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Unit 22 A world of fun
⊕考纲要求: 考纲要求:

◆ 考纲规定的考试范围 考纲规定的考试范围:
1. 重点单词与短语 amusement; souvenir; attraction; collection; castle; minority; cartoon; thrill; educate; conversatio

n; coastal; divide; section; shuttle; butterfly; injury; rocket; helicopter; carve; achievement; civilization; prevent; handbag; twist; darkness; imagination; designer; endless;cut off; tell the truth; take turns; stare at; a variety of 句型 Unlike traditional amusement parks, theme parks often want to teach visitors something. unlike 表示对比的用法 What they all have in common is that they combine fun with the opportunity to learn ,something. 主语从句的用法 New theme parks are being built all over the world. 现在进行时的被动形式 语法:现在分词作状语的用法

◆ 复习本章要达到的目标
1. 掌握 amusement; attraction; collection; minority; cartoon; thrill; educate; conversation; divide; section; injury; rocket; helicopter; carve; achievement; civilization; prevent; handbag; twist; darkness; imagination; designer; endless;cut off; tell the truth; take turns; stare at; a variety of 等重点单词及短语的用法。 2. 掌握 unlike 表示对比的用法;现在进行时的被动形式的用法;现在分词作状语的用法。


1. You can’t miss it. miss 的用法: vt. (1)未击中;未得到;未达到;未看到;未听到;未领会(miss +v-ing) He missed my meaning. 他没有领会我的意思。 The hunter fired at the deer but missed it. 猎人向鹿开了枪,但未打中。 (2)未履行;未出席;未赶上,错过(miss +v-ing) She missed going to the party on Saturday. 星期六她没能出席聚会。 (3)想念,惦记+v-ing I know how you miss your mother. 我了解你多么地想念你的母亲。 (4)发觉没有,觉得遗失

if i could, i surely would.

She did not miss her necklace until she arrived home. 直到回到家里她才发现丢失了项链。 vi. 未击中;打偏 Aim carefully or you'll miss. 仔细瞄准,否则会击不中的。 相关归纳: (1)narrowly miss 险些 He narrowly missed being ran over by a car when crossing. 过马路时他险些被汽车压过。 (2)narrowly escape 险些 The child narrowly escaped drowning. 小孩险些被溺死。 2. A theme park is a collection of rides, exhibitions or other attractions that are based on a common theme. attract 的用法: 派生词: attraction n. 魅力,吸引人之物;吸引(力) attractive adj. 有魅力的,吸引人的,引人注目的 知识梳理: (1)吸;吸引 The garden city attracts many tourists. 那个花园城市吸引许多游客。 (2)引起...的注意(或兴趣等);引诱 Jim was attracted to the Italian girl. 吉姆对那位意大利女孩产生了好感。 The salesman banged a drum to attract a crowd. 推销员击鼓以吸引人群 (3) (物理的性质) 吸引住……, A magnet attracts both iron and steel. 磁铁吸铁也吸钢。 3. There are also theme parks about cartoon characters, animals--- even about water. character 的用法: (1)(人的)品质;性格;(事物的)性质;特性[C][U] He has a changeable character. 他性格多变。 (2)好品质;骨气;特色[U] A person of character would not cheat. 品德高尚的人是不会欺诈的。 (3)(小说、戏剧等的)人物,角色[C] They are the two main characters in the play. 他们是该剧中的两个主角。 (4)名声,名誉[C] He established his character by his honesty. 他靠诚实赢得声誉。

if i could, i surely would.

(5) (书写或印刷)符号;(汉)字;字体[C] He wrote in italic characters. 他用斜体字书写。 We have learned 3000 Chinese characters so far. 到目前为止我们已经学了 3000 个汉字。 4. What they all have in common is that they combine fun with the opportunity to learn something. What they all have in common 是一个主语从句做句子的主语,that they combine fun with the opportunity to learn something.是一个表语从句做表语。 combine d 的用法: (使)结合; (使) 联合 Some films combine education with recreation. 有些电影把教育与娱乐结合起来。 We are going to combine the three departments soon. 我们很快就要合并这三个部门了。 The two old schools are to combine to form one big new school. 这两所旧学校将合并组成一所新的大学校。 5. Disneyland in California was one of the first theme parks to become popular around the world. the + 序数词+ 不定式。在这个结构中不定式起到了做定语的作用。 He is always the first to come and the last to leave. 他总是第一个到来并且是最后一个离开的人。 He is the last person to say such words. 他是最不可能说这样的话的人。 You are the last person that I want to see. 你是我最不愿见到的人。 6. Today rides are wilder and scarier than ever. 该句中的 than ever=than ever before=than before 体现了英语中 than+副词/过去分词的省略 句型结构类似的例子还有: You’ll soon speak English much better than ever. 你的英语不久就会比以前讲得更好。 They arrived earlier than usual. 他们比通常来得早。 He arrived three hours later than expected. 他比预期的晚来了三个小时。 7. Another attraction found in many theme parks is the thrill ride. thrill 的用法: (1)vt. 使兴奋,使激动 He was thrilled by her conversation. 她的谈话使他很激动。 使紧张;使毛骨悚然 She was thrilled with terror when she saw the scene of the murder. 她看到凶杀现场时,吓得毛骨悚然。

