeimmediateaction. C.Tolistentothoseclosetous. D.Tothinktwicebeforeweact. 3.Whichofthefollowingbestexplainstheunderlinedpartinthelastparagraph? A.Escapefromyourpunishment. B.Realizationofyourdreams. C.Freedomfromyourtension. D.Reductionofyourexpectations. 4.Whatdoestheauthorintendtotellus? A.It seasierthanwethinktogetwhatwewant. B.It simportanttolearntoacceptsufferingsinlife. C.It simpracticaltochangeourwayofthinking. D.It sharderthanweexpecttofollowanewcourse. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文为议论文,题材为人生哲理类。人生丰富多彩,它既有挑战又有快乐。但无论我们的环境如 .

何,我们都要有自己的梦想、希望和愿望。在实现个人梦想的过程中,会出现很多障碍。为了冲破这些障碍我 们能做些什么呢? 1.C 2.B 3.C 4.A

Passage1(2015 湖北,B) WhatTheresaLoeisdoingprovesthatalargefarmisn taprerequisiteforamoderngrow-your-ownlifestyle.Onamere 1/10ofanacreinLosAngeles,Loeandherfamilygrow,can(装罐)andpreservemuchofthefoodtheyconsume. Loeisamasterfoodpreserver,gardenerandcanningexpert.Shealsooperatesawebsite,wheresheshareshertipsandreci pes,withthegoalofdemonstratingthateveryonehastheabilitytocontrolwhat sontheirplate. Loeinitiallywenttoschooltobecomeanengineer,butshequicklylearnedthatherenthusiasmwasmainlyaboutgrowin gandpreparingherownfood.“Igotintocookingmyownfoodandstartedgrowingmyownherbs(香 草)andfoodsforthatfreshflavor,”shesaid.Engineerbyday,Loelearnedcookingatnightschool.Sheultimatelypurchasedas mallpieceoflandwithherhusbandandbegangrowingtheirownfoods. “Iteachpeoplehowtolivefarm-freshwithoutafarm,”Loesaid.ThroughherwebsiteLoeemphasizesthat“anybodycan dothisanywhere.”Gotanapartmentwithabalcony(阳 台)?Plantsomeherbs.Awindow?Perfectspotforgrowing.Startwithherbs,sherecommends,because“they reveryforgivi

ng.”Justalittleoftheherbs“cantakeyourregularcookingtoawholenewlevel,”sheadded.“Ithinkit sagreatplacetostart.”Th en?Trygrowingsomethingfromaseed,shesaid,likeatomatoorsometea. Canningisanaturalextensionoftheplantingshedoes.Witheveryplantedfood,Loenoted,there samomentwhenit s burstingwithitsabsolutepeakflavor.“Itryandkeepitinatimecapsuleinacanningjar,”Loesaid.“Canningformeisaboutkno wingwhat sinyourfood,knowingwhereitcomesfrom.” Inadditiontobeingmoreintouchwiththefoodshe seating,anotherjoycomesfrompassingthisknowledgeandthisdes ireforgoodfoodtoherchildren:“Influencingthemandtellingthemyouropiniononnotonlybeingcarefulwhatweeatbutunde rstandingthebiggerpicture,”shesaid,“thatifwedon ttakecareoftheearth,noonewill.” 1.Theunderlinedword“prerequisite”(Para.1)isclosestinmeaningto“ ”. A.recipe B.substitute C.requirement 2.WhydoesLoesuggeststartingwithherbs? A.Theyareuseddaily. B.Theyareeasytogrow. C.Theycangrowverytall. D.Theycanbeeatenuncooked. 3.AccordingtoLoe,whatisthebenefitofcanningherplantedfoods? A.Itcanpreservetheirbestflavor. B.Itcanpromoteheronlinesales. C.Itcanbetterhercookingskills. D.Itcanimprovetheirnutrition. 4.Whatisthe“thebiggerpicture”(Para.6)thatLoewishesherchildrentounderstand? A.Theknowledgeaboutgoodfood. B.Thewaytoliveagrow-our-ownlife. C.Thejoyofgettingintouchwithfoods. D.Theresponsibilitytoprotectourearth. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文为记叙文,题材是日常生活类。Loe 的做法向我们证明,家里的阳台、窗户等都可以成为种 D.challenge

