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VW2.8.1


VW 2.8.1
Group Standard
Class. No.: Descriptors: 55152 elastomer, rubber, elastomer material, DOTG

Issue 2007-12

Elastomers Material Requirements and Testing

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Previous issues 1960-08, 1965-08, 1970-04, 1970-12, 1973-07, 1974-11, 1976-03, 1978-10, 1980-09, 1989-09, 1989-11, 1997-06, 2003-11, 2007-03, 2007-07

Changes The following changes have been made as compared to Volkswagen standard VW 2.8.1, 2007-07:


General requirements extended Scope

1

This standard describes material requirements and tests for elastomer materials for components in motor vehicles. 2 2.1 Requirements General requirements

Approval of first supply and changes according to VW 01155. Avoidance of hazardous substances according to VW 91101. Free from DOTG (di-o-tolylguanidine) and free from its cleavage product o-toluidine. Elastomer quality is tested on components, component sections or, in exceptional cases, on test plates (see Section 3.1).

Check standard for current issue prior to usage. The English translation is believed to be accurate. In case of discrepancies the German version shall govern. Numerical notation acc. to ISO practice. This electronically generated standard is authentic and valid without signature.

Page 1 of 11
Standards

Technical Responsibility K-GQL-LP/4 K-GQL-LP/4 K-GQL-LP Peter Schulz Dr. Lutz Wohlfarth Dr. Thomas Schilling Tel.: +49-5361-9-24365

Tel.: +49-5361-9-26049 EKTC/4 Ute Hager-Sü? EKTC Manfred Terlinden

Tel.: +49-5361-9-49035

Confidential. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be transmitted or reproduced without the prior permission of a Standards department within the Volkswagen Group. Contract partners shall obtain the standard only through the B2B supplier platform www.vwgroupsupply.com.

? VOLKSWAGEN AG

vwnorm-2007-07

Page 2 VW 2.8.1: 2007-12

On principle, samples shall be delivered with an indication of the manufacturer’s quality designation. The number of parts required for laboratory evaluation shall be agreed upon with the responsible material laboratory. Deviations from this standard shall be specified in drawings and test reports. Parts whose grades cannot be classified on the basis of this standard require a separate Technical Supply Specification. 2.2 Evaluation of measurement results

The required numerical values apply to each individual measurement. 2.3 Specifications in technical documentation

Description example for a black, fuel-resistant acrylonitrile butadiene elastomer with a preferred hardness of 75 Shore A: NBR, VW 2.8.1 – A, black Description example for a black, transmission-oil resistant acrylate elastomer with an operational temperature of max. +100 ° and a hardness of 60 Sh ore A: C ACM, VW 2.8.1 – E60, black, temperature +100 ° C Description example for a black ethylene propylene terpolymer resistant to daylight, weather, ozone, and hot air up to a temperature of +100 ° whi ch has a rebound resilience between (35 and C, 55) % and a hardness of 50 Shore A: EPDM, VW 2.8.1 – G50, black, ozone resistant, rebound resilient, resistant to hot air of +100 ° C 2.4 Marking according to VDA 260

For the recycling of vehicles and power trains, the components are marked as specified in VDA 260. The codes acc. to DIN ISO 1629 shall be used for this. 2.4.1 Examples for codes

The codes listed below represent only an incomplete selection. On principle, polymer raw materials for components shall be designated as specified in DIN ISO 1629. ACM Copolymers consisting of ethyl acrylate (or other acrylates with a small percentage of a monomer that facilitates vulcanization (normally referred to as acrylate elastomer)). Copolymer consisting of ethyl acrylate (or other acrylates) and ethylene Butadiene rubber Chlorinated polyethylene Polychloromethane oxirane (normally referred to as epichlorohydrin rubber) Chlorophrene rubber Chlorosulphonated polyethylene rubber Copolymer consisting of ethylene oxide (oxirane) and chloromethane oxiran (also referred to as epichlorohydrin copolymer or epichlorohydrin rubber)

AEM BR CM CO CR CSM ECO

Page 3 VW 2.8.1: 2007-12

EPDM EPM FKM FVMQ IIR NBR NR SBR VMQ 2.5

Terpolymer consisting of ethylene, propylene and a diene with an unsaturated part of the diene in a lateral chain Ethylene propylene copolymer Fluorocarbon rubber with fluorine, perfluorine alkyl or perfluorine alkoxy groups on the polymer chain Silicone rubber with methyl, vinyl and fluorine groups on the polymer chain Isobutene isoprene rubber (normally referred to as butyl rubber) Acrylonitrile butadiene elastomer Natural rubber Styrene butadiene rubber Silicone rubber with methyl and vinyl groups on the polymer chain Appearance

