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牛津英语模五 Unit 1 (1)
一、Reading
1. betray: vt. 背叛,出卖,泄露 betray sth to sb: 向某人出卖∕泄露…… betray oneself: 露出原形 betrayal: [biˋ tre?l] n. 背叛 ① He would rather die than betray th

e document to the enemy. ② She said she was sorry, but her eyes betrayed her secret delight. 她说她很难过,但她的眼神里却露出她内心的喜悦。 ③ an act of betrayal: 背叛的行为 2. (Page 2, Lines 8-9) I must have sounded……quiz, saying how easy it was. ⑴ must have done: 一定做过…… ⑵ “saying how easy it was”为现在分词作状语,表示伴随状态。 3. fail sth: 未能通过…… fail to do sth: 未能做…… ① I failed my driving test the first time I took it. ② He never fails to write to his mother every week. 4. pretend sth: 假装,扮作…… pretend to do sth: 假装做…… pretend that: 假装…… ① He pretended illness as an excuse. ② Tom pretended to be reading a book when the teacher came in. ③ She pretended that she was not at home when we rang the bell. 5. admit (admitted;admitting): vt. (1) 承认 admit (doing) sth: 承认做…… admit that: 承认…… admit sb to be + n / adj: 承认某人是…… ① He admitted having stolen that car. / He admitted that he had stolen the car. ② We all admit him to be a fool. (2) 允许……进入,接受,录取 admit sb to / into sth: 允许……进入…… ① Each ticket admits two people to the party. ② Tom has been admitted into Peking University. 6. beg (sb) to do sth: 恳请(某人)做…… beg (sb) for sth: 恳请(某人)…… beg (for) sth: 乞讨…… ① I beg you not take any risks. ② He begged her for forgiveness. ③ John was so poor that he had to beg money from passers-by. 7. keep one’s secret: 保守秘密 keep one’s word / promise: 遵守诺言 break one’s word / promise: 违背诺言 8. (Page 2, Line 18) ……paper that said…… say: vt. 写到,表明;显示 read: vt. 写着;指示,显示

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① The clock said it was 7: 30. ② I noticed a sign reading / saying “ No Parking!”. 9. swear (swore, sworn): vt. & vi. (1) 发誓,宣誓 swear to do sth: 发誓做…… swear that: 发誓…… ① Mona swore never to return to home. ② Victor swore that he would get his revenge(复仇). (2) 咒骂,诅咒 swear at sb: 咒骂…… Rich(里奇) tripped over a dog and swore at it. 10. spy on sth: 监视∕窥探…… These days I have been spying on the enemy’s movements. 11. focus: vt. & vi. 集中注意力于;(使)聚焦 n. 焦点,重点 focus sth on sth: 集中……于…… focus on sth: 集中注意…… ① The recent wave of bombing has focused public attention on the area. ② I was so tired to focus on anything. ③ The focus of the conference is on environmental issues. 12. manner: n. 方式;举止,态度[C] manners: n. (1) 礼貌,礼仪 (2) 风俗,习惯 in this manner: 用这种方式 table manners: 餐桌礼仪 It’s good / bad manners to do sth: 做……有∕无礼貌 ① He objected in a forceful manner. 他坚决反对。 ② It’s bad manners to talk with your mouth full. 满嘴都是食物说话不礼貌。 13. guilty: adj. 内疚的,有罪的 be / feel guilty about (doing) sth: 因为……而内疚 be guilty of sth: 犯……罪 ① I feel guilty about not visiting him often. ② He was found guilty. 他被判有罪。 ③ The boys were guilty of theft. 这些男孩犯盗窃罪。 14. remark: n. & v. 谈论,评论,谈到 make a remark about sb: 议论…… make no remark: 不加评论 remark on sth: 谈论…… remark that: 谈到,说起 ① She could hear others were making rude remarks about her. ② I couldn’t help remarking on her youth. 我脱口而出说她那么年轻。 ③ The boys were guilty of theft. 这些男孩犯盗窃罪。 ④ Critics remarked that the play was not original. 评论家指出该剧缺乏创意。 15. argue with sb about / over sth: 因为……与某人争吵 argue that: 认为 argue sb into / out of doing sth: 说服某人(不)做…… ◆◆argument: n. 争论;争吵;争议;论点;论据 ① We are arguing with each other over the holiday expenses.

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② He argued that more importance should be attached to the reform of the criminals. ③ They argued him into withdrawing his complaint. 他们说服他撤回了投诉。 16. apologize to sb for sth: 因为……向某人道歉 make an apology to sb for sth: We apologize for the late departure of this flight. 17. be sensitive to sb: (1) 对……体贴 (2) 对……敏感 ① She has been sensitive to his husband since they got married. ② A writer mustn’t be too sensitive to criticism. 作家不可对批评意见反映过激。 18. blame: vt. 责备,指责 n. 责任,责备,指责[U] blame sb for (doing) sth: 因为……责备某人 blame sth on sb: 把……归咎于…… sb be to blame for sth: 某人因为……应受责备 take the blame: 承担责任 ① A bad workman blames his tools. 拙匠埋怨工具差。 ② Teachers always blame the students for their rude behaviors. ③ You should not blame your failure on the difficulty of the paper. ④ It is I who am to blame for the mistake. ⑤ You can’t expect Jerry to take all the blame.