if i could, i surely would.

使颤动;使颤抖 The earthquake thrilled the land. 地震使大地颤动。 (2)vi. 感到兴奋,感到激动(+at/to) She thrilled at the invitation. 她收到邀请时很激动。 感到紧张,感到毛骨悚然(+at/to) She thrilled with horror. 她恐惧万分。 颤动;颤抖 Her voice thrilled with joy. 她高兴得声音颤抖。 n.兴奋, 激动; 引起激动的事物 He felt a thrill when he got into the theater. 他一进剧院就很激动。 She whiled away the afternoon reading cheap thrills. 她看廉价的惊险小说消磨了一个下午。 8. …without being in danger or risking injury. risk + n./pron./doing They risked losing their jobs. 他们冒着失去工作的风险。 By criticizing her boss, she risked losing her position. 批评老板使她冒失去职位之险。 You should not risk your health for the job. 为那份工作你不值得用健康冒险。 It’s not so necessary to risk injury. 没必要冒受伤的风险。 Are you willing to risk being punished for such a trifle? 你甘愿为一件小事冒受惩罚的危险吗? n. 危险,风险 He saved my life at the risk of losing his own. 他冒着生命危险救了我的性命。 He was ready for any risks. 他准备冒一切风险。 take/run the risk (of doing ) Sometimes we have to run/take the risk of losing at the moment so as to gain finally. 有时为了有所得,我们必须冒暂时有所失的风险。 The damage of his house by fire has to be at his own risk as it was caused by his smoking. 由于他本人吸烟导致房屋被烧,损失只能由他自己负责。

重点/ 重点/热点 1:hold 短语总结 (1)hold up

if i could, i surely would.

I held up my hand to show that I had a question. 我举手表示有问题。 The travelers were held up by bandits. 游客们遭到土匪抢劫。 We were help up on our way to the airport in a traffic jam. 我们在前往机场的路上因堵车而延误了登机时间。 (2)hold off 使……保持距离;拖延 She hates children and tries to hold them off. 她讨厌小孩,总是想法远离他们。 Hold off for a minute.延缓一分钟。 (3)hold on 继续;坚持;不挂断(电话) How much longer can we hold on? 我们能再坚持多久? Hold on a minute.等一会儿(别挂断) 。 (4)hold on to 抓住;执著于;固守 The little girl held on to the tail of his coat. 那小女孩抓住他外套的下摆。 (5)hold out 伸出;维持 The lady held out her hand to stop a car. 那女士伸出了手拦了一辆车。 Our food supplies won’t hold out long.(=last) 我们的食品存量维持不了多久。 (6)catch/get/lay/seize/take hold of 抓住 He was caught hold of by the arm. 他的手腕被抓住。 (7)hold back 抑制,制止,阻止;隐瞒 Jim was able to hold back his anger. 吉姆抑制住了愤怒。 They built a dam to hold back the rushing water. 他们修建了一个大坝来拦截汹涌的河水。 You must be holding something back from me. 你一定对我隐瞒着什么。 易混易错点 1:turn 表示顺次的用法 : (1)take turns:轮流, 依次 Mary and Helen took turns at sitting up with their sick mother. 玛丽和海伦轮流熬夜陪伴她们生病的母亲。 We took turns at driving the car. 我们轮流开车。 (2)by turns 轮流=in turn we took a rest by turns. 我们轮流休息。 (3)It’s one’s turn to do sth.轮到某人做某事

if i could, i surely would.