On delivery, components must display a flawless surface texture. Tackiness, inclusions, cavities, cracks, damage etc. are not permitted. Component color: see drawing. 2.6 Properties, grade

See Tables 1 and 2. Table 1
Resistant to contact medium Test temperature (°C) (deviating requirements acc. to drawing) Test medium Gasoline acc. to Section 3.4.1 Oil ≥ (70 ± 3) The required temperature must be specified. Limited Diesel fuel Engine oil Hypoid Oil acc. to resistance acc. to acc. to TL transmisdrawing to gasoline TL 788 and 52185 sion oil and spec. acc. to FAME acc. ATF acc. to Section to DIN EN drawing 3.4.1 14214 spec. W T C E P Fuel (23 ± 2) (23 ± 2)

Limited resistance to engine oil acc. to TL 52185 U

Grade No. 1 Properties Thermogravimetric analysis, contents in %, PV 3927 and/or pyrolysisgaschromatography-mass spectrometry as identification test 3 Density in g/cm , DIN EN ISO 1183-1 Hardness in Shore A, DIN 53505 Preferred hardness in as- 3.2 received condition
Notes on testing see Section

A

Acc. to sample

2 3 3.1 3.2 3.2.1

Acc. to sample

3.2.2

60 ± 5 opt. 75 ± 5 Change as compared to as-received condition 1) After aging at elevated 3.3 0 to +3 temperature, the required temperature shall be specified. DIN 53508 After aging in 3.4 +2 to -18 contact medium

70 ± 5

75 ± 5

60 ± 5

75 ± 5

60 ± 5

60 ± 5

0 to +3

1)

0 to +3

1)

0 to +3

1)

0 to +3

1)

0 to +3

1)

0 to +3

1)

0 to -25

±4

±4

±4

±4

-4 to 0

Page 4 VW 2.8.1: 2007-12

Resistant to contact medium Test temperature (°C) (deviating requirements acc. to drawing) Test medium Gasoline acc. to Section 3.4.1

Grade No. 3.2.2.1 4 4.1 4.1.1 5 5.1 5.2 Properties After subsequent drying Weight change in % After aging in contact medium After subsequent drying 2 Tensile strength in N/mm , DIN 53504 In as-received condition After aging at elevated temperature, the required temperature shall be specified. DIN 53508 After aging in contact medium After subsequent drying Elongation at tear in %, DIN 53504 In as-received condition
Notes on testing see Section

A

Oil ≥ (70 ± 3) The required temperature must be specified. Limited Diesel fuel Engine oil Hypoid Oil acc. to resistance acc. to acc. to TL transmisdrawing to gasoline TL 788 and 52185 sion oil and spec. acc. to FAME acc. ATF acc. to Section to DIN EN drawing 3.4.1 14214 spec. W T C E P

Fuel (23 ± 2)

(23 ± 2)

Limited resistance to engine oil acc. to TL 52185 U

3.5

0 to +18, but < 90 0 to +25 +2 to -18

0 to +18, but < 90 0 to +45 0 to -20

-

-

-

-

-

3.4 3.5 3.6

-1 to +4 -

-2 to +6 -

-2 to +6 -

-2 to +6 -

-2 to +6 -

3.3

>8 1) >8

>8 1) >8

>8 1) >8

>6 1) >6

>6 1) >6

>6 1) >6

>6 1) >6

5.3 5.3.1 6 6.1

3.4 3.5 3.7

>6 >8

> 4,5 >8

>6 -

>6 -

>6 -

>6 -

>6 -

> 150

250 to 550 200 to 1) 550

> 150

250 to 550 200 to 1) 550

> 100

250 to 550 200 to 1) 550

250 to 550 200 to 1)( 550

6.2

6.3

After aging at elevated temperature, the required temperature shall be specified. DIN 53508 After aging in contact medium After subsequent drying Low-temperature resistance in ° min. C, Ozone resistance Lightfastness

3.3

> 150

1)