二、Project
1. the attitude towards sth: 对于……的态度 What is your attitude towards your schoolwork? 2. anchor: v. (1) 扎根于; (2) 抛锚,停船; (3) 固定 n. 锚,支柱 drop / cast anchor: 抛锚 be anchored in sth: 扎根于 ① They brought the boat into the harbor and dropped anchor. 他们把船开进海港下锚停泊。 ② We anchored the tent with pegs. 我们用桩子固定帐篷。 ③ Literature must be anchored on our life. ④ Home is his anchor when he is away on business. 3. be cautious about sth: 对……小心∕谨慎 cautiousness: n. 小心∕谨慎[U] These people are cautious about spending money. 这些人用钱仔细。 4. be eager to do sth: 急于做…… be eager for sth: 急于∕渴望…… ① Clara(克莱拉) was eager to tell her side of the story. 克莱拉急于讲述她对那件事的看法。 ② She was eager for success. 5. respond: vi. 作出反应;回答 respond to sth / respond that: 对…..作出反应;回答…… ① She responded to my letter with a phone call. ② The doctor responded that he couldn’t tell the name of the disease. 6. response: n. 反应;回应;答复 in response to sth: 以回应…… make response to sth: 回应…… make no response: 不作回答

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① The laws were passed in response to public pressure. ② He made no response to my question. 7. regardless: adv. (1) 不管怎样;无论如何(用在句末) (2) regardless of sth: 不管,不顾 ① You get a lot of criticism, but you have to carry on regardless. ② All our proposals were rejected regardless of their merits(价值,优点). 8. end up: 结果为;以…….结束 end up + 介词短语∕adj∕doing ① If you continue to steal, you will end up in prison. 你要是继续行窃,终归得进监狱。 ② If he carries on driving like that, he’ll end up dead. 他照那样开车,早晚得丢命。 ③ Because he had made full preparations for the interview, he ended up working in the company. 9. be committed to sth / sb: ;忠于…… ① This development area is committed to creating a perfect investment environment. 这个开发区致力于创造一个完美的投资环境。 ② She was strongly committed to her job, a policewoman by eminence. 她非常忠于职守,一个卓越的女警。 10. quarrel with sb about sth: 因为……与某人吵架 have a quarrel with sb about sth: We aren’t going to quarrel with each other about a few dollars. 11. in conclusion / to conclude: 总之 In conclusion, I'd like to thank you for all you've done for me. 最后,我要感谢你们为我所做的一切。 12. mercy: n. 仁慈,怜悯,宽容 at the mercy of sb: 任由……摆布 show mercy to sb: 怜悯某人 have mercy on sb: leave sb to the mercy / mercies of sb: 任凭某人受……摆布 ① They were lost at sea, at the mercy of wind and weather. ② The terrorists showed no mercy the refugees(难民). ③ He won’t leave the cat to the mercy of the boy. 13. get through: vt. 完成;通过;批准通过 get through to sb / sth: 到达……;接通……的电话 ① get through a task / an exam. ② Millions of refugees will die if these supplies don’t get through to them. ③ With great efforts, I finally got through to the manager. 14. acquaintance: n. (1) 熟人;泛泛之交[C] (2) 认识,了解[U, C] make one’s acquaintance: 结识…… make the acquaintance of sb: of one’s acquaintance: 所认识∕理解的 on first acquaintance: 初次相见时 ① I am delighted to make your acquaintance. ② a certain lawyer of my acquaintance. ③ Even on first acquaintance, we could see he wasn’t the right type. 初次见面就看出他不是对路子的人。

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牛津英语模五 Unit 1 (2)
【考点释析】
1. I feel betrayed by my friend, Hannah. 常用结构:betray … to… He would rather die than betray his country. He felt sorry for betraying his friends to the enemy. overlook vt. 忽略,忽视,不追究;俯瞰 overlook a valley from a hill overlook a person’s fault overlook a mistake 从山上俯视山谷 不追究(某人的)过错 忽略了一个错误 (P2) 他宁愿死也不愿意出卖他的国家。 把朋友出卖给敌人让他感到很抱歉。 The expression on her face betrays that she is angry. 她脸上的表情显示她在生气。 2. I didn’t feel like I was overlooking my studies, but maybe I could work harder in Maths. (P2) (P2) betrayal n 出卖, 背叛 betray vt. 出卖, 背叛;无意中显示;

Located /Sitting on the hill, the house overlooks a river. 那个房子位于山上,俯瞰一条河。 3. We went to wash our hands in the girl’s toilets before lunch and I admitted how badly I had done. admit
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vt.

承认;允许…进入,接纳,允许参加;可容纳(= hold) (承认…)

常用结构: admit sth / admit doing sth / admit having done sth / admit + that-clause admit … to /into… (接纳…进入…)

He admitted having stolen / stealing the car. = He admitted that he had stolen the car. 他承认自己偷了车。 Many students are admitted to the key universities every year in our school. 每年我校都有许多学生被重点大学录取。 The theatre is small and admits only 300 people. 令我们非常高兴地是,她被北大录取了。 Open the window to admit some fresh air. He opened the door and admitted the guests into the house. 4. keep one’s word 守信,遵守诺言 (P 2) word 用单数形式,不用复数形式。 They failed to keep their word. 我会对她守信,在必要时给她帮助。 【拓展】Word came that he won the first place. 她给我们留下话,她直到下个星期天才会回来。 5. She was really upset and swore that she hadn’t told anyone, but I know that the only people who see marks are the teacher and the student. swear vt./vi. (P2) (swore, sworn) 他们宣誓友情不渝。 他发誓再不喝酒。 宣誓,发誓;断言,发誓说… 消息传来,他得了一等奖。 She left word to us that she would not come back until next Sunday. 他们没有遵守诺言 I’ll manage to keep my word to her that I’ll give her a hand if necessary. 打开窗子让新鲜空气进入。 他打开门让客人进入屋子。 失信,失言 break one’s word 该剧院很小,只能容纳 300 人。 To our great joy, she has been admitted into Beijing University.

They swear eternal(永恒的)friendship. He swore never to drink. = He swore that he would never drink.

