一、动词不定式 1. 请仔细研究下列的句子，分析句中不定式的形式有何变化 1) They invited us to go there this summer. 2) She seemed to have heard about this matter. 3) It’s nice of you to be helping us these day
s. 4) He pretended to be listening to the teacher carefully. 5) They are said to have been working in Tibet for 20 years. 6) It’s a good thing for him to have been scolded by the teacher. 7) He asked to be sent to work in the countryside. 8) She was the last person to have been mentioned at the meeting. 我们来自己归纳一下上面句子中不定式的形式（以 do 为例） 不定式的时态和语态 形式 一般式 完成式 进行式 完成进行式 主动式 to do to have done to be doing to have been doing 被动式 to be done to have been done / /
2. 我们再来看下面一组句子，研究不定式在句子中的使用（不定式的语法功能） 1) To see once is better than to hear a hundred times. 2) To master a foreign language is not an easy thing. 3) To see is to believe. 以上例句为不定式做主语。 4) His wish was to become a scientist. 5) To the doctor, the most important thing is to save people’s lives. 6) This suit doesn’t seem to fit me. 7) His idea is to finish the work in two weeks. 以上例句为不定式做表语
8) He wished to be a village school teacher. 9) She wanted to borrow my radio. 10) He offered to help us. 以上例句为不定式做宾语 I have many things to do. 11) The Browns have a comfortable house to live in. 12) There is nothing to worry about. 13) Here is some paper for you to write on. 14) We found a way to solve this problem. 15) He was the best man to do the job. 以上例句为不定式做定语 16) He sat down to have a rest. 17) They went there to visit their teacher. 18) The bus stopped so as to pick up passengers. 19) He woke up to find everybody gone. 20) He worked hard only to fail. 以上例句为不定式做状语。 21) He helped his mother to clean the house. 22) Luck asked him to turn down the radio. 23) I would prefer them not to play too loudly at the beginning. 24) I never expected the shoes to be worn out so soon. 25) I’ll get him to try it again. 以上例句为不定式做宾语补足语。 3、不定式的复合结构 不定式复合结构的构成 不定式在使用时通常有自己的逻辑主语，一般可以是句子的主语或宾语，或者由物主代词暗示 出来。如： They plan to build a hotel.
His father sent him abroad to study literature. I could see her eagerness to go abroad. 但有时需要明确表示出不定式的逻辑主语（即不定式动作的执行者） ，此时一般用 for/of +名词 （代词）短语+不定式来构成不定式的复合结构。如： It’s expensive for people to use electricity for cooking. It’s careless of you to make such a mistake. 4、与疑问词连用的不定式： 1） 不定式和疑问词 whether, what, which, whom, where, when, how, why 等连用可以在句中起名词 的作用，通常跟在 tell, know, show, decide, learn, wonder, explain, advise, teach, discuss, find out 等 动词后面作宾语，有时也可以充当主语、表语等。如： On hearing the news, he didn’t know whether to laugh or to cry. When to hold the meeting has not decided. The most important problem is how to get so much money. 介词后一般不直接接不定式，但可以接疑问词+不定式短语作宾语。如： Mary gave some advice on how to learn English. I have no idea of how to do it. 2) 不定式复合结构的语法作用 不定式的复合结构在句中可以做主语、宾语、表语、状语、定语。 A.不定式的复合结构作主语、 宾语， 通常用 it 作形式主语或形式宾语来代替不定式的复合结构。 如： It’s necessary for the goods to be packed in strong cases. They thought it impossible for us to find the lost child in the darkness. B. 不定式的复合结构作表语、状语、定语。如： That’s for you to decide. For the test to be passed, the students should work harder than before. I have some books for you to read. 二、动词的 ing 形式
动词的 ing 形式的时态和语态 （一） 、请看下列画横线的词。 China is a developing country. The girl singing for us is ten years old. The main road being built will be completed next year. Having received a latter, I knew everything is all right. Having been introduced to each other, we began to work. 从以上例句可以看出: 动词的 ing 形式的时态和语态为 主动式 doing having done 被动式 being done having been done