> 150

0

> 100

3.4

> 150

> 100

> 150

6.3.1 7 8 9

3.5 3.8 3.9 3.10

> 150 -35

> 200 -35

> 150 -35

200 to 550 -35

> 100

-35

200 to 550 -35

200 to 550 -35

10

Weather resistance

3.11

11 12 13

14 15 16

Paint indifference, VDA 675 242 Rebound resilience in %, DIN 53512 Insulation resistance in M?, DIN IEC 60167 Self-lubricating Corrosion behavior, VDA 675 241 2 Abrasion in mm DIN 53516

3.12

No cracks if “ozone resistant” is additionally specified in the drawing. No changes compared to as-received condition, e.g. discoloring, embrittlement, decomposition, cracks. Always required for grade G; other grades: only required if "lightfast" is additionally specified in the drawing. No changes compared to as-received condition, e.g. discoloring, embrittlement, decomposition, cracks. Always required for grade G; other grades: only required if "weather resistant" is additionally specified in the drawing. There shall be no corona formation, no leaching; slight contact discoloration permissible. Only required if “paint indifferent” is additionally specified in the drawing. Only required if "rebound resilient > ...%” is additionally specified in the drawing. > 1 000. Only required if "insulation resistant" is additionally specified in the drawing.

3.13

-

-

-

Only required if “self-lubricating” is additionally specified in the drawing.

Grade 1 and 2 permissible. 3.14 < 200. Only required if "abrasion resistant" is additionally specified in the drawing.

Page 5 VW 2.8.1: 2007-12

Resistant to contact medium Test temperature (°C) (deviating requirements acc. to drawing) Test medium Gasoline acc. to Section 3.4.1

Grade No. 17
Notes on testing see Section

A

Oil ≥ (70 ± 3) The required temperature must be specified. Limited Diesel fuel Engine oil Hypoid Oil acc. to resistance acc. to acc. to TL transmisdrawing to gasoline TL 788 and 52185 sion oil and spec. acc. to FAME acc. ATF acc. to Section to DIN EN drawing 3.4.1 14214 spec. W T C E P

Fuel (23 ± 2)

(23 ± 2)

Limited resistance to engine oil acc. to TL 52185 U

Properties Emission behavior, Only required if "emission behavior acc. to VW 50180" is additionally specified in the VW 50180 drawing. 18 Permanent deformation Only required if "permanent deformation ... h... °C < ...%" is additionally specified in the in %, drawing. PV 3307 1) Deviating limit values may be specified in justified cases.

Table 2
Resistant to contact medium Test temperature in ° (deviating requirements C acc. to drawing) Test medium Grease (70 ± 3) Calciumlithium grease acc. to TL 745 K Lithium grease acc. to TL 735 L Coolant (135 ± 3) Air (70 ± 3)

Grease acc. Coolant Daylight and Without to drawing additive acc. weather special specification to TL 774 fastness properties M S G H

Grade No. 1
Notes on testing see Section

2 3 3.1 3.2 3.2.1

3.2.2 4 4.1 5 5.1 5.2

5.3 6 6.1

Properties Thermogravimetric analyAcc. to sample sis, contents in %, PV 3927 and/or pyrolysisgaschromatography-mass spectrometry as identification test 3 Density in g/cm , Acc. to sample DIN EN ISO 1183-1 Hardness in Shore A, DIN 53505 Preferred hardness in as- 3.2 60 ± 5 received condition Change as compared to as-received condition 1) After aging at elevated 3.3 0 to +3 temperature, the required temperature shall be specified. DIN 53508 After aging in 3.4 -4 to +1 contact medium Weight change in % After aging in 3.4 -2 to +8 contact medium 2 Tensile strength in N/mm , 3.6 DIN 53504 In as-received condition >6 1) After aging at elevated 3.3 >8 temperature, the required temperature shall be specified. DIN 53508 After aging in 3.4 >6 contact medium Elongation at tear in %, 3.7 DIN 53504 In as-received condition 250

75 ± 5

60 ± 5

60 ± 5

60 ± 5

65 ± 5

0 to +3

1)

0 to +3

1)

0 to +3

1)

0 to +3

1)

0 to +3

1)