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6. I don’t think I can ever forgive her. forgive vt. 原谅,饶恕,宽恕 常用结构: forgive sb./sth.

(P2) (forgave, forgiven) forgive sb’s sth. forgive sb. for sth./doing sth.

If you apologize, the teacher may forgive you / your carelessness. 如果你道歉,老师会原谅你/你的粗心。 He forgave me for breaking his glass. 7. …, but I can’t stand seeing our team lose. stand I won’t stand your talking to me like that. I can’t stand it when you do that. 尽管他是个勇敢的人,但他不能看见血。 【拓展】同样意义的有:tolerate, bear, put up with 我不能容许你那么自私/你做那件事。 【注意】bear 后也可接不定式。 She can’t bear to be laughed at. = She can’t bear being laughed at. 她不能忍受被取笑。 8. Though they get along well, there are some things about Amanda and her friends that puzzle Robert . puzzle v. 使迷惑,困惑; n. 难题,难解之事 puzzled 对…感到困惑的 puzzling adj. 令人困惑的; (P18) 后接名词,代词或动名词。 I won’t tolerate/bear/put up with your selfishness/ your doing that. (P3) 我不会忍受你象那样对我讲话。 你那样做,我受不了。 他原谅我打坏了他的杯子。

vt. 忍受,忍耐;常用于否定句、疑问句中,后接名词,代词或动名词作宾语。

Though he’s a brave man, he just can’t stand the sight of blood.

He asked a puzzling question which made everyone puzzled. 他问了一个令人困惑的问题,弄得人人困惑。 His puzzled expression suggested that he was puzzled by what I said. 他迷惑的表情表明他不懂我说的话。 9. When he comes back three and a half hours later, they’re still sitting on the sofa, absorbed in conversation! (P18) absorb vt. 吸引;使全神贯注;吸收;理解; be absorbed in 沉浸在…之中 Black cloth absorbs a lot of heat during the day. He was too young to absorb what you said. 每此见到你,你总是忙着做数学作业。 Absorbed in thought, he overlooked me. 10. When asked they usually hesitate before responding,... respond to sb/ sth 回答;回应 ; respond to sth 对…有效果,见起色 make a response/ responses to 对…响应/作答 When asked, he made no response. The illness quickly responded to treatment. in reply/response/answer to What did he say in reply to your letter? 当他被问时,他不回答。. 病经过治疗后很快就有起色。 作为对...的回应 他是怎么回你信的? 因为在沉思,他不理我。 黑布白天吸收大量的热量。 他太小了;理解不了你说的话。

Every time I saw you, you were absorbed in math homework.

【拓展】同样意义的词/短语有: reply to sb/sth, answers sb/sth

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11. Regardless of what these friendships are based upon,... regardless of 不管,不顾 (介词短语,引导状语) 不顾坏天气,我们还是去了音乐会。 We went to the concert regardless of the bad weather. He still stuck to his decision regardless of what we said. 不管我们说什么,他还是坚持自己的决定。

【短语记忆】
1. feel betrayed by one’s friend 2. be proud of /take pride in oneself 3. be sure to do sth / of sth 4. score the lowest marks 5. be ashamed of (doing) sth be ashamed to do sth/ be ashamed that… 6. be determined to do sth 7. admit sb into … 8. keep my secret 9. go straight to… 10. try hard enough 11. be angry with sb/at sth 12. yell at sb 13. apologize to sb for sth 14. can’t help doing sth 15. sb be unlikely to do sth It is unlikely that... 16. feel jealous of sb 17. in public 18. be gifted at/in football 19. play to one’s strengths 20. delay /put off doing sth. 21. get along well (with sb) 22. be absorbed in 23. in the world/on earth 24. have different attitudes towards friendship 25. adolescent boys 26. without hesitation 27. the first to do… 28. regardless of 嫉妒某人 公开地,当众 踢足球有天赋的 尽全力比赛 推迟做某事 (与某人)相处得很好 全神贯注于 究竟;到底 对友谊持不同的态度 青春期的男孩 毫不犹豫地 第一个做…的人 不管;不顾 下决心做… 允许/接收某人进入… 保守我的秘密 径直去某地 足够努力 生…的气 对某人吼叫 为…向…道歉. 忍不住做某事 某人不太可能做某事 感到被朋友背叛 为自己感到骄傲 对某事确定的 得了最低分 对(做)…感到羞愧/不要意思

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牛津英语模五 Unit 2 (1)
一、Reading
1. debate: vt. & n. 辩论,争论,讨论 debate sth with sb: 与……争论∕讨论…… open a debate: 展开讨论 under debate: 在讨论∕辩论中 ◆◆debater: 辩论者 ① We opened a heated debate about the bill(议案) with them. ② The whole question of compensation(赔偿) is still under debate. 2. floor: 发言权 open the floor: 自由发言 take the floor: 开始发言 have the floor: 有发言权 ① The president then took the floor and answered the journalists’ questions. ② The senator(参议员) have no floor in the debate. 3. A……times + what 从句: ……几倍于…… The company can produce 10 times what it did last year. 4. cut back on sth: 减少,削减 We must cut back on the waste to save the environment. 5. have a duty to do sth: 有义务∕责任做…… be on duty / off duty: 值班∕下班 Local councilors have a duty to serve the community. 地方议员有义务为社区服务。 6. be greedy for sth: 贪图…… As we know, the corrupt officials are always greedy for money and fame. 7. credit: n. (1) 赞扬,认可 (2) 信用 (3) 学分[C] (4) 存款[U];借款[C] creditable: [ˊ kredit?bl] adj. 值得赞扬的,可信的 a creditable attempt give sb credit to sb: 赞扬∕认可…… be in credit: 有存款 ① You should give him some credit for all the efforts he has put in. ② There are no bank charges if you stay in debt. ③ The drama course should give me enough credits to finish my degree. 8. a large quantity of + n[U, C]: 许多的 (作主语,谓语动词根据该结构中的名词形式变化) Large quantities of + n[U, C]: 许多的(作主语,谓语动词用复数形式) ① A large quantity of money has been spent on the research. ② A large quantity of books were donated to these children. ③ Large quantities of time / cars were wasted. 9. ask around: 四处打听 I will ask around and see if anyone can help. 10. pump: vt. (1) 用泵输送; (2) 给……打气; (3) 倾注,灌注(into) vi. 涌出;涌流 n. 泵,抽水机,打气筒 ◆◆ pump sth + 介词 + n ① The heart pumps blood around the body. ② Pump air into a tyre.

