Developing and Develped Countries
1.measure v.测定，测量，评估 n.措施，尺寸，度量 take measures to do sth. 采取措施作某事 make sth. To one’s measure
根据某人的尺寸做。。 。。 beyond measure 无法估量的 measure 作动词是不用被动，不用进行时态。 2.make efforts 努力 make an effort/efforts to do sth 努力做某事 make every effort 尽一切努力 spare no effort 不遗余力 with (an) effort 费力地，使劲地 without effort 毫无费力地 3.hunger n.饥饿，渴望，饥荒 die of hunger 死于饥饿 hunger for 渴望得到 hungry adj.饥饿的，渴望的 go hungry 挨饿 4.be willing to do sth.愿意做某事，乐意做某事 She is willing to listen to people around her. 6.be connected with 与… 有关/联系 be connected to 将….和…..连在一起 7.close to 接近，靠近，几乎 be/get close to 8.crowded adj.拥挤的 be crowded with 挤满了…. Crowd n.人群 v.聚集，推，挤，塞满 a crowd of 一群，一堆 crowds of 成群的 Sentences 1.It’s an agreement between towns and cities of similar size and age, ……. of +adj/the same+n.的结构，这类句式的名词有：size,length height,width,colour,age,kind,type 等。 2.How do you find it?你认为它怎么样？ 类似的表达：What do you think of sb./sth.? How do you think about sb./sth.? How do you like sb./sth.? What is your opinion about sth.? What do you make of sb./sth.? What’s sb./sth. Like? Grammar I.however 和 but however 的两个基本用法 1.however adv.然而，不过，表转折 However, he refused our invitation. The plan, however, is very important. He didn’t say good bye to us, however. 2.however 作连词， “不管怎样，无论如何”其后常接形容词或副词，引导让步状语从句。 However busy you are,you should take some time do exercise. You should face the difficulty, however serious a problem. But 的基本语法 1.but 并列连词，表转折， “但是，然而” We had invited him, but he didn’t come. 2.I’m sorry, but……./ Excuse me, but……句式中，but 本身没有意义。 Excuse me , but can you tell me where the post office is? II.although, though 和 while Although,though 的基本用法 1.although,though“虽然，尽管”引导让步状语从句，不能与 but,however 连用，但可与 yet,still 连用。 Although/Though TV has many benefits, (yet/still) it has some bad effects on people. 2.though 引导的让步状语从句可以倒装，相当于 as 3.though adv.放在句末，用逗号与主句分开，相当于 however“然而” He said he would come ; he didn’t, though. While 的基本语法 1.While 连词，引导让步状语从句，位于句首。 “虽然，尽管” ，可与 although,though 替换。 While I agree with you, I still think it needs improving. 2.while 并列连词，强调对比“而，然而” ，不能位于句首。 3while 连词，引导时间状语从句。 “当…时候“。
语法练习 1.He is very young, _____ he knows a lot about computer. A. and B. however C. but D. while 2.Excuse me for breaking in, _____ I have some news for you. A. so B. and C. but D. yet 3. Some people waste a lot of food _____ others haven’t enough to eat. A. however B. when C. as D. while 4. _____ he had to write a history paper. _____ he couldn’t find time to do it. A. Although; but B. Although; / C. Even thought; / D. Even if; / 5._____ you call me to say you’re not coming, I’ll see you at the theatre. A. Though B. Whether C. Until D. Unless 6. I do every single bit of housework____ my husband Bob just does the dishes now and then. A. since B. while C. when D. as 7. Paul had to write a history paper,_____ he couldn’t find time to do it. A. but B. so C. because D. if 8.You should try to get a good night’s sleep____ much work you have to do. A. however B. no matter C. although D. whatever .9 I do every single bit of housework _____ my husband Bob just does the dished now and then. A. since B. while C. when D. as 10.Paul has to write a history paper, ____ he couldn’t find time to do. A. but B. so C. because D. if 11. You should try to get a good night’s sleep _____much work you have to do A. however B. no matter C. although D. whatever 12. Mr. Hall understands that ____ maths has always been easy for him, it is not easy for the students. A. unless B. since C. although D. when 13. _________he has limited technical knowledge ,the old worker has a lot of experience. A .Since B .Unless C .As D. Although 14.I grow up in Africa, _______at least I should say that I spent much of the first ten year of my life there. A. and B .or C. so D .but 15. He found it increasingly difficult to read, _________his eyesight was beginning to fail. A .and B for C. but D .or 单项选择 1. Reading is____ good habit. Stick to it and you’ll make_____ great progress. A. a; / B. a; a C. the; a D. /; a 2. My wife bought a pair of trousers for only 10 dollars yesterday; it was a real_____. A. exchange B. bargain C. trade D. business 3. The police are questioning two men_____ the robbery. A. connected to B.related with C.connected with D. associated to 4. My teacher encouraged _____ a training course to improve my writing skill. A. for me taking B. me taking C. for me to take D. me to take 5. The little boy sat_____ to his father and listened_____ with great interest. A. close; close B. closely; close C. close; closely D. closely; closely 6. _____ it is true that a successful businessman or inventor will usually become rich, many people who are outstanding in their field take little notice of personal possessions. A. While B. Since C. Unless D. If 7. —Excuse me, what about this takeaway dish in the store? —Madam, this is an easy but impressive dish if you_____ at home. A. entertained B. have entertained C. will entertain D. are entertaining 8. The economic reform and opening-up policy has provided us with a good_____ in which investing becomes easy. A. condition B. position C. state D. environment 9. A powerful earthquake,________ a magnitude of 6.3, struck the Indonesian island of Sumatra today, and_____ at least 70 people. A. measured; killing B. to measure; killed C. measuring; killed D. measuring; having killed 10. Feeling more and more pressure from the environment_____ , the government has decided to close down the factories pouring out poisonous chemicals.