（二） 、我们再来看下面一组句子，看看现在分词在句子的使用： The story is interesting. The match is exciting. The news is surprising. The film is moving. The speech is inspiring. 从以上句子可以看出现在分词可以在句子中作表语 a running boy the girl standing there the exciting news a boring speech He rushed into the burning house． The child standing over there is my brother． 从以上句子可以看出现在分词可以在句子中作定语 Walking in the street, I saw him. Working hard, you will succeed. Being ill, she stayed at home. His friend died, leaving him a lot of money He is standing there, singing. Having known that he won the match, he threw the cap into the sky. Seeing the teacher is coming, t he students stopped playing. 从以上句子可以看出现在分词可以在句子中作状语 I saw him walking in the street. I heard them singing in the classroom. We found the boy sleeping. Don't have the students studying all day. 从以上句子可以看出现在分词可以在句子中作宾语补足语 三、现在分词的否定形式。not + 分词 Not knowing what to do next, she stopped to wait. Not having finished the homework, the little girl doesn't dare to go to school. 四、作独立成分 generally /frankly/honestly speaking，…… Judging from/by ，…… 五、现在分词的独立主格结构 又叫独立结构。是一个独立于句子成分之外的独特结构形式。独立主格结构可分为两部分，一 部分是名词或代词（主格） ，起着逻辑主语的作用；另一部分由形容词、副词、名词、分词、不
定式、介词短语等构成，表示前面名词或代词的状态、状况或动作, 在句中作状语。 eg. Winter coming，it gets colder and colder． The boy lay on the ground，his eyes closed and his hands trembling． 动词的 ing 形式还可以是动名词，和现在分词的形式一样，但语法功能不一样。那么动名词在句 中做什么成分呢？ 观察思考： Listening to music gives me pleasure. Running is good exercise. Walking to school is a good idea. Speaking English is fun. Learning new words is very useful to me. 从以上句子可以看出动名词可以在句子中作主语 观察思考： Seeing is believing. His hobby is collecting stamps. Our job is playing all kinds of music. Reading is learning, but speaking the language is also a kind of learning. 从以上句子可以看出动名词可以在句子中作表语 观察思考： You should avoid quarrelling with your sister. He admitted having stolen the car. The doctor advised eating less and taking more exercise. We don’t allow smoking in the meeting room. 从以上句子可以看出动名词可以在句子中作宾语 1）作动词/动词短语的宾语 这类动词还有： dislike 厌恶 admit 接受 enjoy 享受 resent 怨恨 finish 完成 fancy 想象 escape 避免 mind 介意 avoid 避免 repent 后悔 deny 否认 miss 错过 delay 耽误 acknowledge 承认 postpone 延迟 risk 冒风险 consider 认为
excuse 原谅 include 包括 imagine 想象
suggest 建议 ……
还有短语类： keep (on)继续 don't mind 不介意 cannot help 不禁 give up 放弃 put off 延迟 2）作介词的宾语 1. I'm sorry for giving you so much trouble. 2. The book is worth reading. 3. I reached him by calling his office. 4. The police arrested(逮捕）him for speeding. 5. She is busy (in) correcting her exercises. 观察思考： 1. sleeping car 卧车 5. swimming pool 7. dining room 2. walking stick 手杖 4. reading room 阅读室 6. washing machine 洗衣机 3. printing shop 印务馆 泳池 饭厅 leave off 停止 burst out 闯出 ……
可以看出动名词放在所修饰的名词前面作为定语，表示该名词的用途。 从以上可以看出动名词可以在句子中作定语 四、动名词的逻辑主语 1. His coming here helped us a lot. 2. Tom's escaping from the prison made trouble for the jailer. 3. Do you mind my smoking in the romm? 4. He insisted on Mary's staying there. 6. I miss you bringing me cups of tea in the morning. 可以看出动名词的逻辑主语是在动名词前加"物主代词 （如： my, his...)"或"名词所有格(如： Mary's, Dog's...)"。作为逻辑主语的名词/代词为无生命时，则用普通格: 在下列情况中，不能使用所有格： 1. 代词为 all, both, each, few, several, some, this 等作为逻辑主语时: saying it。 2. 数词、名词化形容词（如 the three, the old...)作逻辑主语时： 1. In spite of the three telling the same story, I could not believe it. 3. 结构中的逻辑主语是名子或短语，或受从句或短语修饰时： 1. Is there any chance of the people in the back of the room talking a little louder? 五、 在动词 need, want, require, deserve 之后的动名词（作为宾语） ，要用主动 语态来表示被