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③ He pumped plenty of funds into the new project. 他向新工程倾注了大量的资金。 ④ Blood was pumping out of his belly like a fountain. 血像喷泉似的从他腹部涌出。 11. sth run out: ……用光 run out of sth: 用光…… use sth up: 用光…… ① Let’s hurry, our time is running out. ② We have ran out of what we had at hand. 12. responsibility: n. (1) 责任[U] (2) 义务[C] take responsibility for sth: 对……负责 have a responsibility to do sth: 有义务做…… ① He took full responsibility for organizing such an activity. ② Everyone has a responsibility to try out more methods in his study.

二、Grammar
1. 动词 + it + when / if 从句: enjoy,like,dislike,love,hate,prefer,appreciate 等动词后接 if 从句或 when 从句,通常应先在动词 后接 it 作形式宾语。It 指代 if 从句或 when 从句所叙述的内容。例如: ① She won’t like it if you arrive late. 她不喜欢你迟到。 ② He hates it when people use his bike. 他讨厌别人用他的自行车。 ③ I dislike it when you whistle. 我不爱听你吹口哨。 ④ I prefer it if I didn’t have do so much work. 要是我不必做那么多工作,那就太好了。 ⑤ I would appreciate it very much if you would help me with it. 如果你能帮助我做这事,我会十分感激。 2. impress: vt. (1) 使印象深刻,打动 impress sb with sth: 用……打动某人∕给某人留下印象 be impressed by / with sth: 因为……被打动∕而留下印象 ① He impressed her with his sincerity(真诚). ② I was deeply impressed by his story. (2) 使铭记,铭刻 impress sth on sb / impress on sb sth: 使某人铭记……;铭刻……在……上 ① The manager impressed on his office staff the importance of keeping accurate records. 经理让办公室职员铭记做精确记录的重要性。 ② His words impress themselves on my memory. 他的话铭刻在我的记忆里。 3. impression: n. 印象,感想 first impression: 第一印象 make an impression on sb: 给……留下印象 be under the impression that: 原以为,误认为 ① First impression can be deceptive(骗人的). ② It was their determination that made a deep impression on me. ③ I was under the impression that you were coming tomorrow. 我原以为你明天才来。 4. conflict: vi. 冲突,抵触 n. 冲突,矛盾 conflict with sth: 与……抵触∕冲突 be in conflict with sth: 与……抵触∕冲突 ① Their account(描述) of the event conflicted with ours. ② Armed conflict is likely to break out between the two countries. ③ They don’t have religious beliefs(宗教信仰) that would be in conflict with Lina’s choice.

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5. opening: n. ⑴ 开口,孔,洞 ⑵ 开始,开端 the opening of a book / a speech ⑶ 开张,开业 the opening of the new sports center 6. drill: v. 钻孔,打眼 n. 训练,练习 ① drill for oil: 钻井探油 ② They are drilling a new tunnel under the Thames. 他们正在泰晤士河底下钻一条新隧道。 ③ fire-drill:消防演习 ④ pronunciation drills: 发音练习 7. at a nation level: 从国家方面 At the national level, Jamaica's disaster management program is managed by the National Disaster Committee (NDC) and its six sub-committees. 8. in flames: 在烈焰中,燃烧着 ① The whole building went up in flames. 整栋建筑物在大火中烧毁。 ② The airplanes were shot down in flames. 飞机被击中起火坠落。

三、Project
1. raise concern: 引起关注 2. nationally and internationally 在国内外 at home and abroad The great fire raised great concern nationally and internationally. 3. range: n. 范围;一系列;山脉;靶场,射击场 vi. (1) (在……范围内) 变化 (2) 包括 (3) 排列 a range of sth: 一系列….. a wide / broad / whole range of sth: 各种各样的…… range from sth to sth / range between sth and sth: 在……与……之间变化 in / within range (of sth): 在(……的)范围内 out of range (of sth): 超出(……的)范围;在(……的)范围以外 ① We have students from a wide range of background. 我们的学生来自各种不同的背景。 ② She had different plenty of jobs, ranging from chef to swimming instructor. ③ The great mountain range of the Alps: 雄伟的阿尔卑斯山脉。 ④ a rifle range: 步枪靶场 ⑤ The cat stayed well out of range of the children. 这只猫离孩子们远远的。 4. put sth in danger: 使……危险 Corruption will make the dam in danger when heavy flood occurs. 5. in / with regard to sth regarding 关于…… concerning ① I have nothing to say with regard to your complaints. ② She said nothing regarding your request. ③ We read stories concerning visitors from outer space. 6. be under way: 进行中 The plan is now well under way. 7. appreciate: vt. 欣赏;感激;理解

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I would appreciate it + if 从句: 如果……,我将不胜感激。 appreciation: [?? pri:? i?ei ? n] n. 欣赏,感激 appreciative: [?? pri:? i?eitiv ] adj. 有欣赏力的,感激的 be appreciative of sth: 感激…… ① His ability was fully appreciated by his employer. ② I would appreciate it if you would turn the music down. ③ To show our appreciation for your work, we’d like to give you a bonus. ④ I’m most appreciative of your generosity. 8. let off: vt. (1) 宽恕,不惩罚 (2) 放(枪等) ,使爆炸 ① They let us off. ② The boys were letting off fireworks. 9. public transport: 公共交通 10. (Page 39, Line 20) You should find ways to use them again without throwing them away. without= instead of 11. absorb: vt. 吸收,理解,使全神贯注 be absorbed in sth: 专心于…… ① Plants absorb nutrients from soil. ② Clever children absorb knowledge easily. ③ Absorbed in his study, he didn’t notice I came in. 12. do one’s part: 尽……的职责 Everyone should do his part to make contributions for his motherland.