It’s your turn to be on duty. 轮到你值班了。. (4)on the turn 在转变 Their decision are on the turn. 他们的决定在改变。 (6)out of turn 不按顺序;次序混乱 Please don’t speak out of turn. 请按顺次说。 (7wait one’s turn 排队等你的顺次. 注意:in turn 与 in return 的区别 in turn 有两个用法 (1)按顺序; we drove the car in turn. 我们轮流开车。 (2)从而;反过来 The theory comes from practice and ,in turn, serves the practice. 理论来与实践,反过来又服务于实践。 in return(for sth.) 作为回报 He gave her some roses in return for her kindness. 他送了她一些玫瑰以答谢她的好意。 易混易错点 2:一、现在分词短语作时间状语有以下三种情况: : 1.分词动作一发生,谓语动作紧跟着发生,这时用现在分词的一般式作时间状语,其逻辑 主语为句中的主语。 常用的动词, hear, see, arrive, return, get to, look, open, close, leave, turn 如: around, walk 等,表示一个极短暂动作。 此种情况可以换作 on+动名词,表示相同的意思。译作"一(刚)……就……"。 此种情况也可以换作是 when 引导的时间状语从句, 该从句的动词多用一般过去时表示。 如: Hearing their teacher's voice, the pupils stopped talking at once. = On hearing their teacher's voice… = When they heard their teacher's voice, the pupils… 一听到教师的声音,学生们立即停止讲话。 2.谓语动作发生在分词所表示的动作过程之中,则用 when /while+现在分词的一般式,分 词的逻辑主语为句中的主语。此种情况可以用 in+动名词的一般式代替。 也可以换作 when、while 引导的时间状语从句,该从句的谓语动词用进行时态。如: Don't be careless when /while having an exam. = Don't be careless in having an exam. = Don't be careless when / while you are having an exam. 考试时不要粗心。 注:此结构中,不能用其他连接词替换 when 或 while。 3.分词所表示的动作完成之后,谓语动作才发生,则要现在分词的完成式,即 having done 的形式。分词的逻辑主语应是句中的主语。 这种情况可以用 after+动名词的一般式表示。 这种情况也可以用 after /when 引导的时间状语从句来替换,该从句的谓语动词用过去完成
if i could, i surely would.

式。 Having finished his homework the boy was allowed to watch TV play. After having finished his homework, the boy… After /when he had finished his homework, the boy… 完成作业后,那个男孩被允许去看电视。 二、现在分词在句中作原因状语 1.分词短语在句中作原因状语时,相当于一个原因状语从句。与时间状语一样,也要注意 分词所表示的动作与谓语动作的先后关系。 当分词所表示的动作与谓语动作同时发生或几乎 同时发生时,用分词的一般形式。此时分词的逻辑主语须是句中的主语。这样的原因状语可 以换成 because, as 引导的原因状语,该从句谓语动词用一般过去时。 Not knowing how to work out the difficult physics problem, he asked the teacher for help. 因为不知道如何解这道物理难题,他求助老师。 = Because he didn't know how to work out the difficult physics problem, he asked…help. 2.当分词表示的动作发生在谓语动作之前,可以用现在分词的完成式在句中作原因状语, 其逻辑主语须为句中的主语, 该短语的作用相当于一个原因状语从句。 该从句的谓语动词须 用完成时。如: Having lived with the girl for 5 years, we all know her very well. = Because we have lived with the girl for 5 years, we all know her very well. 因为与那个女孩一起生活了五年,我们都非常了解她。 三、现在分词短语在句中可以作条件状语,其逻辑主语须为句中的主语,该短语相当于一个 条件状语从句。 Working hard, you'll succeed. = If you work hard, you'll succeed. 如果你努力工作,你会成功的。 Turning to the left, you will find the path leading to the park. = If you turn to the left, you will find the path leading to the park. 如果转向左边,你将找到通向公园的小道。 四、分词短语在句中作让步状语 分词短语在句中作让步状语时,相当于一个让步状语从句,有时分词前可以带有连接词 although, whether, even if, even though。 现在分词短语作让步状语, 分词的逻辑主语是句中的主语, 变成状语从句时, 需用主动语态。 Weighing almost one hundred jin the stone was moved by him alone. = Although the stone weighted almost one hundred jin, it was moved by him alone. 虽然那块石头重将近一百斤,他一个人就把它挪动了。 五、分词短语在句中作结果状语 现在分词短语在句中可以作结果状语, 它的逻辑主语便是句中的主语, 该短语相当于一个结 果状语从句,且用主动语态。分词短语在句中作结果状语时,通常位于句末,中间有逗号。 有时为了加强语气,就在分词前加 thus。 Their car was caught in a traffic jam, thus causing the delay. = Their car was caught in a traffic jam, thus it caused the delay. 他们的车遇上交通阻塞,因而耽误了。 六、分词短语在句中表示方式或伴随情况 分词短语表示方式或伴随情况是比较常见的。 它用来说明动作发生的背景或情况。 一般情况 下,现在分词所表示的动作与谓语所表示的动作同时发生,它的逻辑主语就是句中的主语, 谓语动词作为主要动作,而现在分词表示一个陪衬动作,它没有相应的状语从句可以转换,

if i could, i surely would.

