当前位置:首页 >> 机械/仪表 >>

casting


Casting Processes
ver. 2

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

1

Types of Parts Made
Engine blocks Pipes

Jewelry Fire hydrants Fi h d t

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

2

Complex, 3-D Complex 3 D shapes
Near net shape p Low scrap Relatively quick process Intricate shapes Large hollow shapes No limit to size Reasonable to good surface finish
ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009 3

Processes
Sand Shell Plaster Ceramic Investment Lost foam Pressure Vacuum Die Centrifugal Squeeze Semi-solid Single crystal Directional solidification Slush Continuous
4

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

Metals processed by casting
Sand casting – 60% Investment casting – 7% g Die casting – 9% Permanent mold casting – 11% Centrifugal casting – 7% Shell mold casting – 6%

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

5

Breakdown of Castings
Ingots for bulk deformation processing 85% Cast to near net shape - 15%

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

6

Ingots
Iron or steel molds Water-cooled molds Water cooled Continuous casting

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

7

Shapes
Permanent mold (cavity)
– die casting – hot chamber – cold chamber ld h b

Expendable Molds
– – – – sand shell slurry investment
lost wax lost foam

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

8

Shapes
Centrifugal
– pipes – spinning

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

9

Capabilities
Dimensions
– sand casting - as large as you like – small - 1 mm or so

Tolerances
– 0 005 in to 0 1 in 0.005 0.1

Surface finish
– di casting 8 16 micro-inches (1 3 μm) die ti 8-16 i i h (1-3 ) – sand casting - 500 micro-inches (10-25 μm)
ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009 10

Casting Steps
quick route from raw material to finished product

Melt metals Pour / force liquid into hollow cavity (mold) Cool / Solidify Remove Finish
ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009 11

Melting
Raw material (charge)
– scrap alloying materials scrap,
Heat

Furnace Atmosphere

Atmosphere Heating

Raw materials

– Air (oxygen), vacuum inert gas (argon) (oxygen) vacuum, – External - electric gas oil electric, gas, – Internal - induction, mix fuel with charge
steel making in blast furnace -mix coke with iron mix

Furnace material
– refractory ceramics
ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009 12

Furnaces

Blast furnace

Basic Oxygen Furnace
13

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

Furnaces

Electric Arc Furnace

Oxygen-Fuel, Oxygen Lance Furnace
14

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

Furnaces

Induction Furnace

Electric Furnace

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

15

Sand Casting g

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

16

Sand Casting

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

17

Sand Casting

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

18

Sand Casting Steps

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

19

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

20

Sand Cast Parts

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

21

Permanent Mold Casting

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

22

Low Pressure Casting

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

23

Die Casting ( g p g (high pressure) )

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

24

Die Casting Machine

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

25

Die Casting

Cold chamber

Hot chamber

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

26

Direct Squeeze Casting

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

27

Die Casting Part Example

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

28

Continuous Casting

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

29

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

30

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

31

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

32

Investment Casting C ti

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

33

Vacuum Casting

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

34

Investment (top) and Conventional Castings

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

35

Lost Foam Casting

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

36

Lost Foam Castings

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

37

Centrifugal Casting

horizontal

sand-lined mold g casting
ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

vertical
38

Centrifugal Casting

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

39

Pipe Casting Process

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

40

Directional Solidification

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

41

Casting Characteristics
Table 5.6 Typical materials cast
All All

Weig ht (kg)

Process
Sand Shell Expendable E pendable mold pattern

Minimum
0.05 0.05

Maximum
No limit 100+

Typical surface finish (micron, Ra)
5-25 1-3

Section thickness (mm) Shape complexity Dimensional * accuracy*
1-2 2-3 3 2

Porosity*
4 4

Minimum
3 2

Maximum
No limit --

All Nonferrou Plaster s (Al, Mg, mold Zn, Cu) All (High melting Investment pt.) Permanent mold All Nonferrou s (Al Mg (Al, Mg, Die Zn, Cu) Centrifugal All

0.05

No limit

5-20

4

1

2

2

No limit

0.05

50+

1-2

3

1-2

2

1

--

0.005 0.5

100+ 300

1-3 2-3

3 2-3

1 3-4

1 1

1 2

75 50

<0.05 50 1-2 1-2 3-4 1 -5000+ 2-10 1-2 3-4 3 *Relative rating: 1 best, 5 worst. Note : These ratings are only general; significant variations can occur, depending on the methods used.