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牛津英语模五 Unit 2 (2)
【考点释析】
1. debate
▲ ▲ ▲

vt/vi/n.

争论;辩论 讨论某事 讨论… 争论某事 我和玛丽辩论了这个问题。 他们讨论谁应该为失败受责备。 发言人表达了工人的不满。

debate sth. debate + wh-clause debate about/on sth.

I debated (on/upon) the question with Mary. The debated who was to blame for the failure. 2. voice v. 表达;吐露; n. 看法;意见 A spokesman voiced the workers’ dissatisfaction. 新计划实施前,我们愿意倾听一下工人们的意见。

Before this new plan comes into effect, we would like to hear the voice of the workers. 3. These boats catch large numbers of fish without giving them time to lay eggs. lay vt. (鸟,虫等)下蛋;产卵,放;搁置 (laid, laid, laying) 这些母鸡没有在下蛋。 把你的大衣放在床上。 我们要铺一块新桌布。 撒谎 躺;位于 n. 方法;方式;道路; 春天就要来临。 我们听到一辆车驶近的声音。 他差不多 80 岁了。 我们悄悄走近营地。 These hens are not laying eggs. Lay your coat on the bed. We’re going to lay a new table cloth. 【拓展】lie — lied — lied — lying lie — lay — ain — lying approach


4. The figure is now approaching 6.5 billion people. vt/vi. 接近;靠近;处理;解决 the approach to (doing) sth. (做) 某事的方法

Spring is approaching. We heard the sound of an approaching car. He is approaching 80. We approached the camp silently.

An investigative group will approach the nuclear problem in Iran. 一个调查小组将处理伊朗的核问题。 5. It would be beneficial to expand our recycling industry, and teach people about environmentally friendly ways of living. expand v. 扩大;增加;增强; expansion n. 金属受热会膨胀。 学生人数在迅速增长. Metals expand when they are heated. Student numbers are expanding rapidly. We’ve expanded the business by opening two more store 我们增开了两个商店以扩展业务。 6. The world’s population has grown to more than six times what it was in 1800. 倍数表达法: A is twice as big as B. A is twice bigger than B. A is twice the size of B. A is twice what it was …

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【归纳】不管是哪一种结构中,倍数词一定要放在表示比较的结构前面。 7. It is obvious that you are very concerned about the present situation of our environment.


It is obvious that…

很显然…;

obviously

adv.

显然地;明显地 很显然,是你弄错了。

It is obvious that the sick child needs food and sunshine. Obviously, it is you who have made a mistake.


situation 1)形势;情形;处境 他遇到一种情况需要他立即决定。

2)地理位置;环境特点

He got into a situation where he had to decide immediately. We have all been in similar embarrassing situations. 我们都遇到过类似的尴尬局面。

The town is in a delightful situation in a wide green valley. 小城坐落在一个宽阔而草本苍翠的山谷中,环境宜人 In your situation, I would look for another job.
▲ ▲ ▲

要是我是你的话,我会另找一份工作。

situate situated

vt 使位于;使坐落于 adj. 位于…的;坐落在…的 将…视为…, 把…看作… 我们有责任保护他们。 他的朋友认为他是未来的流行歌星。

be situate in/on…= be located in/on…

8. see…as

= look on/ consider/ treat/ think of/regard/view… as… We have responsibility for protecting them. His friends see him as a future pop star. He is seen as one of the best football players in the world. 他被视作世界上最好的足球队员之一。 9. As the third longest river in the world, it is clear to see why the environmental problems of the Yangtze River have raised concern both nationally and internationally. raise vt. 提出 (问题);引起 (关注);筹集 (资金);饲养;抚养; 抬起;使提高 我们正在为这个项目筹集资金。 他要养活一大家人。 他举手打招呼。 link verb 仍然是; remaining adj. 剩余的 大火之后这座房子剩余无几。 这么多年后他仍然是一个工人。 她走了,而我留了下来。 你说的对不对还有待证实。 The teacher raised a question that no one could answer. We’re raising money for the Project. He has a big family to raise. He raised a hand in greeting. remain vi. 剩下,逗留; The problem of global warming has raised concern internationally.

10. Less than 100 white-flag dolphins remain in the Yangtze River. remains n. 剩余物;残留物;

Very little of the house remained after the big fire. After so many years he remains a worker. She left, but I remained behind. It remains to be seen whether you are right.

11. Thankfully, many people have recognized the importance of protecting the Yangtze River and environmental organizations and projects have been set up to deal with the problem. thankfully adv. 幸亏,高兴地,感激地 There was a fire in the building, but thankfully no one was hurt. 12. We believe that the efforts of the Chinese government and the Chinese people to protect this much-loved river will be appreciated for years to come by future generations. appreciate vt. 欣赏,赏识;感谢,感激

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appreciation n. 欣赏 appreciative adj. 欣赏的;感激的 非常感激你能回电话。

注意:appreciate 后接名词、代词或动名词作宾语,不接不定式;不接 sb. 作宾语。 I would appreciate your calling back. 如果你能帮我解决这个问题,我感激不尽。 【拓展】注意以上句型中的 it: Sb. like/love/hate/dislike it when… Sb. see to it that… Sb. depend on it that… I would appreciate it if you can help me with the problem.