-4 to +1

-4 to +1

-4 to +5

-

-

-2 to +8

-2 to +8

-4 to +5

-

-

>6 1) >8

>6 1) >6

>7 1) >7

>6 1) >6

>6 1) >6

>6

>6

>6

-

-

250

250

250

250

250

Page 6 VW 2.8.1: 2007-12

Resistant to contact medium Test temperature in ° (deviating requirements C acc. to drawing) Test medium

Grease (70 ± 3) Calciumlithium grease acc. to TL 745 K Lithium grease acc. to TL 735 L

Coolant (135 ± 3)

Air (70 ± 3)

Grease acc. Coolant Daylight and Without to drawing additive acc. weather special specification to TL 774 fastness properties M S G H

Grade No. Properties
Notes on testing see Section

to 550 6.2 After aging at elevated temperature, the required temperature shall be specified. DIN 53508 After aging in contact medium Low-temperature resistance in ° min. C, Ozone resistance Lightfastness 3.3 200 to 1) 550

to 550 200 to 1) 550

to 550 200 to 1) 550

to 550 200 to 1) 550

to 550 200 to 1) 550

to 550 200 to 1) 550

6.3

3.4

7 8 9

3.8 3.9 3.10

200 to 550 -35

200 to 550 -35

200 to 550 -35

200 to 550 -35

-

-

-35

-35

10

Weather resistance

3.11

11

Paint indifference, 3.12 VDA 675 242 12 Rebound resilience in %, DIN 53512 13 Insulation resistance in > 1 000. Only required if "insulation resistant" is additionally specified in the drawing. M?, DIN IEC 60167 14 Self-lubricating 3.13 Only required if “self-lubricating” is additionally specified in the drawing. 15 Corrosion behavior, Grade 1 and 2 permissible. VDA 675 241 2 16 Abrasion in mm 3.14 < 200. Only required if "abrasion resistant" is additionally specified in the drawing. DIN 53516 17 Emission behavior, Only required if "emission behavior acc. to VW 50180" is specified in the drawing. VW 50180 18 Permanent deformation Only required if in %, "permanent deformation ... h... ° < ...%" is addit ionally specified in the drawing C PV 3307 1) Deviating limit values may be specified in justified cases.

No cracks if “ozone resistant” is additionally specified in the drawing. No changes compared to as-received condition, e.g. discoloring, embrittlement, decomposition, cracks. Always required for grade G; other grades: only required if "lightfast" is additionally specified in the drawing. No changes compared to as-received condition, e.g. discoloring, embrittlement, decomposition, cracks. Always required for grade G; other grades: only required if "weather resistant" is additionally specified in the drawing. No changes as compared to leaching; slight contact discoloration permissible. Only required if "paint indifferent" is additionally specified in the drawing. Only required if "rebound resilient > ...%” is additionally specified in the drawing.

3

Notes on testing

When parts are aged in fuels, oils and greases, the volume of the medium shall be equal to (80 ± 5) times the volume of the test specimen. Test containers and specimen holders (where required for aging of the specimen in the fluid) acc. to PV 3323 shall be used. The tolerances specified in VDA 674 002 apply to the specified aging times. Unless otherwise specified, measurements shall be carried out 30 minutes after removal of the specimen from the test medium. The specimens shall be cleaned immediately after removal with a lint-free cloth. Test conditions deviating from this standard shall be specified in drawings and test reports.

Page 7 VW 2.8.1: 2007-12

3.1

Specimens

Tests shall be performed on S3A standard test specimens acc. to DIN 53505, which shall be taken from the finished part. For certain finished part dimensions (e.g. radial shaft seal), S3 standard test specimens may be used as an alternative. In exceptional cases, if standard test specimens cannot be extracted from the finished parts by means of, for example, a bandknife splitting machine, test plates (thickness 2 mm) may be used. 3.2 Preferred hardness

In those cases where a hardness other than the preferred hardness must be used, the selected hardness shall be specified following the grade designation, e.g. E60. On principle, the tolerance shall be ± 5 Shore A. 3.3 Aging at elevated temperature

Aging for 94 h in a mechanical circulation oven acc. to DIN 53508. Other aging times may be specified in justified cases. Measurements are carried out after cooling to room temperature (23 ± 2) ° C. 3.4 Aging in contact medium

The conditions specified in the Sections 3.4.1 to 3.4.5 apply to aging of specimens in contact mediums. 3.4.1 Gasoline

The following test fluids are used:


