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《英美文学史》讲义

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《英美文学史》简介

外语系 教师姓名 翟慧丽 所属教研室 专业教 研室 课程名称 课程周学 2 时 考核方式 考查 课程学分 2 授课对象 专 1201、 1202 英美文学史 授课学期 学期二 是

否使用课件 是 职 称 讲师

随着我国对外开放政策的深入贯彻执行,外语教学在各类学校中的地位变的尤为重要。各 类英语专科班,本科班已培养出大量的外语人才。但从社会需求来看,英语专科生所学知识已 难以满足社会的需求,于是英语本科教育便面临着对已具有英语专科学历的学生进行进一步培 训的任务。 《英美文学史》是英语本科教育的一个重要内容。对文学史和作品节选的学习有利于拓展 学生的知识面,培养他们的理解和鉴赏能力,加深对所学语言对象国社会生活和风俗习惯的了 解,提高学生运用语言的综合能力。但英美文学覆盖的知识范围较广,所涉及的作品较多,把 这个学科掌握好并非易事。 该课程为专科第三学期选修课,要求学生对所教授的文学时代、文学诗人、作家的写作风 格、写作特点以及他的作品有所了解,并在适当时候可以阅读部分作家的原著。

考试方式 及题型

该教材为闭卷考查课程。 选择题,判断题,填空题,回答问题,名词解释和小品文一篇,其中主观题 分数比重大,客观题比重小,因此要求学生要有自己的见解。 本学期共包括 17 周授课时,计划每周 2 节,每 1.5 周授课一章。

教材:新编英美文学概况 (杨贤玉 肖建安 秦志强 钟丽君 主编汕头大学 教材(编者、 出版社) 出版社、出 教学参考资料: 版日期) 1.英国文学简史 (刘炳善,陆佩弦 上海外语教育出版社 1981) 参考书(含 2.英国文学新编 (上下 郭群英 外语教学与研究出版社 2001) 课程学习 3.英国文学史及选读 (一 二册 吴伟仁 外语教学与研究出版社 1988) 网址) 4.英美文学选读 (张伯香,外语教学与研究出版社 1999。 ) 5.百度网站和古狗网站。

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第一周 第二周 第三周 第四周 第五周 第六周 第七周 第八周 第九周 第十周 第十一周 第十二周 第十三周 第十四周 第十五周 第十六周 第十七周

Chapter one Early and Medieval English literature Chapter One Early and Medieval English literature Chapter Two English literature of the Renaissance Chapter Two English literature of the Renaissance Chapter Three English literature of the 17th century Chapter Three English literature of the 17th century Chapter Four English literature of the 18th century Chapter Four English literature of the 18th century Chapter Five English literature of the Romantic Period Chapter Five English literature of the Romantic Period Chapter Six English literature of the Victorian Age Chapter six English literature of the Victorian Age Chapter Seven English literature at the Turn of the century Chapter Seven English literature at the Turn of the century Chapter Eight English literature between the Two World Wars Chapter Eight English literature between the Two World Wars Chapter Nine English literature after the Second World War Chapter Nine English literature after the Second World War Review Exercises Part Two Chapter One The History of American literature--American Romanticism Chapter Two American literature of the realism Chapter Two American literature of the realism Chapter Three American literature between the Two World Wars Chapter Three American literature between the Two World Wars Chapter Four American literature after the Second World War Revision

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Chapter one Early and Medieval English literature
1. Introduction:
英国文学源远流长,英国最初的文学同其他国家最初的文学一样不是书面的 ,而是口 头的故事与传说口头流传,公元 5 世纪中叶盎格鲁、撒克逊、朱特三个日尔曼部落开 始从丹麦以及现在的荷兰一带地区迁入不列颠.这个时代流下的古英语作品最重要的 一部是<贝奥武夫>,它被认为是英国的民族史诗.1066 年诺曼底人占领英格兰后,法国 文化占主导地位,这一时期的文学形式是浪漫传奇.流传最广的是<高文爵士和绿衣骑 士>,14 世纪后英语逐渐恢复了它的声誉,杰弗里·乔叟的出现标志着以本土文学为主 流的英国书面文学历史的开始 .<坎特伯雷故事集 >勾勒出一幅中世纪英国社会的图 画,乔叟首创英雄诗行,对英语诗歌韵律作出了很大贡献.被誉为 ―英国诗歌之父‖.

Anglo-Saxon Period (450-1050) Secular poetry of the Anglo-Saxon Period The Anglo-Norman period (1066-1350) Literature after Norman Conquest Terms: 1. Old English literature and medieval literature 2. Metrical Romances 3. Heroic Couplet英雄双韵体 4. Ballads歌谣

II. Writers and works of significance
Procedures: 1. Anglo-Saxon Period (450-1050) 1.1. British history and Blood: Britons (a tribe of Celts) --- Roman troops invaded (55 B.C.—410A.D.) and Anglo-Saxons and Jutes from Northern Europe to Britain British language, culture and literature three dialects---old English
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Non-Christian culture --- Christian culture 1.2. Secular poetry of the Anglo-Saxon Period : British national epic 英国民族史诗: Anglo– Saxon Epic – Beowulf 贝奥武夫

2. The Anglo-Norman period (1066-1350) 2.1. The battle of Hastings (1066)--- Norman Conquest The Norman Conquest produced three great results which had a direct bearing on the development of English literature: 2.1.1. It brought to an insular 岛国的 nation a new and larger continental culture and at a critical time when England had produced her best and her own literature and civilization had already begun to decay. 2.1.2. It forced on England ―the national idea‖, a concept of a strong, centralized government to replace the loose authority. 2.1.3. It brought to England the wealth of a new language and literature, and the English gradually absorbed both. 2.2 Literature after Norman Conquest As a result of the simultaneous use of three different languages, English, Norman– French and Latin, in the centuries after the Conquest, literary works in England were written in Norman—French and in Latin as well as English.

3. Historical review 3.1. England‘s inhabitants is Celts. And it is conquered by Romans , Anglo Saxons and Normans. The Anglo-Saxons brought the Germanic language and culture to England, while Normans brought the Mediterranean civilization, including Greek culture , Rome law and the Christian religion. 3.2. the old English literature extends from about 450 to 1066, the year of the Norman conquest of England. 3.3. Old English literature has survived divided into two groups. Religious group : Genesis 创世纪A
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Genesis B based on biblical themes the Old Testament旧约 Exodus (出埃及记) Secular group: British National Epic--Beowulf 4. Beowulf 4.1 4.2 4.3 the story of Beowulf analysis of its content characteristics of Beowulf

The theme of Beowulf: The poem presents a vivid picture of how the primitive people wage heroic struggles against the hostile forces of the natural world under a wise and mighty leader. The poem is an example of the mingling of the nature myths and heroic legends. 5. Geoffrey Chaucer 5.1 Life 5.2. Literary Career: three periods (1) French period : works translated from the French, as The Romount of the Rose (2) Italian period: works adapted from the Italian, as “Troitlus and Criseyde”

(3) Master (English) period : such works as ―The Canterbury Tales‖ which is purely English, though the conception shows the influence of Boccacio‘s 薄迦丘 ―Decameron/ Filostrato‖<十日谈> 5.3. The Canterbury Tales 坎特伯雷故事集 A. The Framework; B. The General Prologue; C. The Tale Proper. 5.4. Chaucer‘s Language Chaucer‘s language , now called Middle English, is vivid and exact. He is a master of word-pictures. His verse is among the smoothest in English. 5.5. Chaucer‘s contribution (1) He introduced from France the rhymed stanza of various types. (2) He is the first great poet who wrote in the current English language. (3) The spoken English of the time consisted of several dialects, and Chaucer did much in making the dialect of London the standard for the modern English speech.
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6. Terms 1. Define the period of Old English literature and medieval literature: The period of Old English literature begins with the Anglo-Saxons settlement in England at about 450 to 1066, the year of the Norman Conquest of England . The Medieval Period in English literature start at 1066, the year of the Norman Conquest, and ends at about the 15th century, is almost a barren one in literary creation. While in the later period, starting from the second half of the 14th century, English literature flourishes with the appearance of writers like Geoffrey Chaucer, William Langland, John Gower, and others, 2. Romance: which uses narrative verse or prose to sing knightly adventures or other heroic deeds is a popular literary form in the medieval period. The hero is usually the knight, who sets out on a journey to accomplish some missions. There is often mysteries and fantasies in romance. Romantic love is an important part of the plot in romance. Characterization is standardized, While the structure is loose and episodic, the language is simple and straightforward. 3. heroic couplet: Heroic couplet is a rhymed couplet of iambic pentameter五音步抑扬格. It is Chaucer who used it for the first time in English in his work The Legend of Good Woman. 4. Ballad It is a lyric poem 抒情诗generally of three eight-line stanzas with a concluding stanza of four lines called an envoy. (结尾诗节),with some variation, the lines of a ballad are iambic or anapestic tetrameter rhyming ababbcbc; the envoy, which forms a personal dedication to some person of importance or a personification, rhymes bcbc. The last line c of the first stanza is repeated as a refrain throughout. Another pattern often employed consists of a ten-line stanza, in pentameters, rhyming ababbccdcd, with an envoy of five lines rhyming ccdcd. The ballad became popular in England in the late 14th century. 7. Some exercises: Multiple Choice 1. The (B) brought to England the Germanic language and culture, which constituted the basis of Modern English. Celts B. Anglo-Saxons C. Romans D. Norman‘s 2. In Old English literature, ―(D)‖ is the poem based on the New Testament. A. Genesis A B. Genesis B C. Exodus D The Dream of the Rood
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3. ― (A )‖ is not among the most beautiful in the secular group of the old English poetry. A. Exodus (出埃及记) B. The Wanderer C. Doer A. England D. the Seafarer B. Northern Europe D. the Mediterranean 4. The story in ―Beowulf‖ took place in (C ). C. Scandinavia four centuries. A. Roman B. Norman C. Anglo-Saxons D. Celts 6. ―(C)‖ does not belong to middle English literature. A. The Voice of the Clamant. B. The Canterbury Tales C. Beowulf D. Piers Plowman 7. (A ) , one of the greatest narrative poets of England, was regarded ad the father of the English Poetry. A. Geoffrey Chaucer B. John Wycliffe C. John Gower D. William Langland朗兰 8. (B ) first translate Bible from Latin into English. A. Geoffrey Chaucer C. John Gower B. John Wycliffe D. William Langland

5. With the (B ) Conquest starts the medieval period in English literature, which covers about

9. Which of the following is not true about the Canterbury Tales. (D ) A. It was written in Middle-English B. It contains an Ironic tone C. It is Chaucer‘s most popular work. D. it is alliterative verse (押头韵). 10. Which of the following is not true about the main features of romance. (C ) A. It often contains such elements as the guest, the test, the evil giant and the beautiful lady. B. The hero is usually the knight. C. The structure is loose and episodic, the language is difficult. D. It contains supernatural things, such as mysteries and fantasies 1. The period of old English , literature extends from about 450 to 1066, the year of the Norman Conquest of England. 2. The old English poetry that has survived can be divided into two groups: the religious
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group and the secular group. 3. In the religious group ―Genesis A‖ and ―Exodus‖ are poems based on the Old Testament; wheras ―the Dream of the Rood‖ comes from the New Testament. 4. In ―Beowulf‖, the hero fights against the monster , Grendel, his revengeful mother , and a fire-breathing dragon. 5. After the Norman Conquest, three languages co-existed in England. church affairs and in universities; and Old English people. 6. Romance which uses narrative verse,, or prose to sing knightly adventures or other heroic deeds is a popular literary form in the medieval period. 7. If the epic reflects a heroic age, the romance reflects a Chivalric one. 8. In ―The Canterbury Tales ‖ , Chaucer employed the heroic couplet charm. Matching items: 1. The earliest translation of Bible 2. Anglo-Saxon epic 3. Chief form of Medieval literature 4. Exposing church corruption 5. Old English literature sources 6. Old English poetry rhyme 7. ―piers the plowman‖ 8. ―A Lover‘s Confession‖ 9. A religious allegory 10. ―Troitlus and Criseyde‖ Answer for matching 1---5. cdahf 6---10 biejg a. Romance b. Alliteration c. John Wycliffe d. Beowulf e. John Gower f. Bible and Scandinavian culture g. Geoffrey Chaucer h. Medieval theme i. William Langland j. ―The Mirror of Mankind‖ with true ease and French, became the official language used by the king and the Norman lords; Latin became the principal tongue of was spoken only by the common English

Chapter
Introduction of Renaissance

Two

English literature of the Renaissance

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英国的文艺复兴起始较晚,通常认为是 15 世纪末.文艺复兴时期形成的思想体系被称 为人文主义.主张以人为本,反对中世纪以神为中心的世界观,提倡积极进取、 享受现世 欢乐的生活理想. 弗兰西斯· 培根是这一时期的最重要的散文家,这一时期最重要的作 家是威廉·莎士比亚,他的全部作品包括两首长诗,154 首十四行诗和 38 部戏剧. 17 世 纪初,诗人约翰· 米尔顿完成了长诗<失乐园><复乐园>和<力士参孙>三步曲,文体雄伟 庄严,17 世纪英国诗歌另外一支是玄学派诗人,以约翰· 邓恩为主要代表.王政复辟时期 最受人欢迎的作家是约翰· 班扬,他的<天路历程>展现在读者面前的是 17 世纪英国社 会的一幅现实主义的图景.

Some terms: Humanism, Renaissance Some influential writers and their works: Christopher Marlowe‘s contribution. Shakespeare‘s significance. Francis Bacon‘s works‘ introduction. Edmund Spenser‘s contribution Procedures: 1. Some brief introduction on Greek and Roman literature Time: Generally, it refers to the period between the 14th and mid-17th centuries. The Renaissance (文艺复兴): The Renaissance, this word, meaning ―rebirth‖ is commonly applied movement or period which marks the transition from the medieval to the modern world in western Europe, indicated a revival of classical (Greek and Roman) arts and sciences. During the period, humanist thinkers and scholars made attempts to get rid of those old feudalist ideas in medieval Europe, to introduce new ideas that expressed the interests of the rising bourgeoisie, and to recover the purity of the early church from the corruption of the Roman Catholic Church. Raw material from colonies: The new discoveries in geography and astrology. Marco Polo , Venice, he became known for his account of his travel in Asia. Copernicus, Polish astronomer published his theory of the solar system. The religious reformation started by Martin Luther. The economic expansion– western countries began to develop their colonies and got money.