【短语记忆】
1. wipe out 2. cut back on cut up / in / off /down 3. open the floor have/get the floor take the floor 4. be beneficial to = be of benefit to for the benefit of 5. hide from their responsibilities to 6. the key to helping both sides the answer/approach/entrance/solution to… 7. allow sb./sth. to do sth. allow doing sth 8. ask around 9. convince sb.of sth. convince sb.to do sth. convince sb. that… 10. How come…? 11. be stocked with… 12. pick out 13. work out solutions to many problems 14. a nature reserve 15. impress sth on sb.=impress on sb. sth. impress sb.with sth 16. suspect sb. of sth/doing sth./that… suspect sb. to be… 17. be home to…= be the home of… 18. prohibit sb.from doing sth. forbid doing sth. forbid sb. from doing sth.= forbid sb. to do sth. 19. under way 怎么会发生…? 装备有…;储备有… 精心挑选;辨别出;使容易看见 制定出许多解决问题的办法 自然保护区 使某人明白…的重要性 给…留下…影响 怀疑某人做某事 认为某人是… 是…的栖息地 禁止某人做某事 禁止做某事 禁止某人做某事 已经开始;在进行中 允许某人做某事 允许做… 四处打听 使某人相信某事 说服某人做某事 扫除,消灭 削减,缩减 切碎/打断、插嘴/中断、切断/砍倒、削减 自由发言 取得发言权 发言 对…有好处 为…的利益 隐藏以躲避对…的责任 帮助双方的关键

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牛津英语模五 Unit 3(1)
一、Reading
1. (Page 42, Line 3) ……point out that if you clone an embryo, you can produce…… 当宾语从句是主从复合句,而且从句在前时,that 不可以省略;当宾语从句后的主从复合句中的从句在 后时,that 可以省略。例如: Father promised that if I studied harder he would take me to Beijing. Father promised (that) he take me to Beijing if I studied harder. 2. be on one’s way to doing sth: 就快…… He is well on his way to becoming an officer of the company. 他就快当上公司的高官了。 3. intention: n. 意图,目的,打算 with the intention of sth: 怀着……的意图 have the intention of doing sth: 有意做…… have the intention to do sth: ① He went to the library with the intention of finding some valuable books. ② We have no intention of deserting the land we have occupied. 4. adopt: vt. ⑴ 领养,收养 ⑵ 采用,采纳 adopted: adj. 领养的,过继的 adoption: n. ⑴ 领养,收养 ⑵ 采用,采纳 ① Having no children of their own, they decided to adopt an orphan(孤儿). ② adopted son: 养子 ③ adopt one’s advice. 5. (Page 42, Line 24) If I had the chance, I would have…… →虚拟条件句: 从句 与现在事实相反 与过去事实相反 与将来事实相反 If + 主语 + 过去式 If + 主语 + had done If + 主语 + 过去式 If + 主语 + should(万一) do If + 主语 + were to do 主句 主语 + would / should / could / might + do 主语 + would / should / could / might + have done 主语 + would / should / could / might + do

① If I were you, I should tell him the truth. ② If I had money last time, I would / should / could / might have bought a car. ③ If it should rain, the crops would be saved. ④ If he were to leave today, he should get there by Friday. 6. push ahead with sth: 努力推进…… After careful consideration, they decided to push ahead with the construction of the train station. 7. consequence: n. 后果[C] as a consequence of sth: 由于…… The sea level has risen a lot as a consequence of global warming. 8. be in agreement with sb: 同意…… Are we in agreement with the price? 9. on a personal note: 个人认为 on a + adj + note: 以……的语气∕论调 ① He ended his speech to his employees on a humorous note. ② On a more serous note, the manager mentioned the accident last month.

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二、Grammar
1. make a breakthrough: 取得突破 They have made a great breakthrough in scientific research. 2. burn out: (1) vt. 烧光,烧坏;使……累垮 ① The hotel was completely burnt out. ② If he doesn’t stop working so hard, he’ll burn himself out. (2) vi. 燃尽,烧坏 ① The fire burnt out before the firemen arrived. ② The clutch(离合器) has burnt out due to excessive heat. 离合器因为过热而失灵。

三、Task
1. with reference to sth: 关于…… With reference to your recent advertisement, I’m writing to request further details. 关于贵方最近的广告,现特函查询详情。 2. in reply to sth: 答复…… I’m writing in reply to your letter of July, 1. 3. I would be grateful if you could…… 如果你能……,我方感激不尽 I would appreciate it if you could…… We would be most grateful if you could confirm these arrangements immediately. 如果贵方能立即确认这些安排,我方将感激不尽。 4. follow in one’s footsteps: 效仿某人 My father was a jazz player, and I wanted to follow in his footsteps. 5. conduct: vt. (1) 进行 (2) 指挥 (3) 传导 (4) 行为表现 conduct oneself well / badly: 行为表现好∕坏 ◆◆conductor: n. 乐队指挥;售票员;列车长;导体 ① a survey conducted by Professor Johnson: 由约翰逊教授进行的调查 ② conduct a band: 指挥一个乐队 ③ Copper conducts electricity better than other materials do. ④ He conducted himself far better than expected. 6. majority: n. 多数,大多数 ⑴ a majority of + n(复数): 大多数…… (作主语,谓语动词用复数形式) A clear majority of voters were in favor of the motion(动议). 绝大多数选民都赞成这一动议。 ⑵ the majority: 大多数。它作主语时,如果强调整体,谓语动词用单数;如果强调个体∕其中成员,谓语 动词用复数。 The majority agree(s) with me. ⑶ The majority of + n[C / U]: 大多数……。作主语时,谓语动词根据该结构中的名词形式变化。 ① The majority of people have realized the importance of limiting population growth. ② The majority of the damage is easy to repair. ⑷ The majority of + 集合名词: 大多数……。它作主语时,如果强调整体,谓语动词用单数;如果强调 个体∕其中成员,谓语动词用复数。 ① The majority of the population live(s) in the city. ② The majority of the committee have / has arrived. ⑸ be in the majority: 占多数 Men are in the majority in their college. 7. summary: n. 总结,概括,摘要

