定义 :在复合句中起名词作用的从句叫名词性从句 (Noun Clauses）。名词性从句的功能相当于 名词词组, 它在复合句中能担任主语、宾语、表语、 同位语、介词宾语，因此根据它在句中不同 的语法功能.
主语从句 宾语从句 名词性从句 表语从句 同位语从句
Correct the errors.
1.That the e
arth turns around the sun are ___ known to all. is 2.When the meeting will be held haven’t been ______ known yet. hasn’t 3.I didn’t know when you____ come. will would 4.He said that he___ writing a story. is was ______ 5.Could you tell me when will he arrive? he will 6.You can begin to see why does English have ___________________ English has such strange rules.
一. 连接词的选用与判断 二.时态（呼应) 三.语序(陈述语序) 四.主谓(一致)
连接词的类型 连 词 that Whether/if 意义 无意义 是否 从句中所作成分 不作任何成分 不作任何成分
连 接 代 词
What(ever) who(ever) whom(ever) Whose/which How many/much
when where how why
(无论)什么 无论(谁) 谁的/哪个 多少
什么时间 什么地点 怎样 为什么
主,宾,表,定 主,宾,表 主,宾,表,定 主,宾,表,
状 状 状 状
连 接 副 词
连接代词和副词的运用 主要根据名词性从句中的具体意义,正确的 选择who、which、when、where、why、 how 等连接词，这些连接词既具有疑问含义， 又起连接作用，同时在从句中充当各种成分。
1).我们何时举行运动会还没有决定。 When ________ we shall hold our sports meeting is not decided. 2).我不知道昨天谁打破了玻璃。 who I don’t know _________ broke the glass yesterday. 3).我不知道他长的什么样子。 what I have no idea _________ he looks like. 4).这就是我忘记眼镜的地方。 where I left my glasses. This is _________
注意：1、that / what
What 1.______ he wants is a book. That 2. ______ he wants to go there is obvious. that 3.The result is ______ we won the game. what 4.This is _____ we want to know. what 5.Is _____ he told us true ? 6.We should pay attention to ______ the teacher is what saying. 7. I have no doubt _____ he will come. that what 8. I have no idea _____ he did that afternoon. What what 9._____ has made China_____ it is now ?
总结：that 和what 的选用
that 和 what 都可引导所有的名词性从句。 但是，what除起连接作用外，还在名 词性从句中充当成分，可作从句的主 语、宾语、或表语。而that在名词性从 句中不充当任何成分，只起连接作用。
2、if / whether if / whether 1. I asked her __________ she had a bike. Whether 2.______ we will hold a party in the open air tomorrow depends on the weather. whether 3. We’re worried about ________ he is safe. whether 4. I don’t know ___________ he is well or not. 5. I don’t know ________ or not he is well. whether whether 6. The question is _________ he should do it. 7.The doctor can hardly answer the question whether the old man will recover soon. ______ whether 8. I don’t know _______ to go. If 9.______ you are not free tomorrow, I’ll go without you.
whether 与 if 均为 “是否” 的意思。但在下列情况 下，只用whether. 1).whether 引导主语从句,不用if. 如： Whether it is true remains a problem. Whether he will come, I am not sure. 2). whether引导表语从句,不用if，如： The question is whether you should accept it. 3). whether引导同位语从句，不用if，如： The question whether he’ll attend the meeting is important.
4).whether引导介词的宾语从句，不用if. I’m not interested in whether they’ll go or not. It depends on whether we have got enough money. 5). whether直接跟动词不定式连用，而if 不能. I didn’t know whether to laugh or to cry. She hasn’t decided whether to go or not. 6).whether or not 连在一起引导宾语从句时不用if I don’t know whether it is right or not. 7). 用if会引起歧义时。 Please let me know if you like it.该句有两个意思：“请告诉 我你是否喜欢”。或“如果你喜欢,请告诉我。”用了whether 就可以避免。
3、that/ (that) (that) 1.I don’t think ________ she is coming. that 2.It is a pity ________ he has made such a mistake. that 3.The reason is _________ he is careless . that 4.The news ________ our team won the match inspired us. that 5.I don’t think it necessary _________ you should read English aloud. (that) 6.He told me __________ his father had died that and __________ he had to make a living alone.
that引导名词性从句时在从句中不做任何成分，也 没有具体的意义。其他连接词在引导从句时都做相 应的成分并有具体的意思。 1). 主语从句、表语从句、同位语从句中用that但不能省 略。
That they are good at English is known to us all. The problem is that we don’t have enough money She expressed the hope that they would co me to China one day.