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Mainstream of Literary Forms: In the early stage of the Renaissance, poetry and poetic drama were the most outstanding literary forms and they were carried on especially by Shakespeare and Ben Johnson. The Elizabethan drama, in its totality, is the real mainstream of the English Renaissance. The Renaissance and Humanism Humanism is the key of the Renaissance, for two features are striking of this movement: 1.The great curiosity about the classical literature lead to a current to the study of Greek and Latin authors. By studying the works of Greek and Latin authors, they found them different from the medieval Catholic dogma教条; the classical works celebrate human life, their loves and sorrows, powers and energies, and affirm man‘s power to do everything. 2. Another feature of the Renaissance is the keen interest in the activities of humanity. English literature in the Renaissance period 1. Characteristics: Flourishing, especially the second half of the 16th century, which is sometimes called the Elizabethan period, the English Renaissance burst into a flowering of literature and England became ―a nest of singing birds.‖ 1.1. Translation occupied an important place in the period. 1.2 The nationalist feeling which had risen with the reign of Elizabeth awakened the people‘s desire for knowledge about England‘s past history, Scottish and Irish history 1.3 Another kind of literature prevailing at the time was found in the large number of books describing discoveries and adventures. Literary forms in the period 1. poetry forms: a. sonnet:Italian sonnet by Wyatt and Surry; English sonnet by Sydney, then Shakespeare. b. lyric. c. epic d. narrative. e. religious allegoric 宗教喻言的. 2. Drama forms: a. poetic drama– blank verse 无韵诗(五音步抑扬格) b. interlude 幕间剧; c. morality plays神秘剧和道德剧.
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d. comedy, tragedy, historical and romance 3. Essay: A new form, brief, compact and powerful. Bacon‘s writing paved the way for the use of scientific method. Language in the period English largely enriched, many new words or expressions or old words with new meaning came into being, writer could use proper diction to fit their subject and most are typical of their own. Some terms Sonnet: It is a lyric poem of 14 lines with a formal rhyme scheme. The two forms of the sonnet are the Petrarchan, or Italian, rhyming abba, abba cde, cde or cdcdcd or cdedce, and the English, or Shakespearean. this form differs from the Petrarchan sonnet in being divided into three quatrains, each rhymed differently, with a final independently rhymed couplet that makes an effective, unifying climax to the whole. The rhyme scheme abab, cdcd, efef,gg. Soliloquy In drama, an extended speech delivered by a character alone on stage. The character reveals his or her innermost thoughts and feelings directly to the audience as if thinking aloud. Humanism(人文主义) Humanism is the essence of the Renaissance. ―Man is the measure of all things.‖ Thomas More, Christopher Marlowe and William Shakespeare are the best representatives of the English humanists. Sonnet 18 Shall I compare thee to a summer's day(l) ? Thou art more lovely and more temperate: Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, And summer's lease hath all too short a date(2): Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines And often is his gold complexion dimmed; And every fair from fair sometimes declines, By chance or nature's changing course untrimmed(3); But thy eternal summer shall not fade, Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st(4);

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Nor shall death brag thou wander'st in his shade, When in eternal lines(5) to time thou grow'st: So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives life to thee. Some influential writers Christopher Marlowe Christopher Marlowe and his works Christopher Marlowe : (1564-1593) a son of a Canterbury shoemaker. First to the King‘s School, then Cambridge,one of the ―University Wits‖. As a man of letters. Play Tamburlaine, Dr Faustus, is gifted of the ―University Wits‖, The Jew of Malta, Edward II, non-dramatic poetry includes Hero and Leander, “the Passionate Shepherd to His Love” and a verse translation of Ovid‘s Amores, pioneer of English drama. Bacon’s creation Father of English Materialism and Modern Experimental Science. Bacon’s works may be divided into three groups: 1. the philosophical works; The Advancement of learning and the New Instrument. 2. the literary works: In 1625 58 essays 3. the professional works. Characteristics of Bacon’s Essays Bacon‘s essays are famous for their brevity, compactness and powerfulness. Yet there is an obvious stylistic change in the Essays. The sentences in the first edition are changed and crowded with symmetries. They are composed in a rather affected way. However, the final edition not only enlarges the range of theme, but also brings forth the looser and more persuasive style. The essays are well-arranged and enriched by Biblical allusions,文学典故 metaphors 比喻 and cadence声调抑扬顿挫. Background Information William Shakespeare Tragedies: (1) 'Hamlet', 'Macbeth', 'King Lear', 'Othello'; (2) ?Antony and Cleopatra?(安东尼与克利欧佩特拉), ‘Coriolanus‘ (考利欧雷诺斯) , 'Romeo and Juliet', 'Julius Caesar'; (3) ?Richard II‘, ?Richard III‘, ?Timon of Athens‘(雅典的泰蒙);
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(4) ?King John‘, ?Titus Andronicus‘(泰特斯.安庄尼克斯), 'Henry VI'. Comedies: (1) 'The Tempest', ?As You Like It?(如愿), 'The Winter's Tale', 'The Merchant of Venice', Twelfth Night', ?Much Ado about Nothing‘(无事自扰), ?Cymbeline‘(辛伯林), ?A Midsummer Night‘s Dream?(仲夏夜梦); Histories: (1) 'Henry IV', Parts 1 and 2, 'Henry V', 'Richard II', 'Richard III', 'Henry VIII,; (2) 'King John', 'Henry VI', Parts 2 and 3, 'Henry VI', Part 1. Serious Plays, or Bitter Comedies: ?Measure for Measure‘(恶有恶报), ?Troilus and Cressida‘(托爱勒斯与莱西达). Shakespeare’s place and influence: Of his influence in literature, Goethe has made a common judgment. ― I don‘ t remember that any book or person or event in my life ever made so great an impression upon me as the plays of Shakespeare.‖ His influence upon English language and thought is beyond calculation. All English writers of any importance cannot escape from Shakespearean influence either directly or indirectly, either in thought, content or in dramatic from or language. Shakespeare has also exerted great influence upon many writers in other countries through the various translations of his works . he is ―not an age, but for all time!‖
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Some knowledge on Greek and Roman writers and their works Brief Introduction Homer Virgil , Horace and Ovid Homer Homer, name traditionally assigned to the author of the Iliad(伊犁亚特)and the Odyssey (奥德 赛), the two major epics of Greek antiquity(古代). Nothing is known of Homer as an individual, and in fact it is a matter of controversy whether a single person can be said to have written both the Iliad and the Odyssey. Linguistic and historical evidence, however, suggests that the poems were composed in the Greek settlements on the west coast of Asia Minor sometime in the 8th century bc. THE ILIAD The Iliad is set in the final year of the Trojan War, fought between the Greeks and the inhabitants of the city of Troy. The legendary conflict forms the background for the central plot of the story: the wrath of the Greek hero Achilles(阿基里斯). Insulted by his commander in chief, Agamemnon, the young warrior Achilles withdraws from the war, leaving his fellow Greeks to suffer terrible defeats at the hands of the Trojans. Achilles rejects the Greeks? attempts at reconciliation (和解) but finally relents (动怜悯心) to some extent, allowing his companion Patroclus to lead his troops in his place. Patroclus is slain (杀死) , and Achilles, filled with fury and remorse(悔恨), turns his wrath against the Trojans, whose leader, Hector (son of King Priam), he kills in single combat. The poem closes as Achilles surrenders the corpse of Hector to Priam for burial, recognizing a certain kinship with the Trojan king as they both face the tragedies of mortality and bereavement(丧失). THE ODYSSEY The Odyssey describes the return of the Greek hero Odysseus from the Trojan War. The opening scenes depict the disorder that has arisen in Odysseus?s household during his long absence: A band of suitors is living off of his wealth as they woo his wife, Penelope. The epic then tells of Odysseus‘s ten years of traveling, during which he has to face such dangers as the man -eating giant Polyphemus and such subtler threats as the goddess Calypso, who offers him immortality
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if he will abandon his quest for home. The second half of the poem begins with Odysseus?s arrival at his home island of Ithaca. Here, exercising infinite patience and self-control, Odysseus tests the loyalty of his servants; plots and carries out a bloody revenge on Penelope‘s suitors; and is reunited with his son, his wife, and his aged father. VIRGIL, or VERGI (70-19 BC). The greatest of the Roman poets, Publius Vergilius Maro, was not a Roman by birth. His early home was on a farm in the village of Andes, near Mantua. His father was a farmer, prosperous enough to give his son the best education. The young Virgil was sent to school at Cremona and then to Milan. At the age of 17 he went to Rome to study. There he learned rhetoric and philosophy from the best teachers of the day. Virgil studied the Greek poets. He wrote his 'Eclogues'. These are pastoral poems describing the beauty of Italian scenes. At the suggestion of Maecenas he wrote a more serious work on the art of farming and the charms of country life called the 'Georgics'. This established his fame as the foremost poet of his age. The year after the 'Georgics' was published, he began his great epic, the 'Aeneid'. He took as his hero the Trojan Aeneas, supposed to be the founder of the Roman nation. The poem, published after Virgil's death, exercised a tremendous influence upon Latin and later Christian literature, prose as well as poetry. Thus his influence continued through the Middle Ages and into modern times. Quintus Horatius Flaccus (Horace) a Roman poet (December 8, 65 - November 27, 8 B.C.) who provides autobiographical information in his poetry, Horace received an education at Rome under L. Orbilius Pupillus, and then in Athens, at the Academy, where he met Cicero. In 39 B.C., after Augustus granted amnesty, Horace became a secretary in the Roman treasury. The Works of Horace De Arte Poetica Liber - The Art of Poetry 诗艺 Carmen Saeculare - Poem of the Secular Games Carminum Libra IV - The Odes (4 Books) 颂歌 Epistularum Libri II - The Epistles (2 Books) 书信体诗文 Roman Poet Ovid Roman poet Ovid, his important masterpiece is Metamorphoses (变形记) and Love poems.
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Some exercises: 1. Complete the following statements with a proper word or a phrase 1.The 16th century in England was a period of the breaking up of ______ relation and the establishing of the foundations of _________. (sheep devoured men) 3. _____ broke off with the Pope, dissolved all the monasteries and abbeys in the country, confiscated their lands and proclaimed himself head of ____. ( King Henry VIII, the church of England ) 4. The old English aristocracy having exterminated in the course of _________, a new nobility, totally dependent on the king‘s power, came to the fore. (the war of Roses ) 5. Absolute monarchy in England reached its summit during the reign of ___________. ( Queen Elizabeth ) 6. The progress of bourgeois economy made England a powerful state and enabled her in _______ to inflict a defeat on the _____________ Invincible Armada. ( 1588, Spanish) 7. Together with the development of bourgeois relationships and formation of the English national state this period is marked by a flourishing of national culture known as the __________. ( Renaissance) 8. At the beginning of the 16th century the outstanding humanist _____wrote his Utopia in which he gave a profound and truthful picture of the people‘s sufferings and put forward his ideal of a future happy society. ( Thomas More ) 9. At the end of the 16th century the great English scientist and philosopher _________ wrote his famous philosophical and literary works. ( Francis Bacon [waiet] ) 11. The greatest of the pioneers of English drama was __________ who reformed that genre in England and perfected the language and verse of dramatic works. ( Christopher Marlowe) 12. William Shakespeare was born on the 23rd of April, ____________, in _____________, Warwickshire. ( 1564, Stratford-on-Avon) 13. Shakespeare‘s first original play written in about 1590 was ____________. (King Henry VI )
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( feudal capitalism )

2. The 16th century was a time when, according to Thomas More, ―____________‖.

)

10. _________ was the first to introduce the sonnet into English literature. ( Wyatt

14. During the 22 years of his literary work Shakespeare produced ___________ plays, ________ narrative poems and ________ sonnets. (37, 2, 154) 15. _________ described Bacon as ―the wisest , brightest, meanest of mankind. ―(Pope ) 16. Bacon‘s works may be divided into three classes, the __________, the ____________ , and the ___________ works. (. philosophical , literary, professional ) 17. Of Bacon‘s literary works, the most important are the ____________. (essays ) 18. The final edition of Essays contains __________ essays. (58 ) The keys to the questions: 1. feudal capitalism 2. sheep devoured men 3. King Henry VIII, the church of England 4. the war of Roses 5. Queen Elizabeth 6. 1588, Spanish 7, Renaissance 8. Thomas More 9. Francis Bacon 10 wyatt [waiet] 11, Christopher Marlowe 12. 1564, Stratford-on-Avon 13. King Henry VI 14. 37, 2, 154 15. Pope 16. philosophical , literary, professional 17. essays 18. 58

Chapter Three English Literature of the 17th century
Introduction:
Overview of the period Features of literature The influential writers of the period John Donne, John Bunyan, John Milton, John Dryden
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The Overview of the Literature (1640-1688) 1. The revolution period (1) The metaphysical poets; (2) The Cavalier poets. 2. The restoration period. (1) The restoration of Charles II ushered in a literature characterized by reason, moderation, good taste, deft management, and simplicity. (school of Ben Jonson) (2) The ideals of impartial investigation and scientific experimentation promoted by the newly founded Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge (1662) were influential in the development of clear and simple prose as an instrument of rational communication. (3) The great philosophical and political treatises of the time emphasize rationalism. (4) The restoration drama. (5) The Age of Dryden. Features of literature: 1. the Elizabethan poets and Metaphysical poets. A metaphysical poet beyond physical, e.g. Shakespeare says how beautiful you are, but Donne says how he loves you. He talks about what love is in a seemingly philosophical way. The words Elizabethan poets used are elegant, graceful and musical, while metaphysical poets are the words and cadences of common speech. With the use of conceit, a dramatic metaphor, Donne‘s images are strange and fresh. The fore is frequently that of an argument, but not the regular lyric of iambic metrical forms. 2. Cavalier poets and Metaphysical poets. Although both poets are interested in mysticism, the cavalier poets attempt to gain a knowledge of real truth and a union with God by prayer or meditation. They wrote in short songs about the flitting joys of the day. The tone of their poems seems happy and light, but reading their poems, readers can sense their awareness of mortality (death), for they emphasize the transitorieness of human glory and joy. The metaphysical poets are also aware of mortality, but they express it in a serious and sad tone. 3. Revolutionary Poets:
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Beside the metaphysical and Cavalier poets, the revolutionary spirit of the time also found its strong reflection in literature. During the revolution of 1640, the pamphlets of John Milton and others played in an active part in pushing on the revolutionary cause. Even after the Restoration in 1660, Milton and John Bunyan, both Puritans, continue to defend in their works the ideas of the Revolution. Some influential writers John Donne Features of Donne’s poems With various experiences and attitudes and a free range of feelings and moods, his poems give a theatrical impression. The mode is dynamic rather than static, with ingenuity of speech, vividness of imagery and vitality of rhythm. Realistic– real life not a poetical world. He wrote poems in elegies, satires, lyrics in early period, religious poems and prose in later period. He often applied conceits. –easy and difficult ones. He wrote in the tone of argument. John Milton Literary creation: Three groups: the early poetic works, the middle prose pamphlets and the last great poems. After the restoration, when he was blind and suffering, poor and lonely, Milton wrote his three poetical works: Paradise Lost, Paradise Regained, and Samson Agonistes, among the three, the first is the greatest. Features of Milton‘s Poety 1. works with revolutionary spirit. Milton was political in both his art and his life; he was an outstanding pamphleteer of the period of the English Revolution, and a greatest English revolutionary poet of the 17th century. 2. Milton was a great stylist, he is famous for his grand style, which is the result of his long classical and biblical study. 3. Milton is a master of Blank Verse. 4. he makes language new through unexpected use of words. Uses Ltinism-words used in sense of the Latin word from which they are derived. Also used Latin grammar and long sentences.
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5. his sublimity 庄严of thought and majesty of expression.气宇非凡词语 John Bunyan The main works: The Pilgrim‘s Progress Features of his works: 1. Bunyan‘s style was modeled after that of the English Bible. 2. his works are in the form of religious allegory 3. his language is simple, colloquial and easy for the reader of the least education to understand. He had rich imagination and a narrative gift. John Dryden 1. Life: (1) the representative of classicism in the Restoration. (2) poet, dramatist, critic, prose writer, satirist. (3) changeable in attitude. (4) Literary career—four decades. (5) Poet Laureate 2. His influences. (1) He established the heroic couplet as the fashion for satiric, didactic, and descriptive poetry. (2) He developed a direct and concise prose style. (3) He developed the art of literary criticism in his essays and in the numerous prefaces to his poems. Some terms Conceit From the Italian Concetto, ―concept‖ or ―idea‖; used in Renaissance poetry to mean a precise and detailed comparison of something more remote or abstract with something more present or concrete, and often detailed through a chain of metaphors or similes. Essay : The term refers to literary composition devoted to the presentation of the writer‘s own ideas on a topic and generally addressing a particular aspect of the subject. Often brief in scope and informal in style, the essay differs from such formal expository forms as the thesis,

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dissertation or treatise. Metaphysical poetry: The term ―metaphysical poetry‖ is commonly used to designate the works of the 17th century writers under the influence of John Donne. Pressured by the harsh, uncomfortable, and curious age, the metaphysical poets sought to shat termths and replace them with new philosophies, new sciences, new worlds and new poetry. Some exercises Blanks 1. Donne entered the Anglican Church in 1615, where he rose rapidly to be Dean of __________, and the famous preacher of his time. (St. Paul Cathedral) 2. The term ---- is commonly used to name the world fo the 17th writers who wrote under the influence of John Donne. (Metaphysics) 3. With the use of _______, a dramatic metaphor, Donne‘s images are strange and fresh. (conceit) 4. in Milton‘s works, _________ is the greatest, indeed the only generally acknowledged epic in English literature since Beowulf. (Paradise Lost) 5. in 1637 Milton wrote the finest pastoral elegy in English, ―_______‖ , to memorize the tragic death of a Cambridge friend. (Lycidas) 6. ________ poets, often knights and squires, who sided with the king against Parliament and Puritans. (Cavalier) 7. Cavalier poets wrote in short songs about the _____ joys of the day. (flitting) 8. Milton and Bunyan represented the extreme of English life in the 17th century. One left us a g reat epic since _________. The other a greatest religious _____. (Beowulf, allegory) 9. Bunyan‘s most important work is _________, written in the form of allegory and dream. ( The Pilgrim‘s progress) 10. In the Pilgrim‘s Progress, the story begins with a man called ______setting out with a book in his hand and a great load on his back from the city of ________. (Christian Destruction) Choice: 1. which event did not happen in the 17th century?(D ) A. the Great Plague B. the Great London Fire D. the Renaissance
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C. The Glorious Revolution

2. (B ) was not among those great writers as the great Enlighteners in England. A. John Dryden C. Alexander Pope B. John Milton D. Joseph Addison

3. The neoclassical period witnessed the flourish of English poetry in the classical style from Restoration to about the second half of the century, climaxing with the following poets except (B ). A. John Dryden B. Henry Fielding C. Elexander Pope D. Samuel Johnson 4. (A ) was the Scottish peasant poet in the pre-romantic period. A. Robert Burns C. William Blake A. The Holy War B. William Collins D. William Cowper B. The Pilgrim‘s Progress D. The life and Death of Mr. Badman. B. Captain Singleton D. Tom Jones

5. ―(C)‖ was not John Bunyan‘s works. C. A Modest Proposal A. Robinson Crusoe C. Moll Flanders people. A. Daniel Defoe C. Jonathan Swift 8. ―(C B. Henry Fielding D. Goldsmith

6. Choose the works not written by Daniel Defoe (D ).

7. (A ) ?s novels are the first literary works devoted to the study of problems of the lower -class

)‖ brings its author Henry Fielding the name of the ―Prose Homer‖.