Test fluid according to DIN 51604-B (FAM B) Composition: 84,5 volume percent FAM test fluid acc. to DIN 51604-A (FAM A) 15,0 volume percent methanol 0,5 volume percent water

E 85 fuel Composition: 80 volume percent highest grade ethanol acc. to DAB 7 20 volume percent FAM test fluid acc. to DIN 51604-A (FAM A) Other test fluids may be used if required (deviations acc. to drawing). Aging for 168 h (other aging times, e.g. 48 h, acc. to drawing specification) at room temperature (23 ± 2 ° C). The specimens are dabbed off with fil ter paper (e.g. black band) after aging. Evaluation shall begin after 1 minute. In justified cases, which must be agreed upon, evaluation may also begin 15 minutes after removal.

Page 8 VW 2.8.1: 2007-12

3.4.2

Diesel fuel, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)

The following test composition shall be used for aging of the specimens in diesel fuel: 95 volume percent standard diesel Liquid F (used to be A20 NPII by Haltermann company) acc. to DIN 1817. 5 volume percent fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) according to DIN EN 14214. For aging of the specimens in biodiesel, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) acc. to DIN EN 14214 shall be used. Aging time: aging for 48 h at room temperature (23 ± 2) ° After aging, the specimens shall be C. cleaned with a lint-free cloth. Evaluation shall begin 1 minute after removal of the specimen from the medium. In justified cases, other aging times and test temperatures can be agreed upon. 3.4.3 Oil

Aging time: 48 h and 96 h. Specimens of quality grade U shall be aged in oil for 24 h at (23 ± 2) ° C. For aging of the specimens in engine oil, Reference Engine Oil OS 206 304 acc. to Technical Supply Specification TL 52185 shall be used as test fluid. Other test oils may be used upon agreement. 3.4.4 Grease

Aging time: 48 h. 3.4.5 Coolant additive

S3A standard specimens acc. to DIN 53504 are aged in test fluid consisting of 50 volume parts deionized water and 50 volume parts coolant additive acc. to TL 774, type D, at +135 ° in an auC toclave. The fluid volume must be 150 to 180 times the specimen volume. Subsequently, the specimens are cooled off to (23 ± 2) ° in the test fluid within 2 hours and measure d. C Aging time: 94 h. In justified cases, other aging times can also be agreed upon. 3.5 Drying

The specimens are pre-dried for (2 to 4) hours at room temperature and subsequently dried for 22 h at +85 ° in a natural convection oven acc. to DIN 53508. The specimens shall be aged such C that there is complete circulation of air around them. 3.6 Tensile strength

The tensile strength of the aged standard test specimen shall be based on its cross-section prior to aging. 3.7 Elongation at tear

Elongation at tear of the aged standard test specimen shall be based on its condition after aging.

Page 9 VW 2.8.1: 2007-12

3.8

Low-temperature resistance

Test specimens shall still be elastic after 24 h of low-temperature aging. There shall be no break or formation of cracks during the bending test. Where the shape of the specimen does not permit bending by hand, hardness of the specimens shall be less than 90 Shore A (measured after aging in a cold chamber). Deviations shall be indicated in the drawing. The hardness is determined by means of a test device conditioned at low temperature. 3.9 Ozone resistance

The test is conducted for 46 h in the ozone climate chamber at 2 ppm (-15%) ozone concentration, (25 + 3)° and (60 ± 5) % relative humidity. For this purpose, the parts shall be mounted as inC stalled in the vehicle or in a similar manner. Certain load conditions have been specified for some parts, e.g. profiles shall be aged on a mandrel with a 30 mm radius; profiles less than 5 mm thick shall be elongated in a clamping device by 20% to 25% (see PV 3305), or shall be tested on a mandrel with a radius five times the thickness of the specimen. The specimen parts are exposed to the ozone atmosphere 15 min after mounting. Determination of the ozone concentration acc. to DIN 53509-2. Evaluation of cracking acc. to PV 3316. 3.10 Lightfastness

Parts used in the vehicle interior shall be tested as specified in PV 1303 (the number of periods must be agreed upon); parts used on the vehicle exterior shall be tested according to PV 3929 and PV 3930 (test cycle: one year each). 3.11 Weather resistance

Open-air weathering for 1 year in moist heat (Florida) and in dry heat (Kalahari, Arizona). 3.12 Paint indifference

Testing is carried out after aging at elevated temperature (24 h at +70 ° and after rain simulation C) (24 h acc. PV 3930). 3.13 Greasing

Parts shall exhibit a clearly discernible wax film in as-received condition. The parts shall be cleaned by moving the specimen for 5 seconds in FAM test fluid acc. to DIN 51604-B = FAM 2 at room temperature by means of tweezers. After this, the specimens shall be aged for 94 h at 70 ° in a C mechanical circulation oven acc. to DIN 53508. After the aging period, a new, clearly discernible wax film shall have formed on the surface of the specimens (produced by exudation). 3.14 Abrasion behavior

The abrasion behavior shall be tested under 10 N load. Deviations shall be indicated in the drawing.