植的好地方,不必非得有大的农场。Loe 还把自己的种植方法在网站上与别人分享,并告诫自己的孩子要关爱 我们的地球。 1.C 2.B 3.A 4.D Passage1(2015 湖南,A) ForgetCyclists,PedestriansAreRealDanger Wearehavingadebateaboutthistopic.Herearesomelettersfromourreaders. ■Yes,manycyclistsbehavedangerously.Manydriversaredisrespectfulofcyclists.Butpedestriansareprobablythew orseoffenders. Peopleofallageshappilywalkalongthepavementwitheyesandhandsgluedtothemobilephone,quiteunawareofwhati sgoingonaroundthem.Theymayevendothesamethingwhilecrossingaroadatapedestriancrossingorelsewhere.Therestof ushavetoevade(避让)themorjuststandstilltowaitfortheunavoidablecollision. Therealproblemisthatsomepedestriansseemtobe,atleastforthemoment,inworldsoftheirownthatare,tothem,much moreimportantthanthewelfareofothers. —MichaelHoran ■IlovedtheletterfromBobBrooksaboutcyclists(Viewpoints,May29).Iamafraidtheyseemtothinktheyowntheroads . IwaswalkingacrossAltrinchamRoadonemorningwhenacyclistwentroundmeandonbeingaskedwhathewasdoingh eshoutedatme. Thegovernmentbuiltacyclelaneontheroadbutitishardlyused. Thepolicedonothing.Whatalaughtheyare!

Thecyclistsshouldallhavetobemadetousethecyclelanesandwearhelmets,fluorescent(发荧光 的)jacketsandlightsatnightandinthemorning.Theyshouldpaysomesortoftaxandbefinedfornotwearingthem. —CarolHarvey ■Cyclistsjumponandoffpavements(whicharemeantforpedestrians),rideatspeedalongthepavements,andthinkthe yhaveaspecialrighttogothroughtrafficlightswhentheyareonred. Iwasalmostknockeddownrecentlybyacyclistridingonthepavementwhentherewasacyclelanerightnexttohim. Otherroadusers,includinghorseriders,managetoobeytherulessowhynotcyclists? It sabouttimetheyhadtoberegisteredandinsured,sowhentheydohitapedestrianoravehicle,orcauseanaccident,atle asttheycanbetracedandtheremightbeanopportunitytoclaim. —JML WritetoViewpointsofthenewspaper. 1.MichaelHoranwrotethelettermainlytoshowthat A.driversshouldbepolitetocyclists B.roadaccidentscanactuallybeavoided C.somepedestriansareathreattoroadsafety D.walkingwhileusingphoneshurtsone seyes 2.CarolHarveysuggeststhatcyclistsshould A.beprovidedwithenoughroads B.beaskedtorideontheirownlanes C.bemadetopaylesstaxforcycling D.befinedforlaughingatpolicemen 3.WhatisacomplaintofJML? A.Veryfewdriversareinsured. B.Cyclistsridefastonpavements. C.Pedestriansgothroughredtrafficlights. D.Horseridersdisrespectotherroadusers. 4.Theunderlinedword“they”inthethirdletterrefersto A.accidents B.vehicles C.pedestrians 5.Thethreeletterspresentviewpointson . A.realsourcesofroaddangers B.waystoimproveroadfacilities. C.measurestopunishroadoffences D.increasedawarenessofroadrules 答案 [语篇解读] 本文为应用文,题材为社会行为。 马路真正的危险来源是骑自行车的人还是步行者?读者就这个 . D.cyclists . .

