高一英语同步练习 必修 1 Unit 4 Earthquakes
第3课时：Grammar 基础练习： 引导定语从句的关系词有关系代词 who, whom, whose, which 和 that 等；关系副词有 when, where, why 等。关系词不仅起连接作用，而且还代表
定语从句的结构： 先行词__ +_______ +________ 先行词是人或物, 在句中充当_____, _____,____,_____等成分用关系代词 I.先行词是人,在从句中作主语和宾语用关系代词_______, _______，_______。 who, whom，that 的区别： 1 介词后只能用_______ ，不能用_______ _______。 2 先行词为代词，或逗号后不用_______。 3 主句是特殊疑问句，已经有 who，则从句引导词用_______。 II.先行词是事或物, 在从句中作主语、宾语，用关系代词_______, _______。 that, which,的区别: 1. 只用 which: ______后, _______后。 2. 只用 that： 1 先行词是或被指物的不定代词修饰，常用的不定代词有：______, ______, ______, ○ _____, _____, _____, _____, _____ ______, ______,______, ______, ______ 等 2 先行词特指，为 the +_____(包括 last, next)/ _______/ ______/ _____等修饰时 ○ 3 先行词有____又有_____ ○ 4 先行词在从句中作____语 ○ 5 主句是___或___开头的特殊疑问句。 ○
3. 不用 that 引导 1 在__________定语从句中， ○
2 直接在_____后作宾语时，不能用 that 引导，要用 whom, whose 或 which，且不能 ○ 省略。但当介词放在从句的末尾时，可以用______替代 which, ______替代 whom，也可 以省略关系代词。 3 当先行词是指人的 all, any, few, one(s), anyone, everyone, people 等时，多用 ○ ______。 4 当先行词与关系代词之间有较复杂的短语或从句隔开时 ○ 5 定语从句中， ○ those who 相当于意为“凡……的人”， 表示的是两者以上的不定数量， who 引导的定语从句用复数，不能用 that 代替。 （注意：anybody who, he who 中谓语动词用单 数。 III. 先行词是事或物 , 在从句中只用作定语，表示“ … 的” , 后加名词 , 用关系代词 _______。 指物 = the +名词 +_______, 指人= the +名词+_______。 IV. 关系代词 whom, which 前介词的选择看主句中的习惯搭配或从句中动词的搭配而决定， 但从句中含有介词的短语动词一般_____(拆开,不拆开)，介词仍放在动词的后面。 V. 定语从句常犯的问题 1 引导词用错 . 如： The book which cover is green was lost yesterday.( 应改为 ○ ______) 2 语序用错. 如：Is there anything else that can I do for you? (应改为______) ○ 3 无先行词 ○ ________ ) Is this the museum ______ we visited last Saturday? (应该填________ ) 4 关系代词在从句中作主语时，从句谓语动词的人称和数没有和____保持一致，如： ○ Tom is the only one of the boys who _____(like) playing football. ( 应 该填 ________ ) 如： Is this museum _____ you visited last Saturday? ( 应该填
5 引导词代替的成分在从句中又出现。如： ○ Do you know the boy whom / who / that I talked with him just now? (应改为 ______)
实战演练 定语从句练习 I. 用所给的关系代词 which, that, who, whom, whose.完成以下从句： 1. The force __________ causes everything to fall towards the ground is called gravity. 2.A friend __________ helps you in time of need is a friend indeed. 3.He saw a house __________ windows were all broken. 4.Everything __________ can be done today mustn’t be done tomorrow. 5.This is the best hotel __________ I know. 6.The boy with ______ John spoke is my brother.. 7.He paid the boy $10 for washing ten windows，most of ____________ hadn’t been cleaned for at least a year. 8.He talked a lot about the teachers and the schools __________ he had visited. 9.The ninth lesson __________ we are learning is the most difficult in Book One. 10. Will you please lend me the very book ______ you bought yesterday? 11. Mount Blanc( 勃 朗 峰 ), __________ they visited last month, is the highest mountain in Europe. 12. The house in __________ Lu Xun once lived is a museum now. 13. The house __________ Lu Xun once lived is a museum now. 14. The house __________ Lu Xun once lived in is a museum now. 15. This is the museum _____ we visited last Saturday. 16. Is this museum the one ______ you visited last Saturday? 17. The boy _______ computer doesn’t work well needs your help. 18. This is the best movie _______ we have seen this year. 19. The passengers and the suitcases _______ were in the waiting room had to wait
for another plane.
20. Who is the girl _______ you want to make friends with? II. 把下列句子改写成定语从句。 （提示：主从句的选择：主句多为：1 表状态，2 表结果 3 时间较后；从句多为：1 表动作 2 表原因 3 时间靠前） 1. I have a friend. He likes listening to classical music. _____________________________________________ 2. Yesterday Emily was wearing the new dress. I gave it to her. _____________________________________________ 3. The student’s article was published. I know the student. _____________________________________________ 4. Betty is studying English very well. She has never been abroad. _____________________________________________ 5. My grandparents live in a house. It is more than 100 years old. _____________________________________________ 6. The compter is too slow. I bought the computer four years ago. _____________________________________________ 7. The man created the famous university. The man never finished college. _____________________________________________ 8. I have ever seen the film and it is the most interesting film. _____________________________________________ 9. They talked about the people and the things, and they remembered them in old days. _____________________________________________ 10. The man laughed at you just now. Who is the man? _____________________________________________
III．单句改错 1. Under the big tree are 34 students, many of them come from Class Two. 2. My mother has a good book, which cover looks terrible.