A. The history of Amelia B. The History of the Adventures of Joseph Andrews C. Tom Jones D. The History of Jonathan Wild the Great 9. Samuel Johnson was an energetic and versatile writer. He had a hand in all the different branches of literary activities, except (A A. Novelist C. biographer B. dramatist D lexicographer )

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Chapter 4 The Neoclassical Period English Literature of the 18h century
Introduction:
1688 年的‖光荣革命‖推翻复辟王朝,确定了君主立宪制,建立起资产阶级和新贵族领导 的政权.英国从此进入了一个相对安定的发展时期.18 世纪初,新古典主义成为时尚.新 古典主义推崇理性,强调明晰、对称、节制、优雅,追求艺术形式的完美与和谐.亚历山 大· 蒲柏是新古典主义诗歌的代表.18 世纪英国散文出现繁荣,散文风格基本建立在新 古典主义美学原则之上.理查德·斯梯尔和约瑟夫· 艾迪生清新秀雅,轻捷流畅的文体 成为后人模仿的典范。乔纳森·斯威夫特的《格列佛游记》以理性为尺度,讽刺和抨 击了英国社会的黑暗和罪恶。18 世纪被称为“散文世纪的另一个原因是小说的兴起。 丹尼尔·笛福的《鲁宾逊漂流记》塑造了一个资产阶级开拓者和殖民主义的形象,这 部小说被称为现实主义小说的创始之作。 现实主义小说在亨利· 菲尔丁的笔下得到进 一步发展。18 世纪中叶,英国发生了工业革命,许多作家对资本主义工业化发展给 大自然和农村传统生活方式带来的破坏发出感叹, 以大自然和情感为主题的感伤主义 作品一度流行。 托马斯· 格雷的 《墓园哀歌表达了诗人对时代纷乱状态的厌恶和对 “自 然简朴安排” 的向往, 吐露了他们的内心感受。 英国诗歌开始摆脱新古典主义的束缚, 理性的优势地位为感情或感受所代替。 1. The historical background: political, social and economical 2. About Enlightenment and its features of literature 3. The beginning of English Realistic novels 4. Influential writers. 5. Some exercises Procedures: Time: Between the return of the Stuarts to the English throne in 1660 and the full assertion of Romanticism which came with the publication of Lyrical Ballads by Wordsworth and Coleridge in 1798. Social Events: Glorious Revolution (光荣革命) ; British colonies (Abroad); Acts of Enclosure (圈地法案) (At home); The Enlightenment Movement (启蒙运动). Glorious Revolution
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After the death of Cromwell, Charles II was made king of England in 1660, and then there appeared the Restoration of the Stuarts. Under Charles II‘s White Regime, many Republicans and hundreds of innocent people were put to death. After the death of Charles II, James II took over the Crown, and he threatened to restore the old absolute monarchy, and so the bourgeoisie expelled him and brought William and Mary from Holland to the throne in 1688. this was the so-called ―Glorious Revolution.‖ Acts of Enclosure What were enclosures? i) Enclosure meant joining the strips of the open fields to make larger compact units of land. These units were then fenced or hedged off from the next person's land. In this way a farmer had land in one farm, rather than in scattered strips. This brought greater independence. Enclosing land was not new; it dated back to at least the Medieval period. ii) The areas of England affected by the enclosure movement of this period were mainly the counties of the Midlands, East Anglia and Central Southern England. Historical background: Political, social and economical 1. The influence of historical events. 1.1 the restoration of King Charles II in 1.2 the Great Plague of 1665. 1.3 the Great London Fire which destroyed a large part of the city, leaving two-thirds of the population homeless. 1.4. The Glorious Revolution in which James II was replaced by his Protestant daughter Mary and Her Dutch husband William, Duke of Orange. Great plague and Great London Fire In two successive years of the 17th century London suffered two terrible disasters. In the spring and summer of 1665 an outbreak of Bubonic Plague spread from parish to parish until thousands had died and the huge pits dug to receive the bodies were full. In 1666 the Great Fire of London destroyed much of the centre of London but also killed off most of the black rats and fleas that carried the plague bacillus. Bubonic Plague was known as the Black Death and had been known in England for centuries. It was a ghastly disease. The victim's skin turned black in patches and inflamed glands or 'buboes' in the groin combined with compulsive vomiting, swollen tongue and splitting headaches made it a horrible, agonizing killer. The plague started in the East, possibly China, and quickly spread through Europe. Whole
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1660.

communities were wiped out and corpses littered the streets as there was no one left to bury them. Great Fire of London (September 2 – 5, 1666) Worst fire in London's history. It destroyed a large part of the city, including most of the civic buildings, St. Paul's Cathedral, 87 parish churches, and about 13,000 houses. It began accidentally at the house of the king's baker in Pudding Lane near London Bridge, and a violent east wind encouraged the flames. On the fourth day houses were blown up by gunpowder to master the fire. The Thames River swarmed with vessels filled with people trying to save their goods, and some fled to the hills of Hampstead and Highgate, but most of the houseless Londoners settled in Moorfields. 2. Full of conflicts: There was constant strife between the monarch and the parliament, between the two big parites– the Tories and Whigs– over the control of the parliament and government, between opposing religious sects such as the Roman Catholicism, the Anglican Church and the Dissenters, between the ruling class and the laboring poor. 3. The fast development and the Industrial Revolution. 3.1 Abroad, a vast expansion of British colonies in North America, India, the West Indies and a continuous increase of colonial wealth and trade provided England. 3.2 At home in the country, Acts of Enclosure were putting more land into fewer privileged landowners and forcing thousands of small farmers and tenants off land. 4.The British bourgeoisie or middle class also grew rapidly. It was the major force of the Revolution and was mainly composed of city people. 5. Belief of the bourgeoisie or middle class: self-restrained, self-reliance and hard work. 6. Science and technology were encouraged. Features of literature - neoclassicism 1. a revival of interest in the old classical works. According to the neoclassicists, all forms of literature were to be modeled after the classical works of the ancient Greek and Roman writers (Homer, Virgil, Horace, Ovid, etc) and those of the contemporary French ones. 2. Laws and rules for genres of literature. Features of literature - neoclassicism 3. poetry. The neoclassicism period witnessed the flourish of English poetry in the classical style from Restoration to about the second half of the century, climaxing with John Dryden, Alexander Pope and the last standard-bearer of the school, Samuel Johnson.
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4. Emphasis upon reason, intellect, wit and form. Features of literature - neoclassicism 5. modern novel. The mid-century was predominated by a newly rising literary form– the modern English novel, which contrary to the traditional romance of aristocrats, gives a realistic presentation of life of the common English people. 6. Gothic novels. 7. Drama. Gothic novels and style Gothic" has come to mean quite a number of things by this day and age. It could mean a particular style of art, be it in the form of novels, paintings, or architecture; it could mean "medieval" or "uncouth." It could even refer to a certain type of music and its fans. What it originally meant, of course, is "of, relating to, or resembling the Goths, their civilization, or their language" ("gothic"). Features of literature - neoclassicism In short , Enlightenment is the Age of Reason, emphasizing clear thinking, logic, science mainly in prose– the clearest way of expressing ideas. Influential writers-- Defoe Defoe is a self-made writer, he learned half a dozen languages during the period of his traveling European continent for business, he had wide interests to everything, except his fiction novel, he was known for his contribution to the beginning of English journalism and trade, he was called Father of Modern journalism, and the pioneer Novelist in English. First he was a jack-at-all-trades, as well as a writer; his interest was largely with the working classes, and notwithstanding many questionable practices, he seems to have had some continued purpose of educating and uplifting the common people. Second, he was a radical Nonconformist in religion, and was intended by his father for the independent ministry. The puritan zeal for reform marks all his numerous works, and accounts for the moralizing to be found everywhere. Third, he was a journalist and pamphleteer, with a reporter‘s eye for the picturesque and a newspaper man‘s instinct for making a ?good story‖ . he wrote an immense number of pamphlets, poems and magazine articles. Influential writers- Swift His point of view: a man with a bitter life experience, he had a deep hatred for all the rich oppression and a deep sympathy for all the poor and oppressed. His understanding of human
27

nature is profound. In his opinion, human nature is seriously and permanently flawed 的 To better human life. Swift‘s style and features

有瑕

His style: swift is one of the greatest masters of English prose. He is almost unsurpassed in the writing of simple , direct , precise prose. He defined a good style as ―proper words in proper place‖, clear, simple, concrete diction, uncomplicated sentence structure, economy and conciseness of language mark all his writing – essays , poems and novels. Swift‘s writing features His features: 1.Swift is one of the realist writers, his realism is quite different from Defoe‘s. Defoe‘s stories are based on the reality of human life, while all of Swift‘s plots come from imagination, which is the chief means he uses in his satires. His satire is marked by outward gravity and an apparent earnestness. This makes his satire all the more powerful, he not only criticizes the evils of the English bourgeois but those of other bourgeois countries. 2. Swift expresses democratic ideas in his works. This exerts strong influence on later writers, such as Sheridan, Fielding, Byron and even Bernard Shaw. 3. swift is one of the greatest masters of English prose. His language is simple, clear and vigorous, he said, ―proper words in proper place, makes the true definition of a style.‖ There are no ornaments in his writings. In simple, direct and precise prose, Swift almost unsurpassed in English literature. Terms: The Enlightenment Movement, the 18th century England is also, and better, known as the Age of Reason. The enlightenment was a progressive intellectual movement going on throughout Europe at the time, with France in the vanguard. The Enlightenment celebrated reason (rationality), equality, science and human being‘s ability to perfect themselves and their society. They held that rationality or reason should be the only, the final cause of any human thought and activities, they called for a reference to order, reason and rules. At the same time, the enlighteners advocated universal education. Neoclassicism: the term mainly applies to the classical tendency which dominated the literature of the early period . it was , at least in part, the result of a reaction against the first of passion which had blazed in the late Renaissance, especially in the metaphysical poetry. It found its artistic models in the the classical literature of the ancient Greek and Roman writers
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like Homer, Virgil, Horace, Ovid, etc. and in contemporary French writers such as Voltaire and Diderot. It put the stress on the classical artistic ideals of order, logic, proportion, restrained emotion, accuracy, good taste and decorum. The neoclassical poetry is one of the most significant phenomena in the literature of the age, to which it has given its name. novel , broadly speaking, the term novel, apparently derived from Italian Novella which means ―tale or piece of news‖, is now applied to any prose work of some length, which tells a story, attempts rounded characterization, amuses, shocks and entertains the reader. In a narrow sense, a novel is a realistic fiction, complete in itself and contains the essential elements of story , character, and setting. Novel, as a literary genre, can be traced far back in the history of human civilization. The novel we have today is the result of centuries‘ development of various kinds of literary forms. Some Exercises: 1. which event did not happen in the 17th century?(D ) A. the Great Plague B. the Great London Fire D. the Renaissance C. The Glorious Revolution A. John Dryden C. Alexander Pope

2. (B ) was not among those great writers as the great Enlighteners in England. B. John Milton D. Joseph Addison

3. The neoclassical period witnessed the flourish of English poetry in the classical style from Restoration to about the second half of the century, climaxing with the following poets except (B ). A. John Dryden B. Henry Fielding C. Elexander Pope D. Samuel Johnson 4. (A ) was the Scottish peasant poet in the pre-romantic period. A. Robert Burns B. William Collins C. William Blake D. William Cowper 5. ―(C)‖ was not John Bunyan‘s works. The Holy War B. The C. A Modest Proposal A. Robinson Crusoe C. Moll Flanders people.
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Pilgrim‘s Progress D. The life and Death of Mr. Badman. B. Captain Singleton

6. Choose the works not written by Daniel Defoe (D ). D. Tom Jones

7. (A ) ?s novels are the first literary works devoted to the study of problems of the lower-class

A. Daniel Defoe C. Jonathan Swift 8. ―(C

B. Henry Fielding D. Goldsmith

)‖ brings its author Henry Fielding the name of the ―Prose Homer‖. D. The History of Jonathan Wild the Great ) D lexicographer

A. The history of Amelia B. The History of the Adventures of Joseph Andrews C. Tom Jones 9. Samuel Johnson was an energetic and versatile writer. He had a hand in all the different branches of literary activities, except (A A. Novelist B. dramatist C. biographer

10. Thomas Gray‘s masterpiece, (B ) once and for all established his fame as the leader of the sentimental poetry of the day, especially ―The Graveyard School‖. A. Ode on the Spring B. Elegy written in a Country Churchyard C. Hymn to Adversity D. Ode on a Distant Prospect of Eton College 11. (B ) was a progressive intellectual movement throughout western Europe in the 18th century. A. The Renaissance 12. (B B. The Enlightenment C. the Religious Reformation D the Chartist Movement ) compiled the ―The Dictionary of the English Language‖ which became the B. Samuel Johnson D. John Dryden ) became the leader of the classic English D William Blake foundation of all the subsequent English dictionaries. A. Ben Johnson C. Alexander Pope poetry and prose. A. Pope B. Samuel Johnson C. Robert Burns B. Lives of the poets D. The Duncian B. A Tale of Two Cities D Guliver‘s Travels 14. Which is not Pope‘s works? B AN Essay on Criticism C . The Rape of the Lock A. The Battle of Books C. A Modest Proposal A. The Rivals

13. In the middle decades of the 18th century, (B

15. Choose the works not written by Swift. B

16. Among the following which are Sheridan‘s comedies? (B) B. The School for Scandal
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C. Volpone D. The Critic 17. Who was the greatest dramatist in the 18th century? (B ) A. Goldsmith B. Sheridan C. Stern D. Fielding 18. Which play is regarded as the best English comedy since Shakespeare? (C) A. She Stoops to Conquer B. The Rivals C. The School for Scandal D. The Conscious Lovers 19. (B) is center to Blake‘s concern in the ―Songs of Innocent‖ and ―Songs of Exeperience‖, and this concern gives the two books a strong social and historical reference. A. Love B. Childhood C. Marriage D Nature B. Most thought him strange 20 which of the following is not true about Blake? D A man with a visionary imagination C.A Poet and graver illustrating his own works D. A Poet and essayist

Chapter 5 the 19th century Romantic period
Introduction:
18 世纪末、19 世纪初,英国诗风大变。苏格兰诗人罗伯特·彭斯给英国诗坛带来了 新鲜的气息,他的抒情诗自然生动,感情真挚,讽刺尖锐锋利,妙趣横生。威廉·布 莱克的短诗意象鲜明,语言清新,1789 年,威廉·华兹华司和塞缪尔·柯勒律治合 作出版的诗集《抒情歌谣集》标志着英国浪漫主义文学的真正崛起。浪漫主义是新古 典主义的反驳: 诗歌内容不再是对现实的反映或道德说教, 而是诗人内心的真实感情。 乔治·拜伦和波西·雪莱属于革命诗人,约翰·济慈一生追求美,是创造艺术美的天 才诗人。19 世纪 20 年代,济慈、雪莱、拜伦相继英年早逝,英国浪漫主义诗歌由强 转弱,风势渐衰。 1. The historical background: political, social and 2. Literary features of the period 3. Literary forms 4. Influential writers 5. The comparison of features of the 18th century enlightenment with those of 19th
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economical

romanticism 6. Some exercises The term Romanticism It is applied to a European movement for a change of attitude or intellectual orientation in the late eighteenth to mid-nineteenth century. It can be seen as a reaction against the prescriptivism 规范主义of the prevailing Classical and Neo-classical status quo and against the rationalism and physical materialism of the Enlightenment. This change of attitude is to be found in a wide spectrum of the arts, including painting, music, architecture and literature. Romanticism was a phenomenon which emphasized the individual and the subjective experience, the irrational and imaginative, spontaneity and emotion, the visionary, the transcendental. Romantic literature 1. Poetry, Prose and Novels since our examination of this very broad movement is limited to literature alone, we can say that a key feature which distinguishes ―Romantic‖ literature from literature of previous generations is an emphasis on the role of strong individual feeling and deep reflection on a subject resulting from a unique experience. we must remember that at this time poetry was the medium by which worthy subjects were discussed while prose literature was limited in its range and the reading of novels often regarded as frivolous 妄动的. 2. Periodicals We shall see, however, that during the period of the Romantic movement there was an increase in the publication of literary periodicals such as Reviews and Magazines. The Review was originally a form exclusively for literary criticism and the Edinburgh Review, founded in 1802, is a good example of this type of publication. Magazines published critical reviews but were intended to publish a wider variety of readings for the general public, ranging from criticism and fiction to advertisements and recipes. Characteristic traits of this movement An increased appreciation of the beauty and power of nature; A celebration of emotion and the senses rather than of reason and intellect Individual introspection and self-examination as opposed to a search for universal truths; An interest in the solitary individual or the tormented hero and his creative spirit and inner
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life; An emphasis upon imagination as a means to attain transcendent experience and spiritual truth; An interest in ethnic origins, the medieval period, mystery and monsters and the exotic; Pre-romanticism poets William Blake and Robert Burns William Blake (1757-1827) 1. Biography: English poet, artist, & philosopher, born in London, England, Nov 28, 1757, and died in London, Aug 12, 1827. Blake had been both a poet and an engraver. And he also printed a few books of his own. He lived a life of seclusion and poverty. He was often misunderstood by other people, who would regard him as gifted but mad. 2. Points of View 1. life. 2. He cherished great expectations and enthusiasm for the French Revolution, and regarded it as a necessary stage leading to the millennium ([宗教] 千喜年,太平盛世) predicted by the biblical prophets. 3. Literarily Blake was the first important Romantic poet, showing a contempt 轻视for the rule of reason, opposing the classical the individual's imagination. 3. Major Works Poetical Sketches (1783) The Songs of Innocence (1809) His Songs of Experience (1794) Marriage of Heaven and Hell (1790) 4. William Blake‘s Style Blake writes his poems in plain and direct language. His poems often carry the lyric beauty with immense compression of meaning. He distrusts the abstractness and tends to embody his views with visual images. Symbolism in wide range is also a distinctive feature of his poetry. Robert Burns (1759--- 1796)
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Blake never tried to fit into the world; he was a rebel innocently and completely all his