但可以用并列句来转换。 过去分词可以说明谓语动作的背景。 过去分词与其逻辑主语之间有 动宾关系。如: The children ran out of the room, laughing and talking merrily. The children laughed and talked merrily, and they ran out of the room. 那些孩子们跑出房间,愉快地笑着、说着。 Helped by their teacher, the students finished the task successfully. 在老师的帮助下,学生们成功地完成了任务。

课内题例与课后题: ◆课内题例与课后题 课内题例 1. When children start smoking, they don't realize that they're A. costing B. caring C. risking D. keeping 变式 1. By criticizing her boss, she risked her position.

their health.

A. losing B. lost C. to lose D. to be lost 解析:1. 本题主要考查 risk 作动词的用法。risk one's health 意为“拿自己的健康去冒险”。 答案:C 变式 1. 句子意思是“批评老板使她冒失去职位之险”考查 risk doing sth. 这一用法。答案: A 2. I was just talking to Margarm when Jackson ____. A. cut in B. cut down C. cut out D. cut up 变式 1. The enemy’s food supply had been _____ for 3 months, so they had to give in. A. cut in C. cut off
A. pulled back C. cut off

B. cut down D. cut up
B. cut down D. turned off

变式 2. If traffic moves at low speeds, the number of acci dents is ____.

解析:2. 此题主要考查 cut 短语的用法。根据句意“我正与玛格丽特谈着话,杰克逊突然插 嘴 (cut in)了。”cut down “砍倒”,cut out“剪下”“cut up“切碎”,均与句意不符。答案:A 变式 1. 根据句意“敌人的食物供应已经被切断了 3 个月因此他们不得不投降。”cut off 有 “切断供应”这一用法。答案:C 变式 2. 根据句意“如果交通速度能慢下来, 那么交通事故的数量将能够被减下来。 down ”cut 有“缩减,使 降低下来”这一用法。答案:B
3. The company is starting a new advertising campaign to _____ new customers to its stores. A. join B. attract C. stick D. transfer 解析:3. 这里表示“吸引新的顾客”,用 attract。答案 B 4. Our flight was ____ by the thick fog. So we didn't attend the meeting on time.
A. broken off C. taken up B. kept up D. held up

解析: 根据句意“我们的航班受到大雾的耽搁, 4. 因此我们没有准时参加会议。 kept up 有 ” “耽

5. According to the art dealer, the painting ____ to go for at least a million dollars.

if i could, i surely would.

A. is expected C. expected

B. expects D. is expecting

解析: 此题考查被动语态的用法。painting 同 expect 的关系是被动的,故用被动语态。答案:A

6. We'll be shown around the city: schools, museums and some other places, ____ other visitors seldom go.
A. what C. where 状语。答案 C B. which D. when

解析:some other places 为先行词,定语从句中的 go 为不及物动词,表地点的先行词在定语从句中作

7._____ in the queue for half an hour, Tom suddenly realized that he had left his wallet at home. A. To wait B. Have waited C. Having waited D. To have waited 解析: wait 发生在 realize 之前,与句子主语构成主动关系,因此用现在分词完成时。答案 C

课后题: 课后题 1.Looking on the top of the hill, . A. there was a lot of tall buildings B. lots of tall buildings were seen C.I saw a lot of tall buildings D. our city looked very beautiful 2. two years to looking after her sick father ,she badly needed a holiday. A. Devoted B. Having been devoted C. Having devoted D. Devoting 3. late in the morning, Bob turned off the alarm. A. To sleep B. Sleeping C. sleep D. Having slept the girl and took her away, 4.Suddenly,a tall man driving a golden carriage into the woods. A. seizing;disappeared ; B. seized;disappeared ; C. seizing;disappearing ; D. seized;disappearing ; 5.Though money, his parents managed to send him to university. A. lacked B. lacking of C. lacking D. lacked in 解析: 1.C 分词的主语应同主句中的主语一致,即 looking 的主语应是 I。 2.C devote 的动作已发生,且 she 与 devote 为主动关系,故应用现在分词的完成式。 3.A 从句意可知“Bob 把闹钟关掉的目的是为了早上能够多睡一会儿。”表示目的,非谓 语动词中,只有不定式可以表示目的,作目的状语。 4.D 第一空缺少谓语动词, took 并列, 和 所以用 seized,第二空用动词 ing 形式作结果状语。 5.C 主语 his parents 与 lack 是主动关系 though 表示让步。

A 组:
if i could, i surely would.