3. Who are the young girls who are having dinner in the restaurant? 4. She is one of the girls who is very interested in maths. 5. Tom is the only one of the boys who like playing football. 6. Who is the girl that you talked to her just now? 7. This is the very pen that you gave it to me before. 8. There is an old woman, that is holding a stick 9. She says she still remembers the things and the persons whom I told him last year. 10. I don’t like the way which you speak to her. 11. This is the factory where we visited last week. 12. This is the watch for which Tom is looking. 13. The person to who you spoke is a student of Grade Two. 14. The house in that we live is very small. 15. The sun gives off light and warmth, that makes it possible for plants to grow. 16. I’ve read all the books which I borrowed from the library. 17. This is the best film which I have ever seen. 18. My father and Mr. Smith talked about things and persons who they remembered in the country. 19. Everything which we saw was of great interest. 20. His dog, that was now very old, became ill and died.
反馈检测 挑战一下历届高考试题中的定语从句： 1. You can find whatever you need at the shopping center _________ is always busy at the weekend. （ 06 上海春季 ） A. that B. where C. what D. which
2. I saw a woman running toward me in the dark. Before I could recognize who she was，she had run back in the direction __________ she had come. （ 06 重庆 ） A. of which B. by which C. in which D. from which
3. In an hour, we can travel to places _____ would have taken our ancestors days to reach. （ 06 上海 ）
A. where B. when
C. which D. what
4. Look out ! Don' t get too close to the house ________ roof is under repair. （06 福建） A. whose B. which C. of which D. that
5. Her sister has become a lawyer, A. who B. that
________ she wanted to be. ( 05 湖北 ) C. what D. which ________ we visited three
6. Do you still remember the chicken farm months ago? ( 2005 北京春季) A. where B. when C. that
7. ________ is often the case, we have worked out the production plan. ( 04 江苏 ) A. Which B. When C. What D. As
8. The famous basketball star, _____________ tried to make a comeback, attracted a lot of attention. A. where B. when C. which D. who
9. Recently I bought an ancient Chinese vase, _____________ was very reasonable. ( S2000) A. which price of whose 10. ________ is known to everybody, the moon travels round the earth once every month. A.It B. As C. That D. What B. the price of which C. its price D. the price
11. The growing speed of a plant is influenced by a number of factors, _____ are beyond our control. A. most of them B. most of which C. most of what D. most of that
12. The man pulled out a gold watch, _________ were made of small diamonds. （08 陕西卷） A. the hands of whom C. which the hands of B. whom the hands of D. the hands of which
13. The Science Museum, ______ we visited during a recent trip to Britain, is one of London’s tourist attractions.
A. which B. what
C. that D. where
14. Is this factory _____ we visited last year? A. where B. in which C. the one D. at which
15. It is known to everybody ____ the moon travels around the earth once every month. A.it B. that C. as D. what
第 3 课时 基础练习： 先行词+引导词+从句; I. who, whom, that. 主语、宾语、表语、定语 1. whom, who, that. 2. that . 3. that
1 all, some, any, no, little, much, few, , II.. that, which ,whose. 1.介词后,逗号后 2. ○ anything, everything, nothing, none, the one 3 有人又有物 ○ 4 表语 only, the very ○ 3 who that，who, ○ III. one; whose ; of which; of whom that/which/不填 IV. 不拆开 1 whose ○ 2 I can ○ 3 the V. ○ 2 the +序数词、最高级形容词, the ○ 1 非限制性 , ○ 2 介词 , 3. ○
5 who 或 which ○
4 先行词, likes ○ 5 him 删去 ○
实战演练 I.1. which/that 2. who/that 3. whose 4. that 5. that 6. whom 7. which 8.
that 9. that 10. that 11. which 12. which 13. in which/ where 14. which/that 15. that/ which 16. that/不填 that 20. that / 不填 17. whose 18. that / 不填 19.
II. 1. I have a friend who likes listening to classical music. 2. Yesterday Emily was wearing the new dress that/ which I gave her. 3. I know the student whose article was published. 4. Betty, who has never been abroad, is studying English very well. 5. My grandparents live in a house which is more than 100 years old. 6. The computer which that I bought four years ago is too slow. 7. The man who/that created the famous university never finished college. 8. It is the most beautiful film that I have ever seen. 9. They talked about the people and the things that they remembered in old days. 10. Who is the man that laughed at you just now?
III．1. that→whom 2. which →whose 3. who→that 4. 第二个 is 改为 are 5. like→likes 6. 去掉 her 7. 去掉 it 8. that→who 9. whom→that 去掉 which who→whom 10. which→ in which/that/
11. where→ that/which 或去掉 where 12 把 for 放在 looking 之后 13 14 that→which 15 that→which 19 16 which→ that 或去掉 which which→that 或去掉 which 20
17 which→that 或去掉 which 18 who→that that→which 反馈检测
历届高考试题中的定语从句：1-5 DDCAD 6-10 CDDBB 11-15 BDACB