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news summary: 新闻提要 in summary: 总之 ① Please write a short summary of the passage. ② In summary, I would say the sports meeting has achieved a great success. 8. take sth into consideration / account: 考虑…… I always take fuel consumption into consideration when buying a car. 9. practice: n. 惯例,习俗 It’s bad practice to reveal(泄露) clients’ names. 泄露客户的姓名是个不好的习惯。 10. keep sth alive: 维持……的生命∕存在 ① Doctors kept him alive on a life-support machine. 医生们靠生命维持机维持他的生命。 ② we need to fight to keep our academic institution alive. 我们需要斗争以使我们的学术机构得以生存。 11. brief: adj. 短暂的,简洁的 in brief: 简言之 a brief visit: 短暂的访问 a brief conversation: 简洁的对话 In brief, the meeting was a disaster: 简言之,这次会议糟透了。

四、Project
1. point of view: 观点,意见 from the point of view: 依……看 ① No one wanted to listen to my point of view. ② From the point of Tom, it’s a bad practice to waste so much water. 2. meet / satisfy one’s need: 满足……的需要 We must step up economic development to meet the people’s growing needs. 3. in doing so: 这样做时;这样一来,在这种情况下;这时,当时 ① In doing so, she gave a little sigh. 这时,她轻叹了一口气。 ② In doing so, they only demonstrated their lack of good faith. 他们这样做,只表明他们缺乏善意。 4. (Page 58, Lines 19-20) They have not seen the effects of careless use of the environment like many wealthy nations have. “like many wealthy nations have” 后省略了 seen the effects of careless use of the environment。 5. be good for sb: 对……有益 do sb good: 对……带来益处 ① Sunshine is good for your plants. ② Eat more fruit; it will do you good. 6. (Page 58, Line 26) It should not be a question of humans winning and nature losing. “humans winning and nature losing”为动名词复合结构做介词 of 的宾语。 7. open up: vt. & vi. (1) 开发,开辟 (2) 开办,开业 (3) 打开 (4) 展现 ① The new railway is seen as a means of opening up the far west of the country. 这条新铁路被视作国家西部开发的重要手段。 ② open up a shop. / A shop has open up. ③ open up a package. 打开一个包裹。 ④ A move to New York would open up various exciting possibility. 迁到纽约会展现各种各样令人兴奋的机遇。 8. (Page 59, Line 4) Nowhere is truer than with genetically modified food. 转基因食品就是最好的例子。 →“Nowhere is truer than……”为“否定词+比较级”表示最高级含义。 9. nature: n. 本性,天性 human nature: 人类的天性

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one’s better nature: 人性中善良的一面 I’ve tried appealing to her better nature, but she still refuses to help. 我竭力想唤醒她人性中善良的一面,但她还是拒绝帮忙。 10. defend sb from/against sth: (1) 保护……免于…… (2) 就……为……辩护 ① The people had to fight to defend their country from the enemies. ② Tom tried every means to defend himself against their charges(指控). 11. be limited to sth: 局限于…… The expenses should be limited to what you can really afford. 费用不应超出你们偿还能力的限度。 12. as to sth: 关于…… as for sth: 至于…… ① As to correcting our homework, the teacher always makes us do it ourselves. 至于批改我们的作业,老师总是让我们自己改。 ② As for the hotel, it was uncomfortable and miles from the sea. 至于旅馆呢,非常不舒服,而且离海边好几英里。 13. (Page 59, Lines 23-24) No one knows what effects the GM material might have on the food chain. 划线部分为 have an effect on sth 的变化形式。 14. permission: n. 允许,许可 give sb permission to do sth: 允许某人做…… ask permission from sb: 征得……的允许 ask for permission: 请求许可 with one’s permission: 在……允许下 without permission: 未经允许 ① Who gave you permission to leave the house early? ② If you want to take photos, you must ask permission from him. ③ They enter the area without permission.

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牛津英语模五 Unit 3(2)
【考点释析】
1. point out 指出 (P 43) 他指出了我的错误。 He pointed out my mistakes.

When it comes to houses, he points out that most people work all their lives paying for a house. 提到房子,他指出大多数人一生都在为一所房子而辛苦地工作。
▲ ▲ ▲

point at/to point at point to vi.

指着、指向某人或某物 (两个词组可以换用) 对准、瞄准(某人用枪对准某人某物等) 表明、指向(主语为证据、时针以及宾语为某一方向时)


2. interfere


interfere with

妨碍;扰乱;

(P 42)

interfere in 【贬】干涉、干预、介入 我从来不介入他的事。

I never interfere in his affairs. 3. breakthrough
▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲

The sound of the radio upstairs interferes with my work. n. 突破 (P 42) 冲破、突破 (战争、火灾等)的突然爆发; 破门而入、闯入 粉碎、解散、结束(分手) 中途坏掉、分解、 (精神)垮掉 (P 42) 我没想改变主意。 n. 意图、打算、目的 make / achieve a breakthrough in… 在某方面取得突破 break through break out break into break up break down

4. intention
▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲

I have no intention of changing my mind. with the intention of intend to do sth. be intended for without intention 无意地; 打算做某事 专为某人准备 intend sb. to do sth.打算某人做某事 vt. 收养,领养;采用,采纳

为了,以?为目的或意图

5. adopt

Can you adopt my idea? They adopted a baby boy.
▲ ▲

你能采用我的主意么? 他们收养了一个小男孩儿。

an adopted son

养子 (P 42)

adopted words 外来词

6. push ahead with sth. 推进、推行、毅然继续做某事 这样一个不得人心的政策很难推行下去。
▲ ▲

It’s hard to push ahead/forward/on with such an unpopular policy. push sth. forward 提出某事,迫使他人考虑或注意某事 推进、推行、毅然继续做某事

push ahead/forward/on with sth. 一会儿、一段时间

7. while 1) n. Just wait for a while and then I will help you. 2) conj. “当…时候、在…期间” ;引导时间状语从句。 My wife kept silent while I was writing. 我老婆在我写作的时候保持沉默。

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3)conj. “尽管” ,相当于 although, 常放在句首。 While I understand what you said, I can’t agree with you. 尽管我理解你所说的话,但是我不同意你。 4)conj. “然而” He is a teacher, while his brother is a doctor. Her baby was delivered by an experienced doctor. The morning mail has been just delivered.
▲ ▲

他是老师,而他哥哥是医生。 一位有经验的医生接生了她的宝宝。 早上的邮件刚刚被投递出去。

8. deliver vt. 接生、使分娩;把...递给某人;发表(演讲)

deliver … to sb. deliver a speech vt. / vi./ n benefit sb./sth benefit from

把...递给某人 发表(演讲) 对某人/某物有益 从...中获益 为了...的利益 据说瑜伽对健康有好处。 评论某人(某事) ;对…做出评论 她对那本书做出了几条评论。

9. benefit
▲ ▲ ▲ ▲

be beneficial to / be of much benefit to 对...有好处 for the benefit of… It is said that Yoga is of much benefit to health.

10. comment


n.& vi. 评论,评注

make a comment/comments on = comment on 支持;赞同

She make several comments on that book. 11. in favour of
▲ ▲ ▲

do sb a favour = do a favor for sb 帮某人一个忙 in sb’s favour 对某人有利 owe sb a favour 欠某人一个人情 你能帮我拿那个盒子吗? 他愿意放宽规定以有利于她。 今天你请客,因为你欠我一个人情。

Will you do me the favor to carry the box? He was willing to bend the rules in his favor. It’s your treat today, for you owe me a favor.

12. Not everything that is best for nature is good for people. 当 both, all, every 及 each 构成的复合词用于否定句时,都表示部分否定。 注意:表示部分否定时 not 并不总是放在这些词之前,not 也可以放在谓语部分。 Not every girl wants to go on a diet. = Every girl does not want to go on a diet. Not all students like this subject. 13. turn out 意思是“结果是;证明是” ,其用法如下: turn out (to be) + adj / n It turned out that … We all thought he was honest, but he turned out (to be) a cheat. 我们原以为他很诚实,但是结果他却是个骗子。 It was a hard time, but everything turned out (to be) fine at last. 那是一个很艰难的时期,但最终结果却不坏。 To my surprise, it turned out that I was wrong. 14. with/without 的复合结构小结 I don’t like to sleep with the window open. He left the room with all the lights on. He stood at the door, with a ball in his hand. With all the books bought, I went home. 不喜欢开着窗子睡觉。 他走的时候房间所有的灯都开着。 他站在门边,手里拿着球。 所有的书都买好了,我回家了。 我没有想到,结果证明我错了。 并非所有的学生都喜欢这个科目。 注意:表示完全否定可用 no, 及 no 构成的复合词 none, never 等。

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She hid the money without anyone knowing where it was. 她把钱藏起来,没有人知道在什么地方。 The little boy looks sad, with so much work to do. 那小男孩看起来很不开心因为有很多作业要做。 15. rather than 而不是; 我想休息而不想出去。 我宁愿夏天去,不愿冬天去。 I want to have a rest rather than go out. I’d prefer to go in summer rather than in winter.

Tom likes getting up early rather than going to school without breakfast. 汤姆宁愿早起,而不愿不吃早饭去上学。 It is you rather than he that have been admitted into the club. 是你而不是他被俱乐部录取。

【短语记忆】
1. interfere with nature 2. on the way to doing sth. 3. in general 4. intend to do sth. 5. with the intention of doing sth. 6. show respect for human life 7. be desperate to do sth. be desperate for sth. 8. be related to 9. push ahead with 10. deliver a cloned human baby 11. focus one’s efforts on cloning 12. benefit human beings 13. end up doing sth. 14. use up Earth’s resources 15. point out 16. comment on sth./make comments on sth 17. in (complete) agreement with… 18. on a personal note 19. experiment with human life 20. put…in place 21. figure out 22. the other day 23. be resistant to 24. limit … to… 25. in favor of 26. be concerned about 27. rather than 28. at a fast rate 29. blame sb. for (doing) sth. 30. turn out (to be) + adj/n. 干涉自然 在做某事的过程中 总的说来 打算做某事 带着做某事的目的 尊敬人类生命 不顾一切想做某事 不顾一切想得到… 和…有关/联系 推进 / 推行某事 接生克隆婴儿 把努力集中在克隆上 对人类有益 以做某事告终 用光地球上的资源 指出 对…作评论 (完全)赞同… 从个人的角度看来 用人类生命做实验 准备就绪;布置妥当 想出;理解;明白;计算出 几天前;那天 抗…的;防…的 把…限制在…范围内 支持赞成 关心;担心 而不是 以很快的速度 因…责备某人 证明是、结果是 (P 58) (P 57) (P 49) (P 45) (P 43) (P 42)

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