话题发表了自己的看法。 1.C 2.B 3.B 4.D 5.A Passage1(2015 湖南,B) Initsearlyhistory,Chicagohadfloodsfrequently,especiallyinthespring,makingthestreetssomuddythatpeople,hors es,andcartsgotstuck.Anoldjokethatwaspopularatthetimewentsomethinglikethis:Amanisstuckuptohiswaistinamuddy Chicagostreet.Askedifheneedshelp,hereplies,“No,thanks.I vegotagoodhorseunderme.” Thecityplannersdecidedtobuildanundergrounddrainage(排 水)system,buttheresimplywasn tenoughdifferencebetweentheheightofthegroundlevelandthewaterlevel.Theonlytw ooptionsweretolowertheChicagoRiverorraisethecity. AnengineernamedEllisChesbroughconvincedthecitythatithadnochoicebuttobuildthepipesabovegroundandthen coverthemwithdirt.Thisraisedthelevelofthecity sstreetsbyasmuchas12feet.

Thisofcoursecreatedanewproblem:dirtpracticallyburiedthefirstfloorsofeverybuildinginChicago.Buildingowner swerefacedwithachoice:eitherchangethefirstfloorsoftheirbuildingsintobasements,andthesecondstoriesintomainfloor s,orhoisttheentirebuildingstomeetthenewstreetlevel.Smallwood-framebuildingscouldbeliftedfairlyeasily.Butwhatab outlarge,heavystructuresliketheTremontHotel,whichwasasix-storybrickbuilding? That swhereGeorgePullmancamein.Hehaddevelopedsomehouse-movingskillssuccessfully.Toliftabigstructur eliketheTremontHotel,Pullmanwouldplacethousandsofjackscrews( 螺旋千斤 顶)beneaththebuilding sfoundation.Onemanwasassignedtooperateeachsectionofroughly10jackscrews.AtPullman ssignaleachmanturnedhisjackscrewthesameamountatthesametime,therebyraisingthebuildingslowlyandevenly.Ast onishingly,theTremontHotelstayedopenduringtheentireoperation,andmanyofitsguestsdidn tevennoticeanythingwa shappening. Somepeopleliketosaythateveryproblemhasasolution.ButinChicago searlyhistory,everyengineeringsolutionsee medtocreateanewproblem.NowthatChicago swastewaterwasdrainingefficientlyintotheChicagoRiver,thecity snex tstepwastocleanthepollutedriver. 1.Theauthormentionsthejoketoshow A.horseswerefairlyusefulinChicago B.Chicago sstreetswereextremelymuddy C.Chicagowasverydangerousinthespring D.theChicagopeoplewereparticularlyhumorous 2.ThecityplannerswereconvincedbyEllisChesbroughto A.getridofthestreetdirt B.lowertheChicagoRiver C.fightagainstheavyfloods D.buildthepipesaboveground 3.Theunderlinedword“hoist”inParagraph4means“ ”. A.change B.lift C.repair D.decorate 4.WhatcanweconcludeaboutthemovingoperationoftheTremontHotel? A.Itwentonsmoothlyasintended. B.Itinterruptedthebusinessofthehotel. C.ItinvolvedPullmanturningtenjackscrews. D.Itseparatedthebuildingfromitsfoundation. 5.ThepassageismainlyaboutearlyChicago s A.popularlifestylesandtheirinfluences B.environmentaldisastersandtheircauses C.engineeringproblemsandtheirsolutions D.successfulbusinessmenandtheirachievements 答案 [语篇解读] 1.B 2.D 3.B 4.A 5.C Passage1(2015 陕西,D) Parentswhohelptheirchildrenwithhomeworkmayactuallybebringingdowntheirschoolgrades.Otherformsofparen talinvolvement,includingvolunteeringatschoolandobservingachild sclass,alsofailtohelp,accordingtothemostrecents tudyonthetopic. Thefindingschallengeakeyprincipleofmodernparenting(养育子 女)whereschoolsexpectthemtoactaspartnersintheirchildren seducation.Previousgenerationsconcentratedongettingc hildrentoschoolontime,fed,dressedandreadytolearn. . . .