tradition of the 18th

century,

and treasuring

1. Biography Robert Burns, the greatest of the 18th century Scots poets, was born into a tenant farmer's family in Ayreshire, Scotland. His mother acquainted him with Scottish folk songs, legends, and proverbs. Burns did a great deal of reading in English literature and the Bible, and was familiar with the major English writers like Shakespeare, Milton, Dryden, and Pope. 2. Major Works: His first volume of poetry, Poems Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect 苏格兰方言诗集 Beginning in 1792 Burns wrote about 100 songs and some humorous verses for Select Collection of Original Scottish Airs, compiled by George Thomson. Among his songs in the two collections are such favorites as ―Auld Lang Syne―(long ago 昔日时光), ‖Comin ?Thro‘ the Rye‖, (走过麦田). ―Scots, Wha Hae―(苏格兰人), ‖A Red, Red Rose‖, ―The Banks o? Doon‖, and ―John Anderson, My Jo―(约翰.安德生,我的爱人) The importance of Burns' poetry should firstly be evaluated in the Scottish cultural context. Burns owed much to the Scottish oral tradition of folklore and folk song in literary forms, subjects, and poetic diction; he was also much indebted to the highly developed Scottish literary tradition. As a peasant poet, his personal experience of the harsh country life and his close contact with the simple country folk greatly enriched his understanding of the people, while those joys and sorrows, hopes and dreams that he shared with them deepened his sympathy for the poor. Most of his poems deal with Scotch drink, religion, and manners, suggesting a world often harsh, sordid肮脏的, limited but attractive. 3. The theme of Burns‘ poems His poems can be divided into several groups. The first important group is about love and friendship. Burns himself had several love affairs during his life and wrote a number of wonderful love poems. His love songs are not of tragic parting but of mutual contented love, sometimes exquisitely 敏锐地 blended with humor. Another major group is about the rural life of the Scottish peasants. Burns is very sociable and enjoys great companies. The third group shows the poet's attitude toward political liberty and social equality, especially those written under the influence of the French Revolution. Burns‘ Evaluation Burns' reputation lies chiefly in his songs, for he has touched with his own genius a variety of
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subjects, such as love, friendship, work, patriotism and bawdy (下贱), and put into them the traditional elements of folk songs in Scotland--simplicity, pathos and humor. Thus, Burns has not only transmuted (使变化) them into great poetry, but also immortalized in them the Scottish countryside and humble farm life. He is a keen and discerning (有眼力,有洞察力的) satirist who has reserved his sharpest barbs for sham (骗子) , hypocrisy and cruelty. His satirical verse, once little appreciated, has in resent decades been recognized widely as his finest work. He is also a master of the language and verse-narrative technique, as exemplified in ―Tam O‘Shanter‖. The lake poets Wordsworth, Coleridge and Robert Southey were called lake poets, Wordsworth was called natural poet. Wordsworth aimed at simplicity and purity of the language, fighting against the conventional forms of the 18th century poetry. The poet was a passionate lover of nature and his descriptions of lakes and rivers of meadows and woods, of skies and clouds are exquisite. In 1843, he was conferred the title of Poet Laureate(桂冠诗人). Coleridge‘s masterpiece was ―the Rime of the Ancient Mariner‖ and ―Kubla knan‖ was collected in his lyrical poems, it wasn‘t finished, it was said the Kubla Khan had 200-300 lines in his dream, after waking up he immediately finished 54 lines. Except the poems, he wrote Biographia literaria 《文学传记》(1817). Wordsworth’s Point of View Deliberate simplicity and refusal to decorate the truth of experience produced a kind of pure and profound poetry which no other poet has ever equaled. His unconventional theory of poetry: the source of poetic truth is the direct experience of the senses. Poetry originates from ―emotion recollected in tranquility‖. The scenes and events of everyday life and the speech of ordinary people were the raw material of which poetry could and should be made. As the leading figure of the period, his voice is of comprehensive humanity, and inspires his audience to see the world freshly, sympathetically and naturally. He started the modern poetry—the poetry of the growing inner self and changed the course of English poetry by using ordinary speech of the language and by advocating a return to nature Coleridge’s point of View
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Philosophically and critically, Coleridge opposed the limitedly rationalistic trends of the 18th-century thought. He courageously stemmed the tide of the prevailing doctrines derived from Hume and Hartley, advocating a more spiritual and religious interpretation of life, based on what he had learnt from Kant and Schelling. He believed that art is the only permanent revelation of the nature of reality. A poet should realize the vague intimations derived from his unconsciousness without sacrificing the vitality of the inspiration. Politically, Coleridge was first an enthusiastic supporter of the French Revolution. He even designed his "Pantisocracy as a society where everyone would be equal to anyone else. But a in his later period, he was a fiery foe of the rights of man, of Jacobinism. He insisted that itself upon the rest of the community from above. Wordsworth and Lyrical Ballads In June 1795, Coleridge also came into contact with his neighbors, Dorothy and William Wordsworth. Coleridge and Wordsworth planned a volume of poems which were intended to break with the tradition of poetry written at the time and to be ?experimental‘. This volume was published in 1798 as Lyrical Ballads. The ballad is the narrative of a sailor who has killed an albatross for no apparent reason and is tormented by the act, which he now perceives as a crime against the natural processes of life. Active poets Byron and his romantic poems Shelly and his romantic poems Keats and his romantic poems A brief discussion of William Hazlitt and Charles Lamb Lord Byron and his creation George Gordon, Lord Byron, was born in 1788, of a noble family notorious for their passionate temper, their amatory adventures, and their thriftlessness(挥霍,不节俭). To his extraordinary physical beauty, his lameness(残废,瘸子) added a touch of pathos(引起怜 悯的因素). The romance of his life was crowned by a romantic and generous death. In 1824 he went to Greece, to put himself at the head of the revolutionary forces gathered to liberate that country from the tyranny of the Sultan. He was seized with fever in the swamps of Missolonghi, and
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government should be based upon the will of the propertied classes only, and should impose

died before he had had time to prove his ability as a leader. His first volume of poems, Hours of Idleness (懒散的时光1807), an immature little book, was mercilessly (冷酷无情,残忍地) ridiculed in the Edinburgn Review(爱丁堡评论). Byron nursed his revenge, and in 1809 he published a vigorous onslaught upon his critics, entitled English Bards and Scotch Reviewers(英国诗人和苏格兰评论家). Childe Harold Pilgrimage (恰尔德.哈罗德游记前两部1812). the Giaour(异教徒1813), the Corsair(海盗1814), Oriental tales (东方叙事诗) Childe Harold Pilgrimage(恰尔德.哈罗德游记三, 四部), the dramas Manfred(曼弗雷德1817)and Cain(该隐1821), and his satiric masterpiece. Don Juan (唐璜). As a leading Romanticist, Byron's chief contribution is his creation of the "Byronic hero", a proud, mysterious rebel figure of noble origin. With immense superiority in his passions and powers, this Byronic hero would carry on his shoulders the burden of righting all the wrongs in a corrupt society, and would rise single-handedly against any kind of tyrannical rules either in government, in religion, or in moral principles with unconquerable wills and inexhaustible energies. The figure is, to some extent, modeled on the life and personality of Byron himself, and makes Byron famous both at home and abroad. Shelley and his creation Shelley was born in 1792, just when the eyes of all Europe were fixed in hope and fear upon France, and the stars fought in their courses for the triumph of a new order. In 1822 the poet was drowned off Leghorn, in one of those swift storms which sweep the Mediterranean during the summer heats. His body was burned on he beath, and his asses were placed in the Protestant cemetery at Rome, near the grave where, a few months before, Keats had been laid. The Necessity of Atheism(无神论的必然性) Address to the Irish People, (致爱尔兰人民书) Queen Mab(麦布女王) The Revolt of Islam(伊斯兰的反叛) Prometheus Unbound(解放的普罗米修斯). the Cenci(钦契,无韵体,悲剧) the Sensitive Plant and Adonais(阿多尼); others shorter, among them the wonderful Ode to the West Wind, and the best known of all
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Shelley?s lyrics, the Skylark. Keats and his creation John Keats was born in 1795 in London. His father was a stable keeper. Before he was fifteen, both his parents died and his guardian, a merchant, took him from school and apprenticed him to a surgeon. For five years he served his apprenticeship and for two years more he was surgeon‘s helper in the hospitals. He died in 1821, shortly after his arrival in Rome. His grave in Rome bears the epitaph: ― here lies one whose name is writ in water.‖(此地长眠者,声名水上书) Keats‘s first collection of poems was published in 1817 His second book ―Endymion‖(恩底弥 翁) appeared in 1818. The feature of the romantic works 1. The general feature of the works of the romanticists is a dissatisfaction with the bourgeois society, which finds expression in a revolt against or an escape from the prosaic), sordid daily life, the ―prison of the actual‖ under capitalism. 2. Their writings are filled with strong —willed heroes, formidable events, tragic situations, powerful conflicting passions, and exotic pictures. 3. They resort to symbolic methods. 4. The romanticists paid great attention to the spiritual and emotional role in their works. 5. Poetry , of course is the best medium to express all these sentiments. In fact, all the romanticists mentioned above were poets. A comparison of features of the 18th Enlightenment with those of the 19th Romanticism 18th Enlightenment: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Power of reason Man is nature‘s master Constrain, rules, limitation Scientific, not religious The world is ordered What things have in common The middle, sensible ground (city literature, for education, intend of the middle class)
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19th Romanticism: 1. Power of emotion 2. Nature is powerful and independent 3. Total freedom 4. Religious – spiritual and mystical 5. The world is in living chaos 6. How things are different 7. The extremes of imagination (not for education, but means to express feelings) Read the following poem, try to analyze its structure, theme, rhythm and rhyme. Analyze if you can get the main characteristics of romantic poets. I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud I wandered lonely as a cloud That floats on high o'er vales and hills, When all at once I saw a crowd, A host, of golden daffodils; Beside the lake, beneath the trees, Fluttering and dancing in the breeze. Continuous as the stars that shine And twinkle on the milky way, They stretched in never-ending line Along the margin of a bay: Ten thousand saw I at a glance, Tossing their heads in sprightly dance. The waves beside them danced; but they Out-did the sparkling waves in glee: A poet could not but be gay, In such a jocund company: I gazed---and gazed---but little thought What wealth the show to me had brought:
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For oft, when on my couch I lie In vacant or in pensive mood, They flash upon that inward eye Which is the bliss of solitude; And then my heart with pleasure fills, And dances with the daffodils. Analysis: Summary: this is one of the many poems written by Wordsworth on the beauty of nature. There is a vivid picture of the daffodils here, mixed with the poet‘s philosophical and somewhat mystical thought. This poem contains four six-lined stanzas of iambic tetrameter, with a rime scheme of ababcc in each stanza. Structure: Stanza 1:Walking in the nature, the poet catch sight of beautiful daffodils , fluttering and dancing in the breeze. Stanza 2: There are too many daffodils to be able to count, so pleasant to eyes. Stanza 3: the waves and the flowers dance together, forming a wonderful picture, which is the wealth nature gives to man. Stanza 4: nature can have healing effect on mind, and give strength and high spirits to man who feel alone and is in low spirits. Some Exercises: Blanks 1. What we now call the neoclassical period is the one in English literature between the return of the Stuarts to the English throne in ______ and the full assertion of romanticism which came with the publication of Lyrical ballads by __________ and ______ in 1798. (1660, Wordsworth, Coleridge ) 2. In the 17th century two big political parties were formed in England, and they were ___and ________. (the Tories and Whigs) 3. the eighteenth century of England is also known as _______ or ____( the Age of Enlightenment, The Age of Reason),. 4. in the field of literature, the Enlightenment movement brought about a revival of
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interest in the old classical works. This tendency is known as _____. According to the neoclassicists, all forms of literature were to be modeled after the classical works of the ancient _____ and _______ writers and those of the contemporary ________ one. (neoclassicism, Greek, Roman French) 5. in the last few decades of the 18th century, however, the neoclassical, emphasis upon reason, intellect, wit and form, was challenged by the ________ arid was in due time, gradually, replaced by _______ (Sentimentalists, Romanticism). 6. From the middle of the 18th century, a new literary form—the modern English __ arose. It was contrary to the traditional romance of aristocrats, gives a realistic presentation of life of the common English life. (novel) 7. from the middle part to the end of the 18th century, in English literature________ flourished. They were mostly stories of mystery and horror which took place in some haunted or Lapidated middle age castles. (Gothic novels) 8. _________, generally considered the Pope‘s best satiric work, took him over ten years for final completion. (An Essay on Criticism) 9. ________ was the only important English drama of the 18th century. (the School for Scandal) 10. In Johnathan Swift‘s satiric prose, ____ is generally regarded as the best model of satire. (A Modest Proposal.) 11. In the French Revolution , the famous ―declaration of Rights of man‖ prompted the founding of patriotic clubs and societies in England. Which all claimed _______, ________, and __________. (Liberty, Equality and Fraternity) 12. The romantics who were deeply immersed in the most violent phase of the transition from a decadent feudal to a ______ economy, saw both the corruption and injustice of the feudal societies and the fundamental inhumanity of the economic, social and political forces of ____.( Capitalist , capitalism ) 13. _______ and Nationalism are the three major features of the romantics‘ ideological trend. (Imagination ) 14. the two majpr novelists of the Romantic Period are ________ and _______.( Austen and Scott) 15. According to the subjects, Wordsworth‘s short poems can be classified into two groups: poems about_____ and poems about _____.( Nature, human life) 16. The poet Robert Southey as well as Coleridge and Wordsworth lived nearby and the
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three men became known as the ________ (Lake‘s school. ) 17. ________ is regarded as a ―Worshipper of nature‖. (Wordsworth) 18. Coleridge‘s actual achievement as poet can be divided into two remarkably diverse groups: the ________ and the ___. (Demonical, conversational ) ‖, a proud, 19. as a leading romanticist, Byron‘s chief contribution is his creation of the ― mysterious rebel figure of noble origin. (Byronic hero) 20. the greatest historical novelist ________ was produced in the Romantic Age. (Walter Scott) Choices: 1. ―Declaration of Rights of Man ‖ was written by (C A. Jean-Jacques Rosseau C. Thomas Paine B. Mary Wollstone Craft D. William Godwin ) to arouse English people awake of their ).

2. A song ―Men of England‖ was written by (D economic exploitation by the capitalist oppressors. A. Coleridge B. words worth C. Byron

D. Shelley

3. In the Romantic Period, (B ) defines the poet as a ―man speaking to men‖ , and poetry as ―the spontaneous overflow of Powerful feelings.‖ A. Coleridge B. Wordsworth A. imagination Period. A. William Hazilitt B. Charles Lamb C. Thomas De Quincey D. William Cobbet 6. (D) was not Walter Scott‘s novel. A. Ivanhoe B. Old Morality C. Rob Roy D. Life of Napaleon 7. (A ) was typical gothic novle of the Romantic Period. the Mysteries of Udolpho B. The castle of Otranto Wuthering Heights D. Old Morality 8. (A ) made criticism on Elizabethan drama, which renewed interest in Shakespeare and led to the discovery of his contemporaries. – Coleridge and Hazlitt C. Wordsworth and Coleridge B. Hazlitt and Keats D. Byron and Shelley
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C. Blake D. Byron

4. (D ) is not the three major features of romanticists‘ ideological trend. B. Nature C. Beauty D. Nationalism 5. (D) was not among the famous figures in the prose or essay development in the Romantic

9. (A

)‘s ―Prometheus Unbound‖ and ―The Cenci‖ are among the best verse plays during C. Wordsworth D. Coleridge C. Byron D. Shelley

the Romantic Period. A. Shelley B. Byron 10. (B A. Coleridge A. To a Skylark ) is regarded as a ―Worshipper of nature‖. B. Wordsworth ) ‖ is the most anthologized poem in English literature. D. I Wandered Lonely As a Cloud B. Frost at Midnight )‖ is the most important. D. Christabel )‖.