A. polluted B. having polluted C. being polluted D. having been polluted 11. I would_____ no effort to finish it to your satisfaction. A. spare B. spend C. have D. tend 12. —How did you find your visit to the museum, John? —_____. A. By taking a No. 3 bus B. Oh, wonderful, indeed C. I went there alone D. A classmate of mine showed me the way 13. Some of the schools in Shanghai have moved one step closer to_____ with the global education community. A. being connected B. connect C. having connected D. be connected 14. Great efforts must be_____ to improve the living conditions here. A. taken B. made C. put D. through 15. The door opened and in_____. A. he came B. came he C. did he come D. did Mr. Smith come 完形填空 The World Health Organization planned to study the relationship between the eating habits of people and the disease. Two 1 were chosen to make the study. They flew to 2 , south of the Sahara, and during the next two months visited ten countries. They found out that 3 diseases of poor eating, often mistaken for other diseases, 4 in all parts of Africa. The diseases were 5 and could therefore all be called kwashiorkor(恶性 营养不良). The 6 children are usually from one to four years old. As the illness 7 , the child’s stomach becomes swollen by liquid collecting in the body. The skin 8 color and may break out in open sores(伤口). The hair also changes color and 9 to fall out. The patient loses all 10 in his surroundings and even in food, and becomes so 11 that he wants to lie down all the time. The doctors 12 that kwashiorkor was found in the young children of these ages in many parts of Africa because of lack of milk or meat. Their 13 , after stopping breastfeeding(哺乳), give them starch(淀 粉)instead of greatly needed proteins. They found the 14 of milk to the food for children suffering from kwashiorkor could save many 15 . The unbelievable thing about 16 is that the very existence of the disease, which has been 17 thousands of children for centuries, was not even 18 in Latin America as recently as ten years ago. The deaths of those children were 19 listed as due to other diseases. It was the 20 work in Africa that led to the discovery of the problem in Central America. 1. A. customs B. doctors C. patients D. scientists 2. A. Egypt B. Europe C. Africa D. Antarctic 3. A. serious B. boring C. common D. active 4. A. cured B. disappeared C. admired D. existed 5. A. various B. similar C. harmful D. painful 6. A. disabled B. lucky C. diseased D. dead 7. A. progresses B. puzzles C. sets D. changes 8. A. shows B. deepens C. loses D. changes 9. A. starts B. fails C. demands D. stops 10. A. wealth B. interest C. rescue D. source 11. A. opposite B. fight C. weak D. determined 12. A. argued B. doubted C. minded D. reasoned 13. A. leaders B. fathers C. brothers D. mothers 14. A. addition B. shortage C. harm D. amount 15. A. soldiers B. fishes C. lives D. plants 16. A. cold B. kwashiorkor C. stomach D. headache 17. A. recovering B. comforting C. killing D. interesting 18. A. recognized B. spread C. hit D. needed 19. A. specially B. mistakenly C. differently D. purposefully 20. A. African B. ordinary C. accidental D. WHO’s 阅读理解 A For many years, artists have flocked to Paris, France, to paint or to learn to paint. Perhaps artists first went there
because of the city′s beauty. They went to paint pictures of the broad, tree-lined streets, the great churches, and the graceful river bridges. The artists felt comfortable in Paris because the people of the city had always enjoyed art. Paris had great art museums, filled with famous paintings and statues(雕像)from many countries. And the people of Paris had always welcomed new ideas. In this city, artists felt free to experiment with new ways of painting. As soon as famous artists painted in Paris, students came to learn from them. People came to buy paintings. People called art dealers set up galleries where paintings were bought and sold. Others kept shops that sold artists′ paints and supplies. Students and artists who were not yet famous could live in Paris for very little money. They learned by studying great art in the museums, and they learned from one another. They held art fairs, hanging their paintings outdoors along the streets. Today, New York City and Florence, Italy, are also famous art centers. But the world’s main art exhibits are still held in Paris. Important judges of art live there. Most of the new ways of painting that have started in the last hundred years began in Paris. So artists and art dealers still go to Paris because it is the world′s leading art center. 1. In Pairs artists can make progress in art by doing lots of things except_________ . A. painting the beautiful scenes of Pairs. B. visiting museums, churches and fairs. C. trying out their new ideas in the way of painting. D. buying or selling paintings in the fair. 2.The story does not say so, but it makes you think that___________. A. Paris is famous for its artists’ paints and supplies B. there is more than one way to paint C. art fairs are held in galleries D. Florence is the center of world art exhibits 3.Which of the following statement is not a reason why so many artists prefer to stay in Pairs? A. Pairs is a beautiful city. B. The French are willing to accept any new things. C. All the museums are free of charge in Pairs. D. Artists can make an easier life in Pairs. 