KeithRobinson,theauthorofthestudy,said,“Ireallydon tknowifthepublicisreadyforthisbuttherearesomewayspar entscanbeinvolvedintheirkids educationthatleadstodeclinesintheiracademicperformance.Oneofthethingsthatwasco nsistentlynegativewasparents helpwithhomework.”Robinsonsuggestedthatmaybebecauseparentsthemselvesstruggl etounderstandthetasks.“Theymayeithernotrememberthematerialtheirkidsarestudyingnow,orinsomecasesneverlearnti tthemselves,butthey restillofferingadvice.” Robinsonassessedparentalinvolvementperformanceandfoundoneofthemostdamagingthingsaparentcoulddowast opunishtheirchildrenforpoormarks.Ingeneral,about20%ofparentalinvolvementwaspositive,about45%negativeandth ereststatisticallyinsignificant. Commonsensesuggestsitwasagoodthingforparentstogetinvolvedbecause“childrenwithgoodacademicsuccessdo haveinvolvedparents”,admittedRobinson.Buthearguedthatthisdidnotproveparentalinvolvementwastherootcauseofth atsuccess.“AbigsurprisewasthatAsian-Americanparentswhosekidsaredoingsowellinschoolhardlyinvolved.Theytook amorereasonableapproach,conveyingtotheirchildrenhowsuccessatschoolcouldimprovetheirlives. ” 1.Theunderlinedexpression“parentalinvolvement”inParagraph1probablymeans . A.parents expectationonchildren shealth B.parents participationinchildren seducation C.parents controloverchildren slife D.parents planforchildren future 2.WhatisthemajorfindingofRobinson sstudy? A.Modernparentsraisechildreninamorescientificway. B.Punishingkidsforbadmarksismentallydamaging. C.Parentalinvolvementisnotsobeneficialasexpected. D.Parentsarenotabletohelpwithchildren shomework. 3.TheexampleofAsian-Americanparentsimpliesthatparentsshould A.helpchildrenrealizetheimportanceofschooling B.setaspecificlifegoalfortheirchildren C.spendmoretimeimprovingtheirownlives D.takeamoreactivepartinschoolmanagement 答案 [语篇解读] 1.B 2.C 3.A Passage1(2015 四川,B) NothingcouldstopDad.Afterhewasputondisabilityforabadback,heboughtasmallfarminthecountry,justenoughtog rowfoodforthefamily.Heplantedvegetables,fruittreesandevenkeptbeesforhoney. AndeveryweekhecleanedOldManMcColgin schickenhouseinexchangeformanure(肥 料).Thesmellreallyburnedtheinsideofyournose.Whenwecomplainedabouttheterriblesmell,Dadsaidthestrongerthema nure,thehealthierthecrops,andhewasright.Forexample,justoneofhiscantaloupesfilledtheentirehousewithitssweetsmel l,andthetastewasevensweeter. Asthevegetablesstartedcomingin,Dadthrewhimselfintocooking.Oneday,armedwithabasketofvegetables,heanno uncedhewasgoingtomakestew(炖 菜).Dadpulledoutapressurecookerandfilleditupwithcabbages,eggplants,potatoes,corns,onionsandcarrots.Foraboutha lfanhour,thepressurebuiltandthevegetablescooked.Finally,Dadturnedoffthestove,thepotbegantocoolandthepressurer eliefvalvesprayedoutacloudofsteam.IfwethoughtDad spileofchickenmanurewasbad,thiswas10timesworse.WhenD adtookoffthelid,thesmellnearlyknockedusout. Dadcarriedthepotoutandweopeneddoorsandwindowstoairoutthehouse.Justhowbadwasit?Theneighborscameout oftheirhousestoseeifwehadagasleak! Determined,Dadfilledourplateswithsteamingstewandpassedthemaround.Itdidn tlookthatbad,andafterthefirstw avehadshutdownmyabilitytosmell,itdidn toffendthenosesomuch,either.Itookataste.Itwouldneverwinaprizeinacooki ngcompetition,butitwassurprisinglyedible,andwedrankupeverylastdropofsoup! 本文为议论文,题材为学校教育类。 主要对父母参与孩子的学习活动所产生的影响进行了论述。 .

1.WhydidDadcleanOldManMcColgin schickenhouseregularly? A.Toearnsomemoneyforthefamily. B.Tocollectmanureforhiscrops. C.Togetridoftheterriblesmell. D.Tosetagoodexampletous. 2.WhatcanweinferaboutDad sstew? A.Itispopularamongtheneighbors. B.Itcontainshoneyandvegetables. C.Itlooksverywonderful. D.Ittastesquitedelicious. 3.Whatdoestheunderlinedword“offend”inthelastparagraphmean? A.Toattract. C.Toair. B.Toupset. D.Toshut.