11. Wordsworth‘s ―(D C. The Solitary Reaper

B. To the Cuckoo

12. Coleridge‘s poems of the demonic group doesn‘t include ―(B )‖. – The Rime of the Ancient Mariner C. Christabel A. Dejection: an Ode D. Kubla Khan B. Kubla Khan C. Frost At Midnight

13. Among Coleridge‘s conversational group poems, ―(C 14. The ―Byronic Hero‖ first appears in Byron‘s works ―(A 15. (B) was not written by Keats Ode to a Nightingale B. Ode to the West Wind To Autumn D. Ode on a Grecian Urn 16. In her lifelong career, Jane Austen wrote altogether (C A. four (D ). B. Samuel Johnson B. five C. six D. nine

A. Childe Harold‘s Pilgrimage B. Don Juan C. Oriented Tales D. Manfred

) complete novels.

17. The Romantic Age began with publication of ―The Lyrical Ballads‖ which was written by A. William Wordsworth C. Samuel Taylor Coleridge romantic writer (B ). C. S.T. Coleridge D. W. Wordsworth )‖ marked the beginning of Romantic Age.

D. Wordsworth and Coleridge

18. The Romantic Age came to an end with the end with the death of the last well-known Jane Austen B. Walter Scott 19. The Publication of ―(C C. The Lyrical Ballads A. Wordsworth

Don Juan B. The Rime of the Ancient Mariner D. Queen Mab D. Southey 20. (C) was not a poet belonging to ―the Lake School‖. B. Coleridge C. Keats 21. (B ) was not a poet belonging to ―the Satanic or Radical School‖.
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A. Keats A. Byron

B. Coleridge and Shelley

C. Byron

D. Shelley

22. The English Romantic Age produced two major novelists. They are (C ) . B. Wordsworth and Coleridge D. Lamb and Hazlitt B. The Lyrical Ballads D. I Wandered Lonely as A Cloud C. Scott and Austen A. The Solitary Reaper C. Lucy Poems (B) A. Ode to the Nightingale B. Don Juan C. Tom Jones D. The Pilgrim‘s Progress 25. Choose the works not written by Coleridge himself. ( D ) The Rime of Ancient Mariner B. C. Biographia Literaria True or False: 1. The prosperous peasant farmers had long been considered the solid base of English society, but by the 19th century they had largely disappeared. T 2. Poetry has been traditionally regarded as an art governed by rules; but to the romantics, poetry should be free from all rules. T 3. compared with the brilliant achievement in poetry and prose, drama in the romantic is less successful. T 4. Wordsworth‘s deliberate simplicity and refusal to decorate the truth has ever equaled T 5. the most important contribution Byron had made is that he has not only started the modern poetry, the poetry of the growing inner self, but also changed the course of English poetry by using ordinary speech of the language and by advocating a return to nature. F 6. Shelley‘s greatest achievement is his four-act drama, ―Prometheus Unbound. (1820)‖ T 7. Generally speaking, Jane Austen was a writer of the 18th century, though she lived mainly in the nineteenth century. T 8. Austen‘s main literary concern is about human beings in their personal relationships. T 9. The glory of the Romantic Age lies in the prose of Wordsworth, Coleridge, Byron, Shelley and Keats. F 10. ―Ode to a Nightingale ‖ is Shelley‘s best poem. F Kubla Khan D. The Lyrical Ballads

23. Which of the following was not written by Wordsworth only? B

24. Which of the following is generally regarded as Byron‘s masterpiece.

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Chapter 6 the Victorian Period
Introduction:
1837 年维多利亚女王登基,在她统治时期英国一度取得世界贸易和工业的垄断地位, 科学,文化,艺术出现了繁荣的局面。维多利亚时代的诗歌表现出与浪漫主义不同的 诗风,诗人们不再沉湎于主观感情的发泄,而是注重形式的典雅,对诗意精益求精。 罗伯特·布朗宁早年从事戏剧创作,后来专门写戏剧独白。戏剧独白是一种通过主人 公的自白或议论来抒发情感的无韵诗体。阿尔弗雷德·丁尼生创作了大量的抒情诗、 哲理诗和叙事诗。19 世纪中叶,英国经济发展迅速,物资丰富,但资本主义制度所 引起的各种社会矛盾十分尖锐,马修·阿诺德是 19 世纪英国人文主义文学批评的杰 出代表。与诗歌相比,19 世纪小说成就更为辉煌,沃尔特·司各特的浪漫在主义小 说为他赢得了“西欧历史小说之父”的声誉,简·奥斯丁则以女性作家特有的敏锐和 细腻刻画了英国乡村中产阶级的生活和思想。勃朗特三姐妹在 19 世纪英国文学史上 占有独特地位。查尔斯·狄更斯是 19 世纪英国最伟大的小说家,其作品的深度和广 度超过了同时代的任何作家。威廉·萨克雷是 19 世纪 一位出色的小说家。19 世纪 末 20 世纪初,英国不少小说家创作出以“幻灭”为主题的小说,最为典型的是托马 斯·哈代,他的作品描写的是英国农村的恬静景象和明朗的田园生活,其主题思想是 无法控制的外部力量和内心冲动决定着个人命运,并造成悲剧。 19 世纪末迎来英国 戏剧的复兴,戏剧天才奥斯卡·王尔德的风俗戏剧对上层社会进行讽刺,妙语连珠, 萧伯纳的问题剧,将社会问题引入剧坛。这两位戏剧家是戏剧复兴的里程碑,他们的 戏剧创作活动使英国剧坛发生根本的变化,一改英国戏剧百年不振的局面。 the historical background: political, social and economical literary features of the period literary forms influential writers Some exercises Time: Queen Victoria who ruled over England from 1836 to 1901. The period has been generally regarded as one of the most glorious in the English history. Social Events: Utilitarianism; Chartist Movement (宪章运动);Chartist Literature Theme: Common sense and moral propriety, which were ignored by the Romanticists, again
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became the predominant preoccupation in literary works. Introduction of background The early ears of the Victorian England was a time of rapid economic development as well as serious social problems. A. after the Reform Bill of 1832 passed the political power from the decaying aristocrats into the hands of the middle-class industrial capitalists, the Industrial Revolution soon geared up. B. Scientific discoveries and technologic inventions from railways to steamships, from spinning looms to printing machines quickly brought amazing changes to the country. C. Large amounts of profit were accumulated both from expanding its foreign trade markets and from exploiting its huge-sized colonies. D. the working class were striking for the basic right and better living and working conditions. E. this was the first mass movement of the English working class and the early sign of the awakening of the poor, oppressed people. F. during the next twenty years, with the industrial Revolution in full swing, the nation was well ahead of others in development. G. the Victorians experienced fundamental changes. The rapid development of science and technology, new inventions and discoveries in geology, astronomy, biology and anthropology drastically shook people‘s religious convictions. H. the religious collision that started from the early nineteenth century science. Major Literary Forms Novel (best): In this period, the novel became the most widely read and the most vital and challenging expression of progressive thought. While sticking to the principle of faithful representation of the 18th century realist novel, they carried their duty forward to the criticism of the society and the defense of the mass. They were all concerned about the fate of the common people. They were angry with the inhuman social institutions, the decaying social morality as represented by the money-worship and Utilitarianism, and the widespread misery, poverty and injustice. Prose: Many of the prose writers joined forces with the critical realist novelists in exposing and criticizing the social reality, and some became very influential in the ideological field. Poetry: The poetry of this period was mainly characterized by experiments with new styles and new ways of expression. ―psycho-analytical‖ element. Some terms
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Critical Realism: It is the main trend of the literary thoughts in the 19th century. It reveals the corrupting influences of the rule of cash upon human nature. Critical realists set themselves the task of criticizing capitalist society from a democratic viewpoint of bourgeois reality. The 19th century critical realists made use of the form of novel to express their ideas. Utilitarianism and Dramatic Monologue Utilitarianism: the ethical doctrine that virtue is based on utility, and that conduct should be directed toward promoting the greatest happiness of the greatest number of persons. Dramatic Monologue: a single speaker is saying something to someone, even it only to himself. But whereas the speaker of a lyric usually seems to be the poet. The speaker of a dramatic monologue is a fictional character or an historical figure caught at a critical moment. The Chartist Movement Chartist Movement: From 1836 to 1848, the English workers got themselves organized in big cities and brought forth the People‘s Charter. In which they demanded basic rights and better living and working conditions. Chartist Literature The predominant theme in early Victorian literature, especially in the writings of the working class writers (the chartists) and the critical realist. The bulk of Chartist literature appeared in different Chartist Publications. They were welcomed by the vast masses as the voices of their own hearts. Celtic Renaissance: The creative outburst in Ireland late in the nineteenth century, continuing into the twentieth. William Butler Yeats and others sought dignify culture by producing art related to Irish traditions. Influential writers Charles Dickens , Sisters Bronte (Charlotte Bronte, Emily Bronte and Anne Bronte), Jane Austen, William M. Thackeray Robert Browning and Tennyson Charles Dickens‘s creation:
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The first period: 1836 1837-38 1838-39 1840-41 1841 Sketches by Boz Oliver Twist Nicholas Nickleby the old Curiosity Shop Barnaby Rudge 1836-37 The Pickwick Papers

The Second period American Notes 《美国杂记》 1843-45 1843 1844 1845 1846-48 1849-50 1852-53 1854 1855-57 1859 1860-61 1864-65 1870 Martin Chuzzlewit 《马丁· 朱述尔维特》 A Christmas Carol The Chimes 《钟声》 The Cricket on the Hearth《炉膛上的蟋蟀》 Dombey and Son David Copperfield Bleak house Hard Times Little Dorrit A Tale of Two Cities Great Expectations Our Mutual Friend Edwin Drood (unfinished)

The Third Period

The points of views 1. His exposure and criticism of evils in society Dickens is one of the greatest critical realist writers of the Victorian Age. His serious intention to expose and criticize in his works all the poverty, injustice, hypocrisy and corruptness he sees all around him. But his social attitudes are very complicated. He hates the state apparatus, especially the Parliament, but as a bourgeois writer, he can in no way supply any fundamental solution to the social plights. The best he can do seems to try to retain an optimism with wishful thinking, as in his later novels. At the same time, he hopes to call people‘s attention to the existing social problems, thus effecting some reform or amelioration.
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2. Ambivalent view on London In his works, Dickens sets out a full map and a large-scale criticism of the 19th century London. Most of his works are deeply rooted in his knowledge of that petty-bourgeois urban world which he knows under the skin, from its prestigious absurdity to its most sordid squalor. He present London with ambivalence (contradictory feelings of both love and hatred) and an extraordinary vividness—fog, smoke, pale dusty sunshine, shabbiness, variety, intimacy and vastness. Artistic features of his works 1. A master story-teller—a great entertainer and a great artist. With the very first sentence, he engages the readers‘ attention and holds it to the end; instalment helps him cultivate an ability to sustain interest through all kinds of literary devices, such as suspension, coincidence, dramatic dialogues and melo-drama,etc. 2. Characters—the most distinguishing feature of his creation; both types and individuals; impressive—not because true to life, but larger than life; 3. Humor and Pathos 痛苦– life itself a mixture of joy and grief; life delightful because it is at once comic and tragic; bright merriments and dark gloom at the same time, mingling tears and laughter as in real life. Symbols and Images in Great Expectations The graveyard symbolizes the underworld with its violence and threat and danger; The huge rotten wedding cake of Miss Havisham' is the very symbol of the corrupted and corrupting society; The journeys Pip makes from the country to Miss Havisham's and then London, and his return to the country and the ruined site of Saris House, and finally his meeting Estella there. The journeys indicate his way of growth and his inability to stay in the country gives the final touch to the realistic depiction of the author: innocence once lost is forever lost; paradise lost is never to be regained. The name of Estella suggests an ideal as well as something beautiful and always visible but never to be gotten, Miss Havisham gives an impression that what she wishes for or what she has is sham, false and illusory, The criminal Magwitch indicates a mysterious magician capable of witchcraft. the name Pip carries the implication of trivialness and humbleness of his origin and foretells his final

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disappointment in his great expectations. The creation of Sisters Bronte Scene: vast, rough, untouched moorland wilderness The works of sisters: Charlotte Bronte: Jane Eyre Emily Bronte: Anne Bronte: Wuthering Height Agnes Grey

3. Charlotte Bronte: Jane Eyre Rochester: a grim-looking, energetic, quick-tempered, but an understanding middle-aged man. Jane Eyre: has a burning spirit and a longing to love and be loved, Jane Eyre struggles for recognition of her basic rights and equality as a woman. It?s an individual conscious struggle towards self-realization. She gets joy through the sacrifice of herself or her weakness overcome. Jane Austen’s creation Sense and Sensibility Pride and Prejudice Mansfield Park Emma Northanger Abbey Persuasion William m. Thackeray’ Creation The Book of Snobs (1846-1847) 《势利者集》 Vanity Fair (1847-1848) 《名利场》 The History of Pendennis (1849-1850) 《潘登尼斯》 The History of Henny Esmond (1852) 《亨利埃斯蒙德》 The Newcomers (1853-1855) 《纽科姆一家》 The Virginians (1858-1859) 《维吉尼亚人》 Alfred Tennyson Poems by Two Brothers, 1827《哥俩集》 The Princess, 1847《公主》 In Memoriam A. H. H. 1850《悼念哈勒姆》
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Maud, 1855《毛黛》 Enoch Arden, 1864《伊诺克· 阿登》 Idylls of the King, 1859-1885《国王之歌》 2. Evaluation: Poet Laureate (Wordsworth, Southey) 3. His work’s characters: he is a real artist. He has the natural power of linking visual pictures with musical expressions, and these tow with the feelings. He has perfect control of the sound of English, and a sensitive ear, an excellent choice and taste of words. His poetry is rich in poetic images and melodious language, and noted for its lyrical beauty and metrical charm. His works are not only the products of the creative imagination of a poetic genius but also products of the creative imagination of a poetic genius but also products of a long and rich English heritage Robert Browning 1. His works: Paracelsus, 1835《巴拉塞尔士》 Strafford, 1837《斯特拉福》 Pippa Passes, 1841《比芭走过》 Dramatic Lyrics, 1842《戏剧抒情诗》 Dramatic Romances and Lyrics, 1845《戏剧传奇及抒情诗》 Men and Women, 1855《男男女女》 Dramatic Personae, 1855《登场人物》 The Ring and the Book, 1868《环与书》 2. His features: perfects "dramatic monologue", keeps readers thoughtful and enlightened. His work‘s characters: His name of Browning is often associated with the term: ‖dramatic monologue‖. Although it is not his invention, it is in his hands that this poetic form reaches its maturity and perfection. His poem is not easy to read. His rhythms are often too fast, too rough and unmusical. The syntax is usually clipped and highly compressed. The similes and illustrations appear too profusely. The allusions and implications are sometimes odd and farfetched. Mathew Arnold Creation: The Strayed Reveler 1849 《离群的浪子》
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Poems 1853 《诗集》 Poems: Second Series 1855 《诗集》 New Poems 1867 《新诗集》 Essays IN Criticism 1865 《批评专集》 Culture and Anarchy 1869 《文化与无政府状态》 Literature and Dogma 1873 《文学与教条》 George Eliot (1819-1880) Pseudonym of Mary Ann Evans, was born into an estate agent‘s family in Warwickshire, England. Main works: Westminster Review Translation : Leben Jesu(Life of Jesus) Das Wesen des Christentums (The Essence of Christianity) Scenes of Clerical Life 《教区生活场景》 Adam Bede 《亚当· 比德》 The Mill on the Floss 《弗洛斯河上的磨房》 Silas Marner 《织工马南》 Romola 《罗慕拉》 Felix Holt, the Radical 《菲利克斯· 霍尔特》 George Eliot‘s works characters She seeks to present in the development of a soul and to reveal the motives, impulses and hereditary influences which govern human action. She is interested in the development of a soul, the slow growth or decline of moral power of the character. In her works, she shows a particular concern for the destiny of women, especially those with great intelligence, potential and social aspirations, in her mind, the pathetic tragedy of women lies in their very birth. Their inferior education and limited social life determine that they must depend on men for sustenance and realization of their goals, and they have only to fulfill the domestic duties expected of them by the society. Some exercises Matching works: A:
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1 Graham Greene 2. Iris Murdoch 3. Aldous Huxley 4. John Fowles 5. Kingsley Amis 6. Washington Irving 7. James Fenimore Cooper 8. Edgar Allan Poe 9. Henry David Thoreau 10. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow B. a. Under the Net b. Brave New World c. The Power and the Glory d. The French Lieutenant‘s Woman e. ―The Raven‖ f. The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon g. the Leather-Stocking Tales h. Walden i. ―The Song of Hiawatha‖ ]j. Luck Jim 1—5 c d b d j 6-10 f g e h i