Page 10 VW 2.8.1: 2007-12

4

Referenced standards

The following documents cited in this standard are necessary for application of this standard. In this Section, terminological inconsistencies may occur as the original titles are used. PV 1303 PV 3305 PV 3307 PV 3316 PV 3323 PV 3927 PV 3929 PV 3930 TL 735 TL 745 TL 774 TL 788 TL 52185 VW 01155 VW 50180 VW 91101 DIN 51604-1 DIN 51604-2 DIN 53504 DIN 53505 DIN 53508 DIN 53509-2 Non-Metallic Materials; Exposure Test of Passenger Compartment Components Vulcanized Rubber Products; Test of Ozone Resistance and Permanent Deformation Elastomer Components; Plastic and Elastic Deformability Rubber Products, Reference Photographs for Ozone Cracking Test Vessels and Specimen Holders for Aging Standard Specimens Thermogravimetric Analysis for Plastics and Elastomers; Determination: Plasticizers, Carbon Black Non-Metallic Materials; Weather Aging in Dry, Hot Climate Non-Metallic Materials; Weathering in Moist, Hot Climate Multi-Purpose Grease; Lubricant Requirements Multi-Purpose Low-Temperature Grease; Lubricant Requirements Ethylene Glycol-Based Coolant Additive; Material Requirements Diesel Fuel; Fuel Requirements Reference Engine Oil SAE 5W-30 for Testing of Compatibility with Respect to Elastomer Materials; Lubricant Requirements Vehicle Supply Parts; Approval of First Supply and Changes Components in Passenger Compartment; Emission Behavior Environmental Standard for Vehicles; Vehicle Parts, Materials, Operating Fluids; Avoidance of Hazardous Substances FAM Testing Fluid for Polymer Materials; Composition and Requirements Methanolic FAM Testing Fluid for Polymer Materials; Composition and Requirements Testing of Rubber; Determination of Tensile Strength at Break, Tensile Stress at Yield, Elongation at Break and Stress Values in a Tensile Test Testing of Rubber – Shore A and Shore D Hardness Test Testing of Rubber – Accelerated Ageing Testing of Rubber – Determination of Resistance to Ozone Cracking – Part 2: Reference Method for Determining Ozone Concentration in Laboratory Test Chambers Testing of Rubber – Determination of Rebound Resilience (Schob pendulum) Testing of Rubber and Elastomers; Determination of Abrasion Automotive Fuels – Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) for Diesel Engines – Requirements and Test Methods

DIN 53512 DIN 53516 DIN EN 14214

Page 11 VW 2.8.1: 2007-12

DIN EN ISO 1183-1 DIN ISO 1629 DIN ISO 1817 VDA 260 VDA 674 002 VDA 675 241

Plastics – Methods for Determining the Density of Non-Cellular Plastics – Part 1: Immersion Method, Liquid Pyknometer Method and Titration Method Rubber and Latices; Nomenclature Rubber, Vulcanized – Determination of the Effect of Liquids Motor Vehicle Components; Marking of Materials Test durations Elastomer-Bauteile in Kraftfahrzeugen; Prüfverfahren zur Eigenschaftsbestimmung; Korrosionswirkung auf Kupfer (Elastomer Components in Motor Vehicles; Test Methods for Determination of Properties; Corrosion Effect on Copper – only available in German) Elastomer-Bauteile in Kraftfahrzeugen; Prüfverfahren zur Eigenschaftsbestimmung; Verf?rbung von organischen Werkstoffen durch Elastomere (Lackindifferenz) (Rubber Components in Motor Vehicles; Test Methods for Determination of Properties; Discoloration of Organic Materials due to Elastomers (Paint Indifference) - only available in German)

VDA 675 242


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