4.WhatcanwelearnaboutDadfromthetext? A.Heisanexperiencedcook. B.Heisatroublesomefather. C.Hehasapositiveattitudetolife. D.Hesuffersalotfromhisdisability. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文为记叙文,题材为日常生活类。作者的爸爸患上背疾之后,仍然不断尝试新事物。他买了个 小农场种蔬菜、果树甚至养蜜蜂。为了让蔬菜长得更好,他用臭烘烘的鸡粪作肥料。后来他又开始做菜,他做 的菜虽然也是臭气熏天的,邻居闻到了都以为是我们家煤气泄露了,但是菜的味道还是不错的。 1.B 2.D 3.B 4.C Passage1(2015 四川,D) Theircheerysongbrightensmanyawinter sday.Butrobinsareindangerofwearingthemselvesoutbysingingtoomuc h.Robinsaresingingallnight—aswellasduringtheday,British-basedresearcherssay. DavidDominoni,ofGlasgowUniversity,saidthatlightfromstreetlamps,takeawaysignsandhomesisaffectingthebir ds biologicalclocks,leadingtothembeingwideawakewhentheyshouldbeasleep. DrDominoni,whoisputtingcamerasinsidenestingboxestotracksleepingpatterns,saidlackofsleepcouldputthebirds healthatrisk.Hisstudyshowsthatwhenrobinsareexposedtolightatnightinthelab,itleadstosomegenesbeingactiveatthe wrongtimeofday.Andthemorebirdsareexposedtolight,themoreactivetheyareatnight. Hetoldpeopleataconference,“Therehavebeenacoupleofstudiessuggestingtheyareincreasingtheirsongoutputatnig htandduringthedaytheyarestillsinging.Singingisacostlybehaviourandittakesenergy.Sobyincreasingtheirsongoutput,t heremightbesomecostsofenergy.” Anditisnotjustrobinsthatarebeingkeptawakebyartificiallight.Blackbirdsandseagullsarealsobeingmorenocturnal. DrDominonisaid,“InGlasgowwhereIlive,gullsareaseriousproblem.Ihavepeoplecomingtomesaying‘Youarethebirdex pert.Canyouhelpuskillthesegulls?’.Duringthebreeding(繁 殖)season,betweenAprilandJune,theyareveryactiveatnightandverynoisyandpeoplecan tsleep.” AlthoughDrDominonihasonlystudiedlightpollution,otherresearchconcludedthatrobinslivinginnoisycitieshavest artedtosingatnighttomakethemselvesheardoverloudnoise. However,somebirdsthrive(兴 旺)innoisyenvironments.AstudyfromCaliforniaPolytechnicUniversityfoundmorehummingbirdsinareaswithheavyin dustrialmachinery.Itisthoughtthattheyarecapitalisingontheirpredators(天敌)fleeingtoquieterareas. 1.AccordingtoDrDominoni sstudy,whatcausesrobinstosingsomuch? A.Thebreedingseason. B.Thelightinmodernlife. C.Thedangerousenvironment.