0.5 2

12 100

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

42

Microstructure

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

43

Microstructure - Dendrites

Finer structure at walls Grains / dendrites grow to center
ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009 44

Grains on Willie B’s head Bs

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

45

Microstructure - Dendrites

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

46

Fluidity

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

47

Casting Defects - Porosity

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

48

Casting Defects

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

49

Shrinkage
TABLE 5.1 Volumetric solidification contraction (%) 6.6 6.3 3.8 2.5–3 4 4.9 Volumetric solidification contraction (%) 4.5 4 Expansion to 2.5 4.2 4–5.5 6.5

Metal or alloy Aluminum Al–4.5%Cu Al–12%Si Carbon steel 1% carbon steel Copper Source: After R. A. Flinn.

Metal or alloy 70%Cu–30%Zn 90%Cu–10%Al Gray iron g Magnesium White iron Zinc

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

50

Differential Cooling
Transition between thicker and thinner sections can lead to porosity p y

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

51

Pipe Defect
D t shrinkage giving rise t Due to h i k i i i to a funnel-like cavity Solutions
– insulate top (glass wool) – heat top (exothermic mixture thermit)

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

52

Defects - Hot Tears

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

53

Chills

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

54

Design Rules Summary
Uniform wall thickness Flat parting lines Gradual thickness transitions D ft for removal Draft f l
– tapers: 0.5 to 2 degrees

Surface of mold gives surface of part
ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009 55

Sand Casting Rules

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

56

Casting costs
TABLE 5.10 Cost Cost* Process Die Sand L Shell-mold L–M Plaster L–M Investment M–H Permanent mold M Die H Centrifugal M *L l L, low; M medium; H hi h M, di H, high. Equipment L M-H M L-M M H H Labor L M L–M L–M M–H H L–M L–M L–M Production rate (Pc/hr) <20 20 <50 <10 <1000 <60 <200 <50

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

57

Process economics

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

58

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

59


相关文章:
Low pressure casting and Gravity casting
Low pressure casting and Gravity casting_机械/仪表_工程科技_专业资料。Low pressure casting and high pressure casting introduction低压...
Investment_Casting_Process_Description
Investment_Casting_Process_Description_机械/仪表_工程科技_专业资料。熔模铸造过程Investment Casting=Precision Casting=Lost Wax Casting Pattern Production 熔模制造...
常用铸造词汇的中英文对照和解释
铸件 casting 毛坯铸件 rough casting 砂型铸件 sand casting 试制铸件 pilot casting 铸态铸件 as-cast casting 铸型 mold 铸造工艺 casting process , foundry ...
casting作业指导书+COATING测试操作方法
casting作业指导书+COATING测试操作方法_计算机软件及应用_IT/计算机_专业资料。Casting 作业指导书 一、目的:指导 Casting 作业人员按正确的流程和要求进行操作。 二...
压铸术语
铸件casting 毛坯铸件 rough casting 砂型铸件 sand casting 试制铸件 pilot casting 铸态铸件 as-cast casting 铸型 mold 铸造工艺 casting process , foundry ...
NASA is casting a wider net in the space shuttle in...
NASA is casting a wider net in the space shuttle investigation as to what caused the spacecraft to swing out of control and___moments before it was ...
专业术语EN-die-casting
专业术语EN-die-casting_英语学习_外语学习_教育专区。压铸英语专业术语A 安装尺寸 install dimension 凹模固定板 retainer plate 凹模 female die, female mold, ...
co-casting工艺一种新的陶瓷多层设备制造工艺_图文
co-casting 工艺:一种新的陶瓷多层设备制造工艺 摘要本文提出了传统的多层陶瓷精密多层的制造技术中的一种简化的过程链,并提供一个无需 复杂设备简便的方法。为...
Die Casting Defects
改善措施: Solutions: 检查压铸参数 Inspect the parameter of the die casting machine 运用合适的金属流动模式—避免长距离的金属液流动,确保金属液不在离内浇口很...
words about casting
casting 除气 degassing 吹气净化 blow purifying 除气剂 degassing flux 出渣 de-slagging 出渣口 slag hole 沉渣 sludge 出炉口 tap hole 菜花头 Cauli-...
更多相关标签:
die casting | casting vote | casting是什么意思 | cast | casting couch | casting照片 | 演员casting | casting call |