2).It 做形式宾语的宾语从句： I don’t think it necessary that you should read English loudly. 3).并列宾语从句中，从第二个宾语从句开始都不可省 略He told me (that) his father had died and that he had to make a living alone. 4).当that宾语从句中又含有状语从句时. Tell him that if he comes tomorrow,please call me. 5).当that 前有插入语时 Tom didn’t know,I’m sure,that his sister was going to Japan. 6).当that作介词宾语时，that不可省掉。 The reason lies in that she works harder than the others do.
Whatever/whoever可引导主语，宾语，表语从句，并 在从句中做主语，宾语，表语。这种用法中， whatever/whoever 不含疑问意义。 Whatever=anything that; whoever=anyone who 1). Whoever breaks the law is to be punished. Anyone who ______ ______ breaks the law is to be punished. 2). They will do whatever he wants them to do. They will do ______ ______he wants them to do. anything that
注意：疑问词+ever和no matter+疑问词的区 别：
1).疑问词 + ever可引导名词性从句也可引导让步状语从 句，在主从句中要充当一定的成分。 Whoever breaks the rule must be punished. You can choose whatever you like in the shop. Whoever breaks the rule, he must be punished Whatever you do, you must do it well. 2).no matter + 疑问词只能引导让步状语从句。 No matter what you do, you must do it well. No matter who breaks the rule, he must be punish ed. No matter+疑问词可换成疑问词+ever
1、 如果主句时态是现在时或将来时,从句谓语 可根据句意需要而选用任一种时态. a .他相信他的梦想总有一天会实现的. his dream will come true some He believes _________________________ . day b .请告诉我你昨天这个时候在干什么. what you were doing at this Please tell me _________________________.time yesterday
2、 如果主句谓语是过去时,从句谓语动词一般用过去的 某种时态,但从句表达的是客观事实、真理、自然规 律等时，从句谓语通常用一般现在时。 他告诉我他正在为考试做准备。 he was preparing for the examination He told me ______________________ . 他说他已离开家乡十年了。 He had been away from his He told me ______________________. hometown for ten years 老师告诉我们光是沿直线运行的。 light travels in a straight The teacher tell us ______________________ line.
三.名词性从句中主句和从句的主谓一致. 主语从句做主语相当于单数第三人称作主语，谓语动 词用单数，如果由and 连接两个或两个以上的主语从句 做主语时，谓语动词用复数；由两个或多个连接词引导 一个主语从句，谓语动词用单数。如： When the meeting will begin has not been decided yet. When they will start and where they go have not been decided yet.
四.名词性从句在句中要用陈述句语序。如： He asked me what was the matter with me. We’ve heard the news that we’ll move into the new house
１．It 的用法： （形式主语）
It’s a pity /a shame/a good idea a fact /no wonder / a common knowledge (众所周知）/a common saying….（俗话说） It’s been announced/declared that..已经通知/宣布…
It is said/reported/ believed/known/thought/ suggested that …
It seems/appears/happens/turns out/ doesn’t matter... that…显然,明显,碰巧,结果是,没关系... It happened that I went out last night. It is said that China will win in the World Cup 2 .It 做形式宾语的宾语从句
I don’t think it necessary that you should read English loudly.
1).同位语从句的格式：n.+ 连接词 + 从句 2).能接同位语从句的名词有：fact、idea, news, information, order, belief, suggestion, advice, wish, promise, reason,doubt,question, possibility. 等 3).连接词通常是that,也可根据含义选用 whether, what, when, where 等来引导同位 语从句。eg.They had no idea at all where they had gone.
that/ whether / where/ how
where 1. I have no idea _________ he comes from. 2. He can’t answer the question ________ he how got the money. that 3.He gave us many suggestions ________ we should get up earlier and take more exercise. that 4.I have no doubt ________ he will win. whether 5. I have some doubt ________ he will win.