11.The bell the end of the period rang, A. indicating;interrupting ; B. indicated;interrupting ; C. indicating;interrupted ; D. indicated;interrupted ;

our heated discussion.

2.What a pity! I missed meeting my boss at the airport because my car was in the traffic jam. A. broken up B. kept back C. help up D. kept up 3. —Do you mind if I keep pets in this building? — . A. No, you can’t B. Of course not, it’s not allowed here C. Great! I love pets D. I’d rather you didn’t, actually 4.——Why was our foreign teacher unhappy yesterday? ——News about the tsunami striking her country ____ an attack of homesickness. A. set for B. set out C. set about D. set off 5. ——We are informed that the Weifang International Kite Festival starts at 7:00. ——Oh, I didn’t expect it was so early! I ____ to go out for dinner with my friends first. A .was planning B. am planning C. have been planning D. have planned 6. ____ abroad for a tour can be a great honor for an ordinary person like me. A. Taken B. Taking C. Being taken D. Having been taken 7. ——Did your classmate accept your invitation? ——No, he ____ refused. A. as far as B. as well as C. as soon as D. as good as 8. I spent the whole day repairing the motorbike. The work was ____ simple. A. nothing but B. anything but C. something of D. all except 9. ____ the help of experienced career instructors, this type of job-hunting training____ to be very efficient. A. By; has proved B. With; has proved C. Under; is proving D. With; is prove 10. ——How come a simple meal like this costs so much? ——We have ____ in your bill the cost of the cup you broke just now. A. added B. included C. contained D. charged 答案: 答案: 1.A 第一空现在分词补语作定语修饰 the bell。第二空现在分词短语作伴随状语,指结果。 2.C hold up 表示“阻滞”之意。
if i could, i surely would.

3.D 答语句意为“老实说,我不希望你养宠物”,符合句意。 4. D set off 引起,激起。A letter from his home set off an attack of homesickness…。set out 出 发,开始;set about 开始着手。 5. A 用过去进行时表示过去本打算干某事而实际并没干。 6. C 句子缺少主语,首先排除 A、D;B 项表示主动,只能选 C。 7. D as good as,实际上,几乎等于。 8. B anything but 意为“一点也不”;nothing but 等于 only 意为“正是,只是”,根据上文提供 的语境,“这项工作很麻烦”。 9. B 本题主要考查固定搭配的识记及动词的语态。根据 help 的搭配要求,介词须用 with, 从而排除选项 A、C;动词 prove 表示事物的性质时,为不及物动词,不用被动形式,于是 本题的正确答案为 B。 10. B 考查动词。根据句意“你的帐单中已包括刚才比打破的杯子的费用。”include(have as a part)指包含不同的一部分,contain(have within itself)着重指被容纳的东西是整体中的组成 部分。 单词拼写: 1.This is a kind of good activity that combines entertainment and e so perfectly. 2.To our a ,Zhao Benshan turned up in a straw hat and jeans. (想象力). 3.Children often have very great 4.When we reached the top of the mountains,we felt a great sense of (成就). 5. Vitamin C is supposed to _____(阻止) colds. 答案:1. education 2. amusement 3. imagination 4. achievement 5. prevent

B 组:
一、汉译英 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 你认为吸引人们到大城市的原因是什么? 我将作业检查了一遍,以确定什么都没有漏掉。 会见总统是一件令人兴奋不已的事情。 我讨厌他不断的打扰。 谁阻止他们的计划不让实施? 他是一个富有想像力的人。 那位勇敢的人冒着生命危险试图救那孩子。

8. 老师把我们班分成四个小组。

1. What do you think attracts people to big cities? 2. I went through my homework to make sure that nothing had been missed. 3. Meeting the President was a great thrill. 4. I am tired of his endless interruptions. 5. Who prevents their plans from being carried out? 6. He is a man of imagination. 7. The brave man risked his life in trying to save the child.

8. The teacher divided our class into four groups.

if i could, i surely would.

if i could, i surely would.

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