D.Thenoisefromheavymachinery. 2.Whatistheresearchers concernovertheincreaseofbirds songoutput? A.Theenvironmentmightbepolluted. B.Thebirds healthmightbedamaged. C.Theindustrycostmightbeincreased. D.Thepeople shearingmightbeaffected. 3.Whatdoestheunderlinedword“nocturnal”inParagraph5mean? A.Activeatnight. B.Inactiveatnight. C.Activeduringtheday. D.Inactiveduringtheday. 4.Whydosomebirdsthriveinnoisyenvironments? A.Becausetherearefewerdangers. B.Becausethereismorefoodtoeat. C.Becausethereislesslightpollution. D.Becausetherearemoreplacestotakeshelter. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文为说明文,题材为环境保护类。文章主要通过描述知更鸟在人类社会的光污染下昼夜歌唱, 造成体力的严重消耗和睡眠缺乏,这对其寿命构成威胁,也影响到人类的睡眠环境。我们呼吁社会:给鸟类一 个天堂,还人类一份宁静。 1.B 2.B 3.A 4.A Passage1(2015 四川,E) NooneissurehowtheancientEgyptiansbuiltthepyramidsnearCairo.Butanewstudysuggeststheyusedalittlerock‘n’r oll.Long-agobuilderscouldhaveattachedwoodenpolestothestonesandrolledthemacrossthesand,thescientistssay. “Technically,Ithinkwhatthey reproposingispossible,”physicistDanielBonnsaid. PeoplehavelongpuzzledoverhowtheEgyptiansmovedsuchhugerocks.Andthere snoobviousanswer.Onaverage, eachofthetwomillionbigstonesweighedaboutasmuchasalargepickuptruck.TheEgyptianssomehowmovedthestoneblo ckstothepyramidsitefromaboutonekilometeraway. ThemostpopularviewisthatEgyptianworkersslidtheblocksalongsmoothpaths.Manyscientistssuspectworkersfirst wouldhaveputtheblocksonsleds(滑 板).Thentheywouldhavedraggedthemalongpaths.Tomaketheworkeasier,workersmayhavelubricatedthepathseitherwi thwetclayorwiththefatfromcattle.Bonnhasnowtestedthisideabybuildingsmallsledsanddraggingheavyobjectsoversand . Evidencefromthesandsupportsthisidea.Researchersfoundsmallamountsoffat,aswellasalargeamountofstoneandt heremainsofpaths. However,physicistJosephWestthinkstheremighthavebeenasimplerway,wholedthenewstudy.Westsaid,“Iwasins piredwhilewatchingatelevisionprogramshowinghowsledsmighthavehelpedwithpyramidconstruction.Ithought, ‘Why don ttheyjusttryrollingthethings?’”Asquarecouldbeturnedintoaroughsortofwheelbyattachingwoodenpolestoitssides ,herealized.That,henotes,shouldmakeablockofstone“aloteasiertorollthanasquare”. Sohetriedit. Heandhisstudentstiedsomepolestoeachoffoursidesofa30-kilogramstoneblock.Thatactionturnedtheblockintoso mewhatawheel.Thentheyplacedtheblockontheground. Theywrappedoneendofaropearoundtheblockandpulled.Theresearchersfoundtheycouldeasilyrolltheblockalongd ifferentkindsofpaths.Theycalculatedthatrollingtheblockrequiredaboutasmuchforceasmovingitalongaslippery( 滑 的)path. Westhasn ttestedhisideaonlargerblocks,buthethinksrollinghasclearadvantagesoversliding.Atleast,workerswou ldn thaveneededtocarrycattlefatorwatertosmooththepaths. 1.It swidelybelievedthatthestoneblocksweremovedtothepyramidsiteby A.rollingthemonroads .

B.pushingthemoverthesand C.slidingthemonsmoothpaths D.draggingthemonsomepoles 2.Theunderlinedpart“lubricatedthepaths”inParagraph4means A.madethepathswet B.madethepathshard C.madethepathswide D.madethepathsslippery 3.Whatdoestheunderlinedword“it”inParagraph7referto? A.Rollingtheblockswithpolesattached. B.Rollingtheblocksonwoodenwheels. C.Rollingpolestomovetheblocks. D.Rollingtheblockswithfat. 4.WhyisrollingbetterthanslidingaccordingtoWest? A.Becausemoreforceisneededforsliding. B.Becauserollingworkcanbedonebyfewercattle. C.Becauseslidingonsmoothroadsismoredangerous. D.Becauselesspreparationonpathsisneededforrolling. 5.Whatisthetextmainlyabout? A.Anexperimentonwaysofmovingblockstothepyramidsite. B.Anapplicationofthemethodofmovingblockstothepyramidsite. C.Anargumentaboutdifferentmethodsofmovingblockstothepyramidsite. D.Anintroductiontoapossiblenewwayofmovingblockstothepyramidsite. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文为说明文,题材为历史与社会类。没有人知道古代埃及人是如何建成金字塔的。人们一直 .

困惑于他们运送这些巨大的石块到达金字塔工地的方式。本文介绍了可能的运送方式。 1.C 2.D 3.A 4.D 5.C


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