Chapter Seven English literature at the turn of the century
Introduction:
Learn about the general trend of the literature at this period To learn about Hardy, Galsworthy, Bernard Shaw Key teaching points Hardy‘s achievements, Galsworthy‘s achievements, Bernard Shaw‘s plays Naturalism, neo-romanticism, aestheticism as literary trends Theory of ―art for art‘s sake‖: Oscar Wilde and Walter Pater
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Procedures: At the turn of the century England entered a transitional period, which bridged a time of prosperity and stability, and a time of steady social changes and violent upheaval. 1. The rapid growth of industry and development of capitalism made the various contradictions inherent in the capitalist system all the more felt both at home and abroad. 2. The great Britain began to have its monopoly position challenged and its position at the center of world in the South African Boer War(1899-1902) and its inability to defeat the smaller forces of the Boers made its government quite unpopular. 3. Workers worked long hours under filthy and dangerous conditions, making huge profits for capitalists. Yet poverty was widespread. 4. At the same time the women‘s Rights Movement continued to conduct an increasingly violent campaign for Women‘s Suffrage. 5. The Irish Question, unresolved throughout the century, became even more acute. 6. In the nineteenth century, numerous socialist parties, some reformist, some utopian, flourished in the cities, endeavoring to criticize capitalism and imperialism. 1.Background: second half of the 19th century to early of the 20th decades (1)natural and social sciences enormously advanced. (2)capitalism came into its monopoly stage (3)the gap between the rich and the poor was further deepened (4)World War 1& 2 broke 2. What ideas influence this period: all kinds of philosophical ideas (1)Karl Marx: scientific socialism (2)Darwin?s theory of evolution, "survival of the fittest" (3)Freud?s analytical psychology (4)The irrationalist philosophers give immense influence 3. Ideas: (1)Modernism originated from skepticism and disillusion of capitalism (2)The French symbolism announced modernism (3)takes the irrational philosophy and the theory of psycho-analysis as its theoretical base. The major themes are the distorted, alienated and ill relationships. literature trend and Influential writers 1. The English literature at the turn of the century was notable mainly for its critical realism, a tradition that had been passed down from the early Victorian Age. Writers, such as William
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Morris, Georte Meredith, Thomas Hardy, Samuel Butler, John Galsworthy, Bernard Shaw, showed sympathy in their works for the labouring masses by describing their miseries on the one hand and attacked capitalism on the other. 2. Another literary trend the English writers followed at the turn of the century was naturalism. Writers of this school tried to reproduce life exactly as it was without any selection of details. George Gissing and George Moore were the two representative naturalist writers in England. 3. A third group of writers took the path of neo-romanticism in their writing. The neo-romanticists, totally dissatisfied with the contemporary reality, indulged themselves in The description of exciting adventures and romantic characters in an effort to criticize existing social reality. Robert Louis Stevenson was the main figure of this group. Influential writers Thomas Hardy and his creation Son of a mason, Thomas Hardy was born in Dorsetshire, Southwest of England, the area that later became the famous "Wessex" in many of his novels. In 1871, Desperate Remedies《绝望的补救》 In 1872 Under the Greenwood Tree . 《绿荫树下》 In 1873, A Pair of Blue Eyes 《一双湛蓝的眼睛》 In 1874 Far from the Madding Crowd 《远离尘嚣》 In 1878 The Return of the Native 《还乡》 In 1880, The Trumpet Major 《号手》 In 1886, The Mayor of Casterbridge 《卡斯特桥市长》 In 1891 Tess of the D?Urbervilles 《德伯家的苔丝》 In 1896 Jude the Obscure 《无名的裘德》 Hardy was also a poet, his poem collections are: Wessex Poems 1898, 《威塞克斯诗集》 Poems of the Past and the Present 1902 《》 The Dynasts 1904, 1906 and 1908 《统治者》 Time‘s Laughingstocks and Verses 1909 《笑料和诗歌》 Satires of Circumstance 1914 《环境的讽刺》 On January 11, 1928, this last important novelist and poet of the 19th century died. He was buried with impressive ceremonies in the Poet's Corner in Westminster Abbey but his heart
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was brought back to his birthplace. Evaluation: naturalist ( D. H. Lawrance; Theodore Dreiser; George Eliot ), also critical realist writer (Charles Dickens) his works: Wessex The Return of the Nature; The Mayor of Casterbridge; Tess of the D?Urbervilles; Jude the Obscure Features: nostalgic (Washington Irving; pessimistic Naturalism: Darwin?s idea of "survival of the fittest" (1)Man is born with tragic, inevitably bound by his own hereditary traits (2)Man proves powerless before fate however he tries, he seldom escapes his doomed destiny Tess of the D?Urbervilles: (1)criticize the society, hypocricy of the society (2)nauralism,the misery, poverty Tess suffers. John Galsworthy(1867-1933) and his creation John Galsworthy (1867-1935) was born into a wealthy family. He established himself as a leading novelist and dramatist, with seventeen novels, twenty-six plays and some short stories. Main works: From the Four Winds (short stories) 《天涯海角》 The Man of The Property 《有产业的人》 The Silver Box 《银盒》 The Forsyte Saga 《福尔赛世家》(his first trilogy : The Man of Property 1906; In Chancery 1920《骑虎》; To Let 1921 《出租》) A Modern Comedy 《现代喜剧》 (his second trilogy: The White Monkey 《白猿》 Swan Song 《天鹅曲》 The Silver Spoon 《银匙》) His works’ characteristics: 1. He was a conventional writer, having inherited the fine traditions of the great Victorian novelists of the critical realism such as Dickens and Thackeray. 2. Technically, he was more traditional than adventurous, focusing on plot development and character portrayal. 3. With an objective observation and a naturalistic description, Galsworthy had tried his best
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F.Scott Fitzergerald; William Faulkner), also

to make an impartial presentation of the social life in a documentary precision. 4. He was also successful in his attempt to present satire and humor in his writing. He wrote in a clear and unpretentious style with a clear and straightforward language. Bernard Shaw George Bernard Shaw was born in Dublin in 1856, but removed to London in 1876. he began his career as a novelist, then joined the Fabian socialist movement and , like Wells, devot George Bernard Shaw(1856-1950) a brilliant dramatist,. Main works: First period: 1894--1900: Plays Unpleasant 《不愉快戏剧集》 and Plays Pleasant 《愉快戏剧集》 Widowers‘ Houses 1892 《鳏夫的房产》 Mrs . Warren‘s Profession 1894 《华伦夫人的职业》 Caesar and Cleopatra 1898 Second period: 1901--1913: Man and Superman 《人与超人》 John Bull‘s Other Island 《英国佬的另一个岛》 Major Barbara 1905《巴巴拉少校》 Pygmalion 1912《窈窕淑女》 Third period 1913—1929: The heartbreak House 1917 《伤心之家》 St. Joan 《圣女贞德》 Fourth period: The Apple Cart 1929《苹果车》 Why She Would Not 1950《为什么她不肯》 Too True to Be Good 1932《真相毕露》 Works’ characteristics : a. structurally and thematically, Shaw followed the great traditions of realism. As a realistic dramatist, he took the modern social issues as his subjects with the aim of directing social reforms. Most of his plays are concerned with political, economic, moral, or religious problems, and, thus, can be termed as problem plays. His play has one passion.
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b. One features of Shaw‘s characterization is that he makes the trick of showing up one character vividly at the expense of another. Another feature is that Shaw‘s characters are the representatives of ideas, points of view, that shift and alter during the play. c. Much of Shavian drama is constructed around the inversion of the conventional theatrical situation. The inversion, a device found in Shaw from beginning to end, is an integral part of an interpretation of life d. Shaw‘s plays have plots, but they do not work by plots. The plot is usually the disregarded backbone to one long, unbroken conversation. It is the vitality of the talk that takes primacy over mere story. ed himself to social propaganda. Since his novels did not sell and since he could find no commercial producer for his early plays, he earned his living as a critic of music, art and the theatre. Later Shaw came under the influence of Henry George and William Morris and took an interest in socialist theories. Oscar Wilde and the Theory of “art for art’s sake”: Biography: dramatist, poet, novelist and essayist, spokesman for the school of ―Art for art's sake‖, the leader of the Aesthetic movement Main Works: The picture of Dorian Gray《道林格雷的画像》, 1891 Salome《萨勒姆》, 1893 Lady Windermere‘s Fan, 1892

A Woman of No Importance, 《一个无足轻重的妇女》1893 An ideal Husband, 《理想丈夫》 1895 The importance of Being Earnest, 《认真的重要性》1895 The Ballad of Redding Gao, 《累丁狱之歌》1898 Some terms for knowing Art for Art‘s sake That art is nothing to do with morality (art is not moral immoral but amoral), that the best of art is pure art, that the duty of an art critic is to tell his own impressions of a work of art, and that the function of art is to attract, to please and to provide enjoyment. But he elaborated on this theory of art for art‘s sake, and even declared that it is not art that reflects nature but it is nature that is the reflection of art. Neo-Romanticism The term neo-romanticism is synonymous with post-Romanticism or late Romanticism.
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Characteristic themes include longing for perfect love, utopian landscapes, nature reclaiming ruins, romantic death, and history-in-landscape. Neo-romanticism tended to shed somewhat the emphasis of Romanticism on 'the hero' and romantic nationalism. This was particularly so in the decades after both of the world wars. Naturalism Naturalism is a term of literary history, primarily a French movement in prose fiction and the drama during the final third of the 19th-cent. In France Emile Zola (1840-1902) was the dominant practitioner of Naturalism in prose fiction and the chief exponent of its doctrines. Broadly speaking, Naturalism is characterized by a refusal to idealize experience and by the persuasion that human life is strictly subjected to natural laws. Realism Realism is a literary term, the original definition of realism by Sir P. Harvey was "a loosely used term meaning truth to the observed facts of life (especially when they are gloomy)." Realism has been chiefly concerned with the commonplaces of everyday life among the middle and lower classes, where character is a product of social factors and environment is the integral element in the dramatic complications. Realism in literature is an approach that attempts to describe life without idealization or romantic subjectivity. Although realism is not limited to any one century or group of writers, it is most often associated with the literary movement in 19th-century France, specifically with the French novelists Flaubert and Balzac. In the drama, realism is most closely associated with Ibsen's social plays. Later writers felt that realism laid too much emphasis on external reality. Many, notably Henry James, turned to a psychological realism that closely examined the complex workings of the mind (stream of consciousness) Aestheticism It was an aesthetic movement which originated in the second half of 19th and flourished in the last decade of 19th century. Socially, it was a reaction against the materialism and commercialism of the Victorian industrial era. Artistically, it was a revolt against grubby naturalism. Aestheticism advocated the independence of art from social reality and the divorce of art from morality. It emphasized the value of the ecstatic nature of the moment inspired by art. It reached its peak in England with the efforts of Oscar Wilde.

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Chapter Eight English Literature Between the Two World Wars
An introduction of the general characteristics of the period
1910 年是英国小说从传统现实主义到现代主义变化的重要年份。一战无疑加速了这 一变化。一战后不少英国人对文艺复兴以来人文主义有关人性、人类前途的基本观念 乃至基督教文化传统的信念 发生了动摇。社会思想观念的深刻变革,促使现代主义 文学蓬勃发展,英国小说面目一新。D·H 劳伦斯将视线投向两性关系,对西方文明 的缺陷进行反思。出生于书香世家的弗吉尼亚·伍尔芙的突出成就是意识流小说,来 自爱尔兰的詹姆斯·乔伊斯被认为是继莎士比亚后英国文学史上最伟大的作家,他的 旷世之作《尤利西斯》给英国传统小说带来了革命。20 世纪 20 年代是英国文学史上 又一个辉煌的黄金时代,T·S 艾略特的《荒原》运用大量的神话描述西方世界精神 失落的景象,表达人的再生的希望,他的诗作代表了现代主义诗歌的突出成就。