注意：同位语从句和定语从句的区别 1.定语从句是先行词的修饰语，它不涉及先行词的 具体内容。定语从句中that不但起连接作用，而且 在定语从句中充当一个句子成分，充当从句的宾语成分 时可省略。
2.同位语从句对中心词的内容作进一步的解释和说明， 表明中心词的具体内容。引导同位语从句的that 在同位语从句中不做任何成分,只起连接作用,无具体 含义,且不可省略.
同位语从句/定语从句 1.We expressed the hope that they had expressed. 定 2. We expressed the hope that they would come to China again. 同 1.The information has been announced that more middle school graduates will be admitted into university. 同 2.The information that he revealed at the meeting is of great value. 定
４、名词性从句与定语从句的一些对应关系： 1). He has done what he can to help me. --He has done ____ that he can to help me. all ____ 2).What I want to say has nothing to do with it.--____ that I want to say has nothing to All ____ do with it. 3). Whoever breaks the law is to be punished. __________ who Anyone _______ breaks the law is to be punished.
4). He will give the dictionary to whoever needs if
most. He will give the dictionary to anyone who needs it ______ ____
5). We’ll remember whomever we turned to for help. Anyone (whom) We’ll remember ______ ________ we turned to for help. 6). They will do whatever he wants them to do. anything that They will do ______ ______he wants them to do. 7). I’ll read whichever book you give me. I’ll read ____ of the books _____ you give me. any that
若 主 句 谓 语 动 词 为 think, consider, suppose, believe, expect, fancy, guess, imagine等，其后的宾语 从句若含有否定意义，一般要把否定词转移到主句 谓语上，从句谓语用肯定式。例如： I don’t think the dress fits you well ________________________________我认为这件衣 服不适合你穿。
1.It is important/necessary/natural/strange that…(should) +v… 2.It is a pity/a shame/no wonder that …(should) +v… It is +insisted (I drop caps) that …(should) +v… 3.在suggestion, proposal, plan, idea, order, decision 的表语从句和同位语中 (should) +v 4.It’s (high, about) time that …did/should do… 5. I wish that…did/had done/would do… 6. I insist (I drop caps) that …(should)+v…
(I drop caps)
Insist, demand, require, request, order, propose, command, advise, ask, prefer, suggest. desire, decide,determine,intend, Urge,direct,recommend.
1. Nowadays consumers become more and more practical and buy only _______ they need. A. where B. which C. when D. what 2. She’d like to offer money to ________ needs it to continue his or her study. A. who B. whom C. whoever D. whomever 3. ---If you are admitted to a key university, ___ as a prize --- I’m looking for a cell phone. A. What you expect your father will offer you B. Do you expect what your father will offer you C. What do you expect will your father offer you D. What do you expect your father will offer you
4. Yesterday he sold out all his stamps at ____ he thought was a reasonable price. A. that B. which C. what D. as 5. Generally speaking, _______ we have seen seems more believable than _______ we have been told. A. what; that B. what; what C. that; what D. that; that 6. After three days’ waiting, there was a little doubt in the mother’s mind _______ the police could find her lost child. A. how B. that C. where D. whether
7. “Sustainable development” is a question _______ we can continue developing the world without damaging the environment. A. why B. when C. that D. how 8. We’d like to do _______ we can _________ the poor. A. how; help B. all; to help C. whatever; help D. however; to help 9. My parents used ________they had to get a new car for my brother. A. which B. all what C. what D. 不填 10. She was so angry at all ________ he was doing _________ she stayed up all night. A. that; that B. that; which C. what; that D. what; as
11. After _________ seemed ages, the newsman disclosed (揭开)the facts. A. there B. which C. what D. that 12. Our school is no longer _________ it was 10 years ago, _____ it was not well equipped. A. what; which B. that; which C. what; when D. that; where 13. Our bad living habits will destroy the earth. Only by changing ______we live can we save the earth. A. that B. what C. how D. where
14. Thinking that you know _________ in fact you don’t is a serious mistake A. what B. that C. when D. however 15. Energy is _________ makes things work. A. what B. everything C. something D. anything 16. One of the men held the view __________the book said was right. A. that what B. what that C. that D. whether 17. I think that this meal was well worth ________ was charged for it. A. that B. what C. which D. how many