4.On the whole, this story is about____________. A. the world′s most famous art center B. how to buy a painting in Paris C. the famous art centers of New York and Florence D. where to set up galleries B The elephant is another animal that lives in groups. An elephant herd(群)usually has from twenty to forty members. The elephants in the herd depend on one another for help in time of trouble. The leader of the group is usually a wise and strong female. She travels at the head of the herd and is followed by the other females and their young. The bull elephants follow last. When danger threatens, the bulls form a circle around the weaker animals and guard them. The members of the herd are loyal to one another. A sick or wounded elephant is not left behind to die. If an elephant is sick, the whole herd stops traveling until it gets well. When an elephant is injured, two others walk on both sides of it and support it with their bodies. A member of the herd may be caught in a trap. Then the others try to free it. Elephants are found of the youngsters in the group and give them special care. They help young animals stay afloat(漂浮着)when the herd crosses a river. They work together to rescue a calf that has wandered into a dangerous place. A female elephant that is about to give birth to her young leaves the herd for a short time. However, she takes another female along to act as "aunt". The aunt stands guard and helps the mother with her new-born calf. In this way, the whole herd protects its newest member. 5.The story does not say so, but it makes you think that___________. A. bull elephants are the strongest elephants B. elephants have no enemies C. elephants do not care about one another D. the leader of the elephants travels in the middle of the herd 6.In times of danger, the males form a circle around____________. A. the enemy B. the weaker elephants C. the leader of the group D. the sick elephants 7.Which statement does the story lead you to believe? A. Most elephant herds have over a hundred members. B. Baby elephants cannot swim well.
C. Sick elephants are usually left behind to die. D. Elephants cannot cross a river. 8.Which of the following statements is true according to the passage? A. Elephants like to live alone. B. Elephants are usually selfish. C.A strong elephant can carry a sick elephant on its back. D. Elephants can help each other in time of trouble. 根据短文内容，从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。 Dear Boris, 1 After I had spent a week with my English family, I slowly began to understand their English a little better. 2 Students in my group are from different cities of Britain and their dialects are different too! Some of their accents are quite strong and they also have their own words and expressions. 3 Before I came to England I had thought that fish and chips were eaten every day. That’s quite wrong! I get rather annoyed now when I hear all the foolish words about typical English food. I had expected to see “London fog”. Do you remember our texts about it? We had no idea that most of this “thick fog” disappeared many years ago when people stopped using coal in their homes. But the idea to speak about weather was very helpful. 4 On the other hand, habits are different. People tell me what is typical British here in London is not always typical in Wales or Scotland. 5 But what is ordinary for all British is that they follow traditions(传统). Probably Britain has more living signs of its past than many other countries. And people have always been proud of having ancient (古老的) buildings in capitals, big cities and the countryside. I will tell you more about Britain in my other letters. Love from Britain. Yours, Peter A. The weather in London is really changeable. B. I have difficulty in understanding my classmates. C. Thanks for your nice letter. D. The family I live with are friendly. E. It’s very different from what I learned at school. F. Local habits and traditions are not the same as what we knew. G. But it’s not the language that’s different and surprising. 单词拼写 1. The _______________ (发展)of agriculture and industry needs careful planning. 2. In the old society, people suffered from _______________ (贫穷) and illness. 3. Let’s have an _______________(交换)of views on the matter. 4. There are a lot of ________________ (相似)in climate between China and the US. 5. He can’t support his family on his _______________(收入). 6. We should take some _______________(措施)to solve these difficulties. 7. The robbery occurred in a_______________(拥挤的)street. 8. For short distances, the bike is surely the best means of ________________ (交通工具). 9. The ________________ (受到污染的)water did great harm to people’s health. 10. The cost in ________________(教育)children in China is becoming higher and higher nowadays.