William Butler Yeats (1865-1939); Thomas Stearns Eliot (1888-1965) Virginal Woolf; David Herbert Lawrence (1885-1930); Stream of Consciousness, Imagism and Modernism Procedures: The historical background Two world wars, an intervening介入 economic depression of great severity严重, and the austerity苛刻,节俭 of life in Britain following the second of these wars help to explain the quality and direction of English literature in the 20th century. The traditional values of Western civilization, which the Victorians had only begun to question, came to be questioned seriously by a number of new writers, who saw society breaking down around them. Traditional literary forms were often discarded, and new ones succeeded one another with bewildering rapidity, as writers sought fresher ways of expressing what they took to be new kinds of experience, or experience seen in new ways.
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The features of literature 1. English poetry Two of the most remarkable poets of the modern period combined tradition and experiment in their work. The Irish writer William Butler Yeats was the more traditional. The younger poet, T. S. Eliot, born in the United States, achieved more immediate acclaim with The Waste Land (1922), the most famous poem of the early part of the century. Both Yeats and Eliot exercised enormous influence on modern poets. 2. English drama Drama After the flowering of English comedy in the last decades of the 19th century, George Bernard Shaw , in Ireland the founding of the Abbey Theatre in Dublin in 1904 brought much lustre to a whole series of Irish play wrights including W.B.Yeats, Lady Gregory. Lennox Robinson, St. John Ervine, and Sean O‘ Casey. In the 1920s and 1930s, a rival to W. Somerset Maugham in the field of popular comedies of witty dialogue and in genious situation was Noel Coward. T.S. Eliot, was possible the most outstanding playwright. 3. English novels We may say that the 1920s were marked by the most mature works of the three ―modernist‖ novelists: D.H. Lawrence (with his Women in Love), James Joyce (with his Ulysess) and Virginia Woolf (with her Mrs. Dalloway, and To the Lighthouse). James Joyce related his Stream of Consciousness. D. H. Lawrence related his sense of the need for a return from the complexities, over-intellectualism, and cold materialism of modern life to the primitive; unconscious springs of vitality of the race. Virginia Woolf was more resolute and thorough in her insistence on taking up her stand in the minds of the characters than most other novelists had been. Influential writers --- William Butler Yeats William Butler Yeats(1865-1939) was born into an Anglo-Irish Protestant family in Dublin. He was awarded Nobel Prize for literature. In his romantic poetry, he exploited ancient Irish traditions and then gradually developed a powerfully honest, profound, and rich poetic idiom, at its maturity in The Tower (1928) and The Winding Stair (1933).
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His works‘ characters First stage, the major themes are usually Celtic legends, local folktales, or stories of the heroic age in Irish history, Many of his early poems have a dreamy quality, expressing melancholy, passive and self-indulgent feelings. He is not only the great poet, but also the dramatist, writing verse plays in most of the cases. He wrote more than 20 plays in a stretch of 48 years. Second stage : He disgust the bourgeois phili8stinism soured his political optimism. Later stage: in order to reflect ―the deeps of the mind‖, he began experimenting with techniques borrowed from the Japanese Noh plays, such as the use of masks, of ritualized actions, and of symbolic languages together with the combination of music and dance, in a certain way, his experiments anticipated the abstract movement of modern theater. Thomas Stearns Eliot (1888-1965) First studied at Smith Academy in his hometown, then at Harvard where he concentrated his energies on studying philosophy and logic. Then study in France, Germany and Oxford. Editor of the The Egoist and The Criterion. He rewarded the Nobel Prize and the Order of Merit in 1948. Main works: poem: 1915-1925 Poems (many poems) Prufrock and Other Observations The Waste Land (the most famous poem, comparable to Wordsworth?s Lyrical Ballads.) Ash Wednesday Four Quartets Drama: Murder in the Cathedral The Family Reunion The Cocktail Party The Confidential Clerk The Elder Statesman Everyman The Family Reunion Tradition and Individual Talent.
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Eliot‘s artistic view It is quite similar to Joyce‘s idea about the dramatic form of art which according to Joyce, is the highest form with the complete depersonalization of the author‘s emotions. Eliot‘s primary goal in poetry is a search for detachment,超然,独立 or impersonality.非个人化 In his essay tradition and the Individual Talent, 传统和个人天才Eliot writes that ―the emotion of art is impersonal‖, ―Poetry is not a turning loose of emotion, but an escape from emotion; it is not the expression of personality, but an escape from personality‘ the progress of an artist is a continual self-sacrifice, a continual extinction 毁灭,of personality.‖ Novelist--Virginia Woolf Her contribution to the life of British letters was made both as a novelist and as a critic. She was also attempting to explore the consciousness of her characters, but she was not attempting to deal with so many types of people and situations as James Joyce was. In her books, she laid stress on the interior flow of people‘s experience in life rather than on the exterior happenings. Her use of very long sentences, difficult syntax and large vocabulary sometimes make her books hard to read. In her books she developed her own impressionistic technique for communicating the inner life of her characters. D. H. Lawrence 1. Works: The Rainbow; Women in Love; Lady Chatterley?s Lover 2. Sons and Lovers Contents: ignorant, drunken and brutish father (Mr.Morel), the weary, frustrated mother (Mrs.Morel), the intelligent and ambitious woman, tries to find emotional fulfillment in her sons (Paul). she hopes her sons should never became miners, they will be educated to realize her ideals of success, happiness and social respect. Paul is incapable of escaping the overpowering emotional bond imposed by her mothers love. (distorted relationship) D. H. Lawrence?s works? features (1) He interests in exploring the psychological development, he thinks life impulse is man?s instinct. Any conscious oppression will cause distortion of the individual?s personality (2)Make a psychological exploration of human relationships, especially those between men and women. (3)He emphasizes that it?s capitalist industrialization that turn man into inhuman machines. And the desires for power and money cause the alienation of human relationships. James Joyce
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1.Scene:the same setting: Ireland, especially Dublin, the same subject: the Irish people and their life 2. Works: Ulysses: an account of man?s life during one day 3.Stream of consciousness: presents unspoken materials directly from the psyche of the characters, or make the characters tell their own inner thoughts in monologues. A literary form presenting psychological aspects of characters. The events seem to be trivial, insignificant, but below the surface of them, the natural flow of mental reflections, the shifting moods and impulses in the characters inner world are richly presented in an frank and penetrating way. (Ulysses) 4.Araby(from Dubliners): a tale of the frustrated quest for beauty theme: the child lives not with his parents but with an uncle and aunt, a symbol of that isolation and lack of proper relation between parents and children. His works’ characters: He was one of the most prominent literary figures of the first half of the 20th century. As a great artistic genius, Joyce has created a body of work worthy of comparison with the other masterpieces of English literature. He is regarded as the most prominent stream-of-consciousness. He adopts a kind of mock-heroic style. The essence of the mock-heroic lies in the application of apparently inappropriate styles. He achieves this mainly by elaborating his style into parody, pastiche, symbolic fantasy, and narration by question and answer from an omniscient narrator. Many critics think that Joyce is a great master of innovation. His radical experimentation ranges from ―stream-of -consciousness‖ to his fantastic engagements with rhetoric, sentimental romance, historical stylistics, counterpoint and expressionist drama. Some terms- Stream of Consciousness, Imagism and Modernism Stream of consciousness: The narrative method of capturing and representing the inner workings of a character‘s mind. Generally speaking there are two levels of consciousness ―the speech level‖ and ―the pre-speech level‖. The pre-speech of levels of consciousness are not censored, not rationally controlled or logically ordered. And stream-of consciousness novel can be defined as a type of novel in which the basic emphasis is placed on exploration of the pre-speech level of consciousness for the purpose of revealing the psychic being of the characters and of studying human nature. The realm of life with which stream-of consciousness novel is concerned in mental and spiritual experience,
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such as sensations, memories, imaginations, conceptions, intuitions, feelings and the process of associations. Modernism rose out of skepticism and disillusion of capitalism. The appalling shock of the First world war severely destroyed people‘s faith in the Victorian values; and the rise of the irrational philosophy and new science greatly incited writers to make new explorations on human natures and human relationships. The French symbolism, appearing in the late of 19th century, heralded modernism. After the first world war, all kinds of literary trends of modernism appeared: Expressionism, Surrealism, Futurism, Dadaism, Imagism and Stream of consciousness. Towards the 1920s, these trends converged into a mighty torrent of modernist movement, which swept across the whole Europe and America. The major figures that were associated with this movement were Kafka, Picasso, Pound, Webern, Eliot, Joyce and Virginia Woolfe. Modernism was somewhat curbed in the 1930s. Imagism, poetic movement that flourished in the us and England between 1909 and 1917. The movement was led by the American poets Ezra Pound and later Amy Lowell. Other imagist poets were the English writers D.H. Lawrence and Richard Aldington and the American poets John Gould Fletcher and Hilda Doolittle. These poets issued manifestos and wrote poems and essays embodying their theories. They placed primary reliance on the use of precise, sharp images as a means of poetic expression and stressed precision in the choice of words, freedom in the choiced of subject matter and form, and the use of colloquial language. Most of the imagist poets wrote in free verse, using such devices as assonance and alliteration rather than formal metrical schemes to give structure to their poetry. Difference between Modernism and Realism Modernism is a reaction against realism in many aspects (1)Modernism rejects rationalism, which is the theoretical base of Realism. (2)Modernism reflects the source of Realism, i.e. the external, objective, material world. (3)Modernism rejects almost all the traditional elements in literature Some exercises ( c) 1. ―The Vanity Fair‖ is a well-known part in ______________. A. The Holy War C. The Pilgrims Progress B. The life and Death of Mr. Badman D. Oliver Twist
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(D) 2. _______is D. H. Lawrence‘s autobiographical novel. A. The White Peacock C. The Rainbow A. Hamlet C. ―A Boy‘s Will‖ A. Hemingway‘s C. Ezra Pound‘s A. Elizabethan C Victorian B. The Trspasser D. Sons and Lovers B. The Scarlet Letter D. young Goodman Brown B. Fitzgerald‘s D. Eugene o‘Neill B. Modern D. Classical

(C) 3. ________ is the first volume of Robert Frost. .

(A) 4. The ―iceberg‖ analogy is __________ style, which he had been trying hard to get.

(C) 5. Hardy‘s novels are all _______ in date.

(A) 6. Washington Irving was one of the first American writers to earn an international reputation and regarded as ―Father of American _______‖. A. short stories C. poetry A. The Sound and the Fury. C. Go Down, Moses not his invention. A. ―dramatic monologue‖ C. ―Wessex novels‖ B. ―black humour‖ D. ―Lake Poets‖ B. drama C. literature B. Intruder in the Dust D. Absalom, Absalom!.

(B) 7. In 1950, Faulkner was awarded the Nobel Prize for the anti-racist __________.

(A ) 8. The name of Browning is often associated with the term: ____________, though it is

(C) 9. Most of Shaw‘s plays are concerned with political, economic, moral , or religious problems, and, thus, can be termed as _________. A. serious plays C. problem plays B. tragedy plays D. comic plays

(C) 10. The impact of Darwin‘s evolutionary theory on the American thought and the influence of the 19th century French literature on the American men of letters gave rise to yet another school of realism: __________. A. critic realism C. American naturalism B. romanticism D. modernism

(C ) 11.In the years preceding World War I, nineteenth-century realism and _____ remained
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vital forces in American Literature. A. critic realism C. American naturalism ______. A. novels (A B. historical romances C. poems D. plays ) 13. Although the form and direction of modern American literature had clearly begun B. romanticism D. modernism

(B ) 12. The best-selling American books in the first decades of the twentieth century were

to emerge in the first decades of the century, ______ stands as a great dividing line between the nineteenth century and contemporary America. A. the First World War C. American Naturalism B. the Second World War D. American Transcendentalism

(C ) 14. The publication in 1922 of T. S. Eliot‘s _______, the most significant American poem of the twentieth century, helped to establish a modern tradition of literature rich with learning and allusive thought. A. Prufrock and Other Observations C. Waste Land B. the Sacred Wood D. Murder in the Cathedral

(B). 15. Jazz music of the American __________---- the most influential art form to originate in the United States --- spread throughout the world. A. White men B. Negro C. players D. workers (C ) 16.Frost employed the plain speech of rural ________ and preferred the short, traditional forms of lyric and narrative. A. New American C. New Englanders A. William Faulkner C. Ernest Hemingway genuine epic poem. A. Voices of the Night. C. Ballads and Other Poems of her creativity and imagination. A. H. W. Longfellow B. Walt Whitman C. Emily Dickinson D. Robert Frost
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B. American D. Puritans B. John Steinbeck D.Robert Frost

( C ) 17. In 1952, _______portrayed an old fisherman in the Old Man and the Sea.

(D ) 18.In the cluster of poems Whitman called ______________ he gave America its first B. the Song of Hiawatha D. Leaves of Grass

C ) 19. The range of __________‘s poetry suggests not her limited experiences but the power

(A ) 20. The Gilded Age had already pointed towards _______‘s uneasy acceptance of the values of nineteen-century American society. A. Mark Twain B. Walt Whitman C. H. B. Stowe D. Emily Dickinson

Chapter Nine

English literature after the

Second World War
Brief introductions of A general view of the characteristic in this period
Samuel Beckett, Larkin and ―the movement‖, Kingsley Amis (1922-), William Golding (1911-), Dorris Lessing (1919-), Ted Hughes (1930-) Procedures Introduction Doubtlessly, the First World War was a destruction blow on Britain. Though a winner, it turned from the role of a loaner into a debtor, and the number one financial centre transferred from London to New York. British people are traditionally accustomed to the class– ridden society. People in Britain tend to reform the social system by abiding the established Laws. The British social reformation goes zigzagly into the English Disease. English contemporary literature begins to lose some of its star writers as well as its wide influence. George Orwell is the early representative of the social protest against inequality, colonialism and totalitarianism. Following him was better education nationwide and the ―Angry Young Men‖ of the 1950s and 1960s. In this group are Philip Larkin, Kingsley Amis, John Wain, John Braine, John Osborne, etc. Angry Young Man They were well-educated from the working class. They could not go back where they came
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from , nor could they advance beyond the class bondage. In a fury, they attacked such social conditions in England after the Second World War, with their works filling the gap of British Literature caused by the death of W.B. Yeats, James Joyce, Virginia Woolf and D. H. Lawrence, consequently, the Angry young men became the representatives of the main stream of British literature. Literature of the Absurd It is a term most often used to class together works by such artists as Samuel Beckett, Eugene Lonescoe, Jean Genet, Edward Albee and Harold Pinter. The reason these men formed this rather notoriously elite group of playwrights is rather obvious when one studies each playwright's style and subject. Though none necessarily imitate each other, all share a same subjugation of plot, character, and theme. ―Literature of the Absurd‖ was simply a later development of these innovative writing styles. It focused sharply on the irrationality and absurdity of the world. The writers exhibited an unreserved contempt and scorn for hypocrisy in the world. It was an intellectual reproduction of reality, rather than a physical or even practical one. The psychology of the work mirrored the helplessness and emptiness of human life as its creators saw it. Influential writers Samuel Beckett Larkin and the movement Kingsley Amis William Golding Dorris Lessing Ted Hughes William Golding and his creation Achieved international fame and wide critical acceptance with his first published novel, Lord of the Flies, in 1954. Its fame has no doubt been in part due to its pessimistic vision of human nature as inherently violent, reflecting the mood of the post-war and post-Hitler years: it also epitomizes mid-20-century disillusionment with 19th century optimism about human nature. Among the novelists, Golding is outstanding in probing human nature and creating his own mythology of evil and original sin. He is a moralist and good at fable fiction. Dorris Lessing and her creation Dorris Lessing, English novelist, short story writer, poet and critic, burst upon the British
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literary scene in 1950 with her first novel, The Grass Is Singing, and she has remained at the top ever since. Some exercises True Or False: (F) 1. ―My Last Duchess‖ reveals bit by bit the Duke‘s passion and devotion. (T) 2. As a young man in the last decades of the 19th century, Yeats began his poetic career in the romantic tradition. (T) 3. Moby-Dick is regarded as the first American prose epic. (F ) 4. As Dickens ―explores more bleakly a bleaker world‖, there are more jokes and the comedy becomes funnier. (T) 5. Emily Dickinson was the forerunner of imagism. (F) 6. N. Hawthorne only touched upon the problem of love in the Scarlet Letter. (F ) 7. Structurally and thematically, G. B. Shaw followed the great traditions of modernism. (F ) 8. Joyce‘s masterpiece, Ulysses, is an uncommon novel, for it has too many plots. (F ) 9. On the whole, Browning‘s style is roughly the same as that of any other Victorian poets. (T) 10. As some people put it, Hardy is intellectually advanced and emotionally traditional. (T ) 11. By the end of Civil War (1816--1865) most of the forces that would typify twentieth-century America had begun to emerge. (F)12. Harriet Beccher Stowe, the author of I am Nobody, had become an American institution and the most famous literary woman in the world. (T )13. Naturalism, like realism, had come from Europe. (T )14. in 1865 the first step toward racial equality was made when the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution was adopted, abolishing slavery within the United States. (F )15. the bulk of America‘s literary realism was limited to pessimistic treatment of the surface of life. (T ) 16. Frost saw nature as a storehouse of analogy and symbol, announcing, ― I am always saying something more.‖ (F) 17. Early in the 1920s the most prominent of the new American playwrights, Clifford Odets established an international reputation. (F ) 18. The Great Gatsby and Tender in the Night, Robert Frost had revealed the stridency of an age of Glittering innocence. (T) 19. It is likely that in Eliot‘s abundant use of Literary reference in the Waste Land he was
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influence by Pound. (F ) 20. Faulkner was the first American to be wounded in Italy during World War I.

American Literature– Chapter One American Romanticism
Introduction:
19 世纪初,美国完全摆脱了对英国的依赖,以独立国家的身份进入世界政治舞台。 这时期作家们跟英国浪漫主义作家一样,强调文学的想象力和感情色彩,反对古典 主义的形式和观点,歌颂大自然,崇尚个人与普通人的思想感情,并且寻根问祖发 幽古思情。 19 世纪浪漫主义运动的中心在新英格兰地区, 主要表现形式为超验主义, 它崇尚直觉,反对理性和权威,强调人有能力凭直觉直接认识真理,人能超越感觉 获得知识。 超验主义理论的奠基人是爱默生,他的〈论自然〉曾被称为超验主义理论的“圣经” 。 在诗歌方面,新英格兰地区比较出名的诗人有郎费罗,在波士顿有惠蒂诶,他的长 诗〈大雪封门〉被称为“一部优美的新英格兰田园诗” ,19 世纪最伟大的美国浪漫主 义诗人是惠特曼,1855 年出版的<草叶集>标志着美国文学进入了一个崭新的时代。 另一位革新诗人是狄金森,她被誉为美国 20 世纪新诗的先驱。浪漫主义时期两位最 重要的小说家是霍桑和梅尔维尔,在浪漫派作家中埃德加·爱伦·坡是第一位美国 主张为艺术而艺术的人。 Social and personal background To let the students understand something the romantic period writers (Irving, Hawthorn, Longfellow, Allan Poe, Emerson, Thoreau). American transcendentalism and Free Verse Procedures: Introduction American Romanticism spanned three decades from 1830 to 1865. it was the period between the ―second revolution‖ of the Jacksonian Era and the close of the Civil War in America in the
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first half of the 19th century, a tremendous change in American‘s political life was the development of Jacksonian democracy. In literature it was America‘s first great creative period, a full flowering of the romantic impulse on American soil. Matching the emerging political and economical development of the nation, native American writers won increasing national and international fame. Washington Irving’s Sketch Book became the first work by American writer and by the 1830s Irving was judged the nation‘s greatest writer; James Fenimore Cooper, father of American novelists created a mythical west that transcended the reality of life on the frontier. Nathaniel Hawthorne in his short stories and his four novels created a fiction that began in allegory but grew to a complex form of Romantic symbolism. Herman Melvill wrote personal narratives of his experiences in remote places and in his masterpiece Moby-Dick produced a work of great energy and theme. The poetry of the period was predominantly romantic in spirit and form. Walt Whitman’s Leaves of Grass, a powerful epic of the self in strongly cadenced free verse embodies the individualism, the love of freedom and the striving for personal expression that are of the base of Romanticism. In the essay and on the lecture platform the new England transcendentalists – Emerson, Thoreau, Margaret Fuller, and Alott- carried the literary expression of Philosophical and religious ideas to a high level. Some influential writers Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804--1864) Herman Melville (1819--1891) Edgar Allan Poe Ralph Waldo Emerson(1803-1882) Henry David Thoreau (1817--1862) Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Walt Whitman(1819-1892) Influential writers– Nathaniel Hawthorn
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Main works: Twice-Told Tales 《尽人皆知的故事》 Mosses from an Old Manse 《古屋青苔》 The Snow-Image and Other Twice-Told Tales The Scarlet Letter 《红字》 The House of the Seven Gables 《带有七个尖角阁的屋子》 The Blithedale Romance 《福谷传奇》 The Marble Faun 《玉石雕像》 Young Goodman Brown 《好人布朗》 Hawthorne’s extraordinary literary craftsmanship. As a man of literary craftsmanship, Hawthorne is extraordinary. The structure and the form of his writing s are always carefully worked out to cater for the thematic concern.他作品的结构和形式都是经过精心设计来表达主题的。 Hawthorne is also a great allegorist 他擅长引喻 and almost every story can be read allegorically, as is the case in ―young Goodman Brown‖ whereas allegory is used to hold fast against the crushing blows of reality, the symbol serves as a weapon to attack and penetrate it. Hawthorne is a master of symbolism, which he took from the puritan tradition and bequeathed to American literature in a revivified form. The symbol can be found everywhere in his writing, and his masterpiece provides the most conclusive proof. Why did Hawthorn choose romance as his novel form? He chose romance as his novel form, because he intended to discuss the latent evil in man‘s heart, thus he has to get to the truth of the individual psychology. To him, this is more important than the actual truth and the overt 公开的 reality. To show the truth of the individual psychology, he has to go back to puritanical period– the original sin. Romance gives him the freedom, to move away from the novelistic realism, to create a certain atmosphere, to help to show the truth of heart (sth. Not clearly show very emotional and symbolic. The atmosphere that he created is the shadow– a middle place between actual and imagery, where both history and reality can meet, so he can change actual event with his imagination, in order to reach analyzing psychology truth.) Hawthorne’s artistic features: 1. form: he chose romance as his novel form.
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2. his tone: serious, ironic, humorous. 3. his words or diction: old Anglo-Saxon language sentences with many long paraphrases. 4. Rhetoric Devices: exaggeration, irony and symbolism. 5. Plot: omniscient (全知的), third-person.

