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Module5语法定语从句(必修3)


高中英语------ 必修 3

Module 5 语法------定语从句

定语从句 定语从句是由关系代词或关系副词引导的从句,其作用是作定语修饰主句的某个名词性成分,相当于形容词, 所以又称为形容词性从句,一般跟在它所修饰的先行词后面。在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词叫做定语从句。 关系词 引导定语从句的关联词称为关系词, 关系词有关系

代词和关系副词。 关系代词有 that, which, who, whom, whose, as 等,绝对没有 what;关系副词有 where, when, why 等。关系词常有 3 个作用: ①连接作用,引导定语从句。 ②代替主句中的先行词,甚至可能是主句中的一部分或者整个主句 。 ③在定语从句中充当一句子成分。 关系代词 (在句中作主语、宾语或定语) who whom which that whose 主语、(宾语) (宾语) 主语、(宾语) ---- 指物 主语、(宾语) 定语 指人/ 物 指人 Is he the man who/that wants to see you? He is the man (whom/who/that) I saw yesterday. Football is a game which/that is liked by most boys. I once lived in a house whose roof has fallen in. He has a friend whose father is a doctor.

whose 指物时可以用 n.+ of which 来代替: The classroom whose door is broken will soon be repaired. → The classroom the door of which is broken will soon be repaired. Do you like the book whose color is yellow? → Do you like the book the color of which is yellow? 注意: 只能用 that 的几种情况 1、当先行词是 anything, everything, nothing (something 除外), few, all, none, little, some 等不定代词时,或者是由 every, any, all, some, no, little, few, much,each 等修饰时 Have you taken down everything (that) Mr. Li has said? There seems to be nothing (that) seems impossible for him in the world. All that can be done has been done. There is little (that) I can do for you. 当先行词指人时,偶尔也可以用 who :Any man that/who has a sense of duty won’t do such a thing. 2、当先行词被序数词和形容词最高级修饰时 The first place that they visited in London was the Big Ben. This is the best film that I have seen. 3、当形容词被 the very, the only,the same, the last 等修饰时 This is the very good dictionary that I want to buy, After the fire in his house, the old car is the only thing that he owned. 当先行词指人时,偶尔也可以用 who: Wang Hua is the only person in our school who will attend the meeting? 4、当先行词前面有 who, which 等疑问代词时 Who is the man that is standing there? Which is the T-shirt that fits me most?

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高中英语------ 必修 3 5.当先行词既有人,也有动物或者物体时 Can you remember the scientist and his theory that we have learned? 6.the way 作先行词并且在句中作状语时 I hate the way (that) he talks to his wife. 7.当关系代词在定语从句中做表语 The village is no longer the one that it used to be 10 years ago. 8.当在 there be 句型中,通常情况下用 that,不用 which There are two novels that I want to read. 关系副词 关系副词:在句中作状语 关系副词=介词+关系代词 why=for which where=in/ at/ on/ ... which (介词同先行词搭配) when=during/ on/ in/ ... which (介词同先行词搭配) when 指时间 在定语从句中做时间状语也可做连接词用 (1) I still remember the day when I first came to the school. (2) The time when we got together finally came. where 指地点 在定语从句中做地点状语 (1) Shanghai is the city where I was born. (2) The house where I lived ten years ago has been pulled down. why 指原因 在定语从句中做原因状语 (1) Please tell me the reason why you missed the plane. (2) I don’t know the reason why he looks unhappy today. 介词和关系代词 关系副词引导的从句可以由“介词+关系代词”引导的从句替换 This is the house in which I lived two years ago. → This is the house where I lived two years ago. Do you remember the day on which you joined our club? → Do you remember the day when you joined our club? This is the reason why he came late. → This is the reason for which he came late.

Module 5 语法------定语从句

当介词放在关系代词前面时,关系代词只能用 which/whom 即“介词+which/whom"且不能省略。但当介词位于末 尾时可用 that/which/who/whom 作介词的宾语,且可以省略。 (1) The school (that/which) he once studied in is very famous. = The school in which he once studied is very famous. (that/which 可以省略) (which 不可省略)

(2) Tomorrow I will bring here a magazine (that/which) you asked for. = Tomorrow I will bring here a magazine for which you asked.

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高中英语------ 必修 3

Module 5 语法------定语从句

(3) We’ll go to hear the famous singer (whom/that/who) we have often talked about. = We’ll go to hear the famous singer about whom we have often talked. 注意: 1. 含有介词的动词短语一般不拆开使用,如:look for, look after, take care of 等 This is the watch which/that I am looking for. (T) This is the watch for which I am looking. (F) 2. 若介词放在关系代词前,关系代词指人时用 whom,不可用 who 或者 that;指物时用 which,不能用 that;关系 代词是所有格时用 whose (1) The man with whom you talked is my friend. (T) (2) The plane in which we flew to Canada is very comfortable. (T) 3. “介词+关系代词”前可有 some, any, none, both, all, neither, most, each, few 等代词、数词或者名词。 (1) He loved his parents deeply, both of whom are very kind to him. (2) In the basket there are quite many apples, some of which have gone bad. (3) There are forty students in our class in all, most of whom are from big cities. (4)The boat, the name of which is Topsail, is famous. (5)I bought many books yesterday, three of which are written by Lu Xun. 判断介词和关系代词 方法一: 用关系代词,还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。不及物动词后面无宾语,就必须要求用关系 副词或者是介词加关系代词;而及物动词后接宾语,则要求用关系代词。 例如: This is the mountain village where I stayed last year. I'll never forget the days when I worked together with you. (错) This is the mountain village where I visited last year. (对) This is the mountain village (which) I visited last year. (错) I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside. (对) I'll never forget the days (which) I spent in the countryside. 方法二: 准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、谓、宾、定、状),也能正确选择出关系代词/关系副词。 例 1. Is this museum ___ you visited a few days ago? A. where A. where B. that B. that C. on which C. on which D. the one D. the one 例 2. Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held? 答案:例 1 D,例 2 A 例 1 变为肯定句: This museum is ___ you visited a few days ago. 例 2 变为肯定句: This is the museum ___ the exhibition was held. 在句 1 中,is 后应跟表语,只有 the one 可以,而后面的 you visited a few days ago 则做 one 的定语从句。 而句 2 中, 主、谓、宾俱全,从句部分为句子的状语表地点,既可用副词 where,又因 in the museum 词组,可 用介词 in + which 引导地点状语。而此题中,介词 on 用的不对,所以选 A。 关系词的选择依据在从句中所做的成分,先行词在从句中做主、定、宾语时,选择关系代词 (who, whom, that, which, whose); 先行词在从句中做状语时,应选择关系副词 ( where 地点状语,when 时间状语,why 原因状语) 。

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