1. I remember all of them
动的意思。 1. The flowers in the garden want watering 2. That's one of those questions that really don't need answering。 另外：有一些动词除了可接动名词外，也可接不定词(infinitive)。例子如下： 1. I prefer living in an apartment. (动词 prefer 接动名词 living) 2. I prefer to live in an apartment. (动词 prefer 接不定词 to live) 什么不同。如 prefer 这一类的动词还有： allow deserve neglect attempt fear omit begin hate permit bother intend recommend continue love start stop forget regret propose try continue need …… 动词的 ed 形式/过去分词（the Past Participle） 二、 过去分词在句子的使用（过去分词的语法功能） ： cease like remember 像上面两个句子的意思没
1） 1、We were so bored that we couldn’t help yawning. 2、She felt confused, and even frightened. 3、They were very pleased with the girl. 4、I’m satisfied with your answer. 5、He is not interested in research. 从以上句子可以看出过去分词可以在句子中作表语 ,表示主语的状态或感受。 2) 1、She has a pleased look on her face. 2、The teacher gave us a satisfied smile. 3、cooked food 4、a written report 5、fried eggs 6、boiled water 7、frozen food 8、armed forces 9、required courses 10、finished products 11、What’s the language spoken in that country? 12、They’re problem left over by history. 13、The play put on by the teachers was a big success. 14、Is there anybody injured? 15、Do you know the number of books ordered? 从以上句子可以看出过去分词可以再句子中作定语， 与所修饰的词之间是被动关系。 另外， 一些不及物动词的过去分词表示所修饰的词的状态。 the risen sun new arrived visitors fallen leaves 3) 1、Seen from the hill, the city looks magnificent. =If the city is seen from the hill, the city looks magnificent. 2、Given more time, I would finish the work better. =If I was given more time, I would finish the work better. 3、They came in, followed by some children.
=They came in, while they are followed by some children. 4、Depressed, he went to see his elder sister. =Because he felt depressed, he went to see his elder sister. 5、When treated with kindness, he was very friendly. =When he was treated with kindness, he was very friendly 从以上句子可以看出过去分词可以在句子中作状语，相当于状语从句的省略。 4) 1、I will have the clothes washed tomorrow. 2、When they get back home, they found the room robbed. 3、The other students in the class keep their eyes closed. 4、Many towns and villages had their water supply cut off because there were no electricity. 5、We are going to have/get the tables painted different colours. 6、I can see it fastened to a nail next to the hole in the wall. 从以上句子可以看出过去分词可以在句子中作宾补，与宾语之间有被动关系。 过去分词作宾语的补语， 常接在某些动词后面： １）感官动词：see hear watch feel notice observe keep find listen to look at ２）使役动词：have get catch leave set When will you go to the hospital and have your tooth examined? When you are making a speech, you should speak louder to make yourself heard. 当这类句子变成被动语态时，过去分词用作主语补语。 One of the glasses was found broken. They should be kept informed of the situation there. 三、 动词 have 后所接的三种宾语补语：
1） have somebody/something do something I had the workers do the job for me. Jim often has his father help him with his homework. 2）have somebody /something doing something They had the tractor working all the time. We won’t have the child talking to his mother like that. 3） have somebody/something done ①主语让别人做某事，强调主语的意志。如： He had his hair cut yesterday. Later on the center had a great many new trees planted. ②主语遭到某种不幸或陷入恶劣的环境，说明宾语的一种无意识的被动行为。如： He had his leg broken in the match last month. He had one eye lost in the war.