Herman Melville (1819-1891) born into a well-to-do family Main works: Main works: Moby-Dick 《白鲸》 Billy Budd 《比利 ·巴德》 Typee 《泰比》 Omoo 《奥穆》 Mardi 《玛地》 White Jacket 《白外衣》 Redburn 《雷德本》 Pierre 《皮埃尔》 Bartleby, the Scrivener 《公证人》 Bentito Cereno The Confidence-Man 《自信人》 His achievements: Symbolism is not the only way in which Melville has articulated, shaped, and presented the mighty theme of the book, Melville‘s great gifts of language, invention, psychological analysis, speculative agility, and narrative power are fused to make Moby-Dick a world classic. The skillful use of Ishmael both as a character and a narrator gives the novel a moral magnitude重 要性; the manipulation处理 of the whaling chapters for some philosophical speculation makes the novel more than symbolic; different levels of language use and styles turn the whole book into a symphony with all the musical instruments going on to form a melody; and moreover, Melville‘s knowledge of epic and tragedy, the highest literary genres, helps him produce a great tragic epic, with Ahab at the center as a tragic hero, who burns with a baleful fire, becoming evil himself in his thirst to destroy evil.

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Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849) One of the most popular American authors. The Fall of the House of Usher, a story in Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque, first collection of 25 stories , published in two volumes in 1839. The Raven, first published in 1845, was an immediate success and has remained one of Poe‘s enduring works. Poe is the poet and short story writer. To the modern age he stands as one of the foremost writers of America, and he is now, nearly a century and a half after his death, one of the most popular authors in the world. Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882) Speaking of American Romanticism, we can never ignore New England Transcendentalism, which is unanimously agreed to be the summit of the Romantic period in the history of American literature. And the chief spokesman of this spiritual movement is Emerson. Born in Boston, Massachusetts, Emerson formed a club known as the Transcendental Club, and the unofficial manifesto for the club was Nature. . Emerson is generally known as an essayist. During his life he worked steadily at a succession of essays, usually derived from his journal or lectures he had already given. His lasing reputation began only with the publication of Essays(1841). Emerson is the most representative of the philosophical and literary school which is American Transcendentalism and it inspired in his lifetime a whole generation of famous authors like Thoreau. Emerson‘s Transcendentalist idea and his view of nature His Transcendentalist idea a. actually a philosophical school that absorbed some ideological concerns of American Puritanism and European Romanticism. b. Focus on the intuitive knowledge of human beings to grasp the absolute in the universe and the divinity of man; c. Religion based on an intuitive belief in an ultimate unity, Oversoul; Emerson‘s view of nature: d. Nature is emblematic 象征性的of the spiritual world, alive with God‘s overwhelming presence;

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e. Nature exercises a healthy and restorative influence on human mind. Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) A prose stylist and transcendentalist, won his place in American literature by adventuring at home– traveling, as he put it, a good deal in Concord. He published two books and some essays during his life time. The majority of Thoreau‘s works was published after his death. Thoreau believed that most men, in their frantic pursuit of the means for living, had lost sight of the true ends of life. In the matter of literary style, two points concerning Thoreau‘s cultural heritage have to be kept in mind. One is his attitude to nature that is obviously quasi准的 -religious and the other is the Christian terms and symbols that carried great emotional power. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow life Longfellow was born at Portland, Maine on February 22, 1807, he was brought up in an atmosphere of cultivated blood breeding. More immediately significant to him, was the actual contact with a romantic past that contrasted appealingly for him, with the apparent barrenness of his own country. His success in teaching was rewarded with the appointment as the Smith professor of modern languages at Harvard. The closing years of his life were satisfying. His 75th birthday was celebrated nation-wide. Longfellow died on March 24, 1882, in Cambridge, Massachusetts. works 1845, the Poets and Poetry of Europe 1839, Voices of the Night, a prose romance based on his second journey abroad. 1841, Ballads and Other Poems 1842, Poems on Slavery 1843, the Spanish Student, a poetic drama. Evangeline, his narrative poem. 1845, The Belfry of Burgues 1849, Kavanagh, a semi-autobiographical prose 1855, Hiawatha, based on American Indian legends. 1858, the courtship of Miles Standish

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1863, Tales of a Wayside Inn. 1879, The Gross of Snow. Point of view: 1. the milder aspects of the romantic movement. Strongly influenced by the German romantic lyrist. 2. cultural ambassador: transplant to American literature some of the colored and melody and romantic charm of the complex European literature, he had studied. 3. consistently high-minded, high-moral, sublime(崇高的) but conventional, untouched by the religions and social struggles except interest in anti-slavery. Artistic features From: mainly regular lyrics, narratives. Tone: earnest, optimistic, enthusiastic. Words: simple but graceful, polished, common, poetic. Rhetorical device: comparison, metaphor, symbol. General impression: gentleness, sweetness, purity. Longfellow‘s advice for living. His optimism which has characterized much of his poetry, also endeared many critics to him. He seemed to have persevered despite tragedy. In his poem, ―the Psalm of Life‖, he writes: Life is real! Life is earnest! And the grave is not its goal!. This is the cry of the heart, ―rallying from depression‖, ready to affirm life, to regroup from losses, to push on despite momentary defeat. Walt Whitman(1819-1892) HE was born into a working-class family Main works: Leave of Grass (it is always been considered a monumental work which commands great attention because of its uniquely poetic embodiment of American democratic ideals as written in the founding documents of both the Revolutionary War in the United States and the Civil War, and the author of the book is a giant of American letters.) Songs of Myself Drum Taps Whitman's poetic style {artistic features} 1. The use of the poetic "I."

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To dramatize the nature of these new poetical feelings, Whitman employed brand-new means in his poetry, which would first be discerned in his style and language. style is marked, first of all, by the use of the poetic "I." 2. The form of his poetry—free verse Whitman is also radically innovative in terms of the form of his poetry. What he prefers for his new subject and new poetic feelings is "free verse," that is, poetry without a fixed beat or regular rhyme scheme. A looser and more open-ended syntactical structure is frequently favored. Lines and sentences of different lengths are left lying side by side just as things are, undisturbed and separate. 3. The rhythm of his poetry. However, there is still a strong sense of the poems being rhythmical. Rather than giving a description of those concrete things, Whitman catalogues them. These details in the catalogue are not given as a separate event, but as one phase in the movement of feeling. Different things would mean a different wave of feeling. So when we read his poems, we can feel the rhythm of Whitman's thought and cadences of his feeling. Parallelism and phonetic recurrence at the beginning of the lines also contribute to the musicality of his poems. 4. His language Contrary to the rhetoric of traditional poetry, Whitman's is relatively simple and even rather crude. Most of the pictures he painted with words are honest, undistorted images of different aspects of America of the day. Unifying images of the body, the crowd, the sexuality are pervasive in his poems. The particularity about these images is that they are unconventional in the way they break down the social division based on religion, gender, class, and race. Some terms Transcendentalism: it is the most clearly defined Romantic literary movement in the Romantic Period of American literature. It was started by a group of people who were members of an informal club– the transcendental Club in New England in the 1830s. It was from the very beginning a local phenomenon restricted only to those people living in New England, who carried out the movement as a reaction against the cold, regid 僵直的,教条的rationalism of unitarianism上帝一位论 in Boston. Gradually its influence began to spread all over the country, especially among the intellectual and the literary men of the USA. Free verse it is a form of poetry. It means that the poetry is without a fixed beat or regular rhyme. A looser and more open-ended syntactical structure is frequently favored. Lines and
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Whitman's poetic

sentences of different structure are left lying side by side just as things are, undisturbed and separate. Some exercises 1. The Romantic Period in American literature started from the publication of Washington Irving?s __A____ and ended with Whitman‘s Leaves of Grass. A. The Sketch Book C. A History of New York B. Tales of a Traveller D. The Scarlet Lette

2. At the middle of 19th century, America witnessed a cultural flowering which is called ―__C___‖。 A. the English Renaissance B. the Second Renaissance C. the American Renaissance D. the Salem Renaissance 3. As a philosophical and literary movement, the main issues involved in the debate of Transcendentalism are generally concerning ______A. A. nature , man and the universe B. the relationship between man and woman C. the development of Romanticism in American literature D. the cold, rigid rationalism of Unitarianism 4. In the history of American literature, __C____ is usually agreed to be the summit of the American Romanticism. A. the Harlem Renaissance C. New England Transcendentalism B. England Transcendentalism D. New Transcendentalism

5. About the novel The Scarlet Letter,which of the following statements is not right: D A. It?s very hard to say that it is a love story or a story of sin. B. It?s a highly symbolic story and the author is a master of symbolism. C. It?s mainly about the moral, emotional and psychological effects of the sin upon the main characters and the people in general. D. In it the letter A takes the same symbolic meaning throughout the novel. 6. The great sea adventure story Moby-Dick is usually considered___A___. A. a symbolic voyage of the mind in quest of the truth and knowledge of the universe. B. an adventurous exploration into man?s relationship with nature C. a simple whaling tale or sea adventure D. a symbolic voyage of the mind in quest of the artistic truth and beauty
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7. In his poems, Walt Whitman is innovative in the terms of the form of his poetry,which is

A. free verse B. blank verse C. alliteration D. end rhyming 8. After the Civil War America was transformed from __A____ to ______. A. an agrarian community … an industrialized and commercialized society B. an agrarian community … a society of freedom and equality C. a poor and backward society … an industrialized and commercialized society D. an industrialized and commercialized society … a highly developed society 9. Which of the following is said of the American Naturalism?D A. They preferred to have their own region and people at the forefront of the stories. B. Their characteristic setting is usually an isolated town. C. Humans should be united because they had to adapt themselves to changing harsh environment. D. Their characters were conceived more or less complex combinations of inherited attributes, their habits conditioned by social and economic forces. Matching works: A: 1 Graham Greene 2. Iris Murdoch 3. Aldous Huxley 4. John Fowles 5. Kingsley Amis 6. Washington Irving 7. James Fenimore Cooper 8. Edgar Allan Poe 9. Henry David Thoreau 10. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow B. a. Under the Net b. Brave New World c. The Power and the Glory
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d. The French Lieutenant‘s Woman e. ―The Raven‖ f. The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon g. the Leather-Stocking Tales h. Walden i. ―The Song of Hiawatha‖ j. Luck Jim 1—5 c d b d j 6-10 f g e h i

Chapter Two American Literature of the Realism
Introduction:
南北战争以后到第一次世界大战爆发,美国完成了从农业到工业社会的转变。乡土文 学的出现成为南北战争以后美国文学的一大发展, 现实主义时期三位最重要的作家是 豪威尔斯、马克·吐温和詹姆斯。现实主义和自然主义文学运动中成就最大的是德莱 塞,他的代表作《美国的悲剧》被评论界认为是“美国最伟大的小说” 。

Introduction of background The features of American literature of realism Influential writers American Naturalism Some terms ( realism, local colorism, The Gilded Age ) Some exercises. Procedures: Introduction By the middle of 19th century, the romantic literature dominated America‘s literary circles and the realist literature was just in the embryonic stage. At the time the antislavery struggle developed vigorously and the Civil War was about to break out; it was in such a revolutionary situation that the American realist literature came into being. After the Civil War, the great changes of the factual society brought changes to American literature, that is , the romantic literature declined gradually and the realist literature began to

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rise and develop and a group of outstanding realist writers appeared. Features of this period (1) Native trends in the realistic portrayal of the landscape and social surfaces. (2) Perfect the dialect style. (3) Concern about "local colourism", a unique variation of American literary realism. The features of American Realism Three trends mark the literature of the period: regionalism or local colourism, realism, and naturalism. Three movements became increasingly important in American fiction after the Civil War. As the country expanded in area and population, regional differences became more apparent and of greatest interest, especially to people in the established cultural centers of the east. In reaction to romanticism, it emphasized the everyday and through detailed description re-created specific locations, incidents and social classes. Some influential writers H. B. Stowe Three realist novelists: [ Mark Twain, Henry James(1843-1916) and William D Howells] Emily Dickinson Theodore Dreiser O. Henry H. B. Stowe She is best known for the antislavery novel Uncle Tom?s Cabin, which was first published serially and then in book form in 1851 and 1852. It was an immediate success, selling the unprecedented number of over 300,000 copies in its first year, and since that time it has been frequently translated and often dramatized, originally as a powerful antislavery document. Mark Twain Samuel L. Clemens, his pseudonym is Mark Twain. Primary Works The Innocents Abroad, 1869; A Tramp Abroad, 1880; The Prince and the Pauper, 1882;
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Roughing It, 1872;

The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, 1876;

Life on the Mississippi, 1883; The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, 1885; A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur?s Court《亚瑟王宫廷中的美国佬》, 1889; The Tragedy of Pudd?nhead Wilson and the Comedy of Those Extraordinary Twins 《傻瓜威 尔逊》, 1894; Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc, 1896; Following the Equator , 1897; Autobiography, 1924; The Mysterious Stranger Manuscripts, 1969; What is Man? and Other Philosophical Writings, 1973. His works‘ characters: a. He is known as a local colorist, who preferred to present social life through portraits of the local characters of his regions. b. His use of vernacular. His words are colloquial, concrete and direct in effect, and his sentences structures are funny. Henry James(1843-1916) He was the first American writer to conceive his career in international terms. The son of the theological writer Henry James Main works: Daisy Miller The Europeans The Portrait of A Lady Bostonians The Private Life The Death of a Lion The Middle Years The Turn of the Screw What Maisie Knows The Wings of the Dove The Ambassadors
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simple, even ungrammatical.

c. He is humorous too. It is fun to read Twain to begin with, for most of his works tend to be

The Golden Bowl His works characters a. James‘s fame generally rests upon his novels and stories with the international theme. These novels are always set against a larger international background, usually between Europe and American, and centered on the confrontation of the two different cultures with two different groups of people representing two different value system. b. His literary criticism is an indispensable part of his contribution to literature. it is both concerned with form and devoted to human values. c. His realism is characterized by his psychological approach to his subject matter. His fictional world is concerned more with the inner life of human beings than with overt human actions. d. His literary techniques innovated to cater for this psychological emphasis is his narrative ―point of view‖. e. He is not only one of the most important realists of the period before the First World War, but also the most expert stylist of his time. William D Howells The champion of the new School, felt that he must write what he observed and knew. The main theme of his reveals his literary credo. The Differences among William D. Howells, Mark Twain and Henry James Though the three prominent writers wrote more or less at the same time, they differed in their understanding of the ―truth.‖ While Mark Twain and Howells seemed to have paid more attention to the ―life ‖ of the Americans, they both shared the same concern in presenting the truth of the American society, they had each of them different emphasis. Howells focused his discussion on the rising middle-class and the way they lived, while Twain preferred to have his own region and people at the forefront of his stories this particular concern about the local character of a region came about as ―local colourism. ‖ Henry James had apparently laid a greater emphasis on the ―inner world‖ of man. In addition Henry James thinks that writers should use language to probe the deepest reaches of the psychological and moral nature of human beings. He is a realist of the inner life.

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Emily Dickinson--Pioneer of Imagism Poetry Born: 10 December 1830 Birthplace: Amherst, Massachusetts Died: 15 May 1886 Best Known As: the poet called "The Belle of Amherst, Massachusetts‖ Main works: I heard a Fly buzz-when I died (her masterpiece) If you were coming in the Fall There came a Day at Summer‘s full I cannot live with you I‘m wife-I‘ve finished thatI‘m ceded-I‘ve stopped being theirs Emily Dickinson Subject matters: religion, death, immortality, love, nature and society Her poems are usually short, hardly more than 20 lines and many of them are centered on the single image or symbol or subject matter. Her tone: personal and familiar. Rhetorical devices: personification, metaphor and symbol. Emily’s works features and her idea Works features: (1) She uses a particular rhyme pattern, uses emphasis (2)Simplicity and plainness (3)Focus on a single image or symbol (4)Poems are personal and meditative (5)Personification. Emily‘s idea: Skeptical about the relationship between man and nature, concerