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Casting Processes
ver. 2

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Types of Parts Made
Engine blocks Pipes Jewelry Fire hydrants Fi h d t

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Complex, 3-D Complex 3 D shapes
Near net shape p Low scrap Relatively quick process Intricate shapes Large hollow shapes No limit to size Reasonable to good surface finish
ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009 3

Processes
Sand Shell Plaster Ceramic Investment Lost foam Pressure Vacuum Die Centrifugal Squeeze Semi-solid Single crystal Directional solidification Slush Continuous
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ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

Metals processed by casting
Sand casting – 60% Investment casting – 7% g Die casting – 9% Permanent mold casting – 11% Centrifugal casting – 7% Shell mold casting – 6%

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Breakdown of Castings
Ingots for bulk deformation processing 85% Cast to near net shape - 15%

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Ingots
Iron or steel molds Water-cooled molds Water cooled Continuous casting

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Shapes
Permanent mold (cavity)
– die casting – hot chamber – cold chamber ld h b

Expendable Molds
– – – – sand shell slurry investment
lost wax lost foam

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Shapes
Centrifugal
– pipes – spinning

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Capabilities
Dimensions
– sand casting - as large as you like – small - 1 mm or so

Tolerances
– 0 005 in to 0 1 in 0.005 0.1

Surface finish
– di casting 8 16 micro-inches (1 3 μm) die ti 8-16 i i h (1-3 ) – sand casting - 500 micro-inches (10-25 μm)
ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009 10

Casting Steps
quick route from raw material to finished product

Melt metals Pour / force liquid into hollow cavity (mold) Cool / Solidify Remove Finish
ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009 11

Melting
Raw material (charge)
– scrap alloying materials scrap,
Heat

Furnace Atmosphere

Atmosphere Heating

Raw materials

– Air (oxygen), vacuum inert gas (argon) (oxygen) vacuum, – External - electric gas oil electric, gas, – Internal - induction, mix fuel with charge
steel making in blast furnace -mix coke with iron mix

Furnace material
– refractory ceramics
ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009 12

Furnaces

Blast furnace

Basic Oxygen Furnace
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ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

Furnaces

Electric Arc Furnace

Oxygen-Fuel, Oxygen Lance Furnace
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ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

Furnaces

Induction Furnace

Electric Furnace

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Sand Casting g

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Sand Casting

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Sand Casting

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Sand Casting Steps

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Sand Cast Parts

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Permanent Mold Casting

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Low Pressure Casting

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Die Casting ( g p g (high pressure) )

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Die Casting Machine

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Die Casting

Cold chamber

Hot chamber

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Direct Squeeze Casting

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Die Casting Part Example

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Continuous Casting

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Investment Casting C ti

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Vacuum Casting

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Investment (top) and Conventional Castings

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Lost Foam Casting

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Lost Foam Castings

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Centrifugal Casting

horizontal

sand-lined mold g casting
ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

vertical
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Centrifugal Casting

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Pipe Casting Process

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Directional Solidification

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Casting Characteristics
Table 5.6 Typical materials cast
All All

Weig ht (kg)

Process
Sand Shell Expendable E pendable mold pattern

Minimum
0.05 0.05

Maximum
No limit 100+

Typical surface finish (micron, Ra)
5-25 1-3

Section thickness (mm) Shape complexity Dimensional * accuracy*
1-2 2-3 3 2

Porosity*
4 4

Minimum
3 2

Maximum
No limit --

All Nonferrou Plaster s (Al, Mg, mold Zn, Cu) All (High melting Investment pt.) Permanent mold All Nonferrou s (Al Mg (Al, Mg, Die Zn, Cu) Centrifugal All

0.05

No limit

5-20

4

1

2

2

No limit

0.05

50+

1-2

3

1-2

2

1

--

0.005 0.5

100+ 300

1-3 2-3

3 2-3

1 3-4

1 1

1 2

75 50

<0.05 50 1-2 1-2 3-4 1 -5000+ 2-10 1-2 3-4 3 *Relative rating: 1 best, 5 worst. Note : These ratings are only general; significant variations can occur, depending on the methods used.

0.5 2

12 100

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Microstructure

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Microstructure - Dendrites

Finer structure at walls Grains / dendrites grow to center
ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009 44

Grains on Willie B’s head Bs

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Microstructure - Dendrites

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Fluidity

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Casting Defects - Porosity

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Casting Defects

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Shrinkage
TABLE 5.1 Volumetric solidification contraction (%) 6.6 6.3 3.8 2.5–3 4 4.9 Volumetric solidification contraction (%) 4.5 4 Expansion to 2.5 4.2 4–5.5 6.5

Metal or alloy Aluminum Al–4.5%Cu Al–12%Si Carbon steel 1% carbon steel Copper Source: After R. A. Flinn.

Metal or alloy 70%Cu–30%Zn 90%Cu–10%Al Gray iron g Magnesium White iron Zinc

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Differential Cooling
Transition between thicker and thinner sections can lead to porosity p y

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Pipe Defect
D t shrinkage giving rise t Due to h i k i i i to a funnel-like cavity Solutions
– insulate top (glass wool) – heat top (exothermic mixture thermit)

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Defects - Hot Tears

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Chills

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Design Rules Summary
Uniform wall thickness Flat parting lines Gradual thickness transitions D ft for removal Draft f l
– tapers: 0.5 to 2 degrees

Surface of mold gives surface of part
ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009 55

Sand Casting Rules

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Casting costs
TABLE 5.10 Cost Cost* Process Die Sand L Shell-mold L–M Plaster L–M Investment M–H Permanent mold M Die H Centrifugal M *L l L, low; M medium; H hi h M, di H, high. Equipment L M-H M L-M M H H Labor L M L–M L–M M–H H L–M L–M L–M Production rate (Pc/hr) <20 20 <50 <10 <1000 <60 <200 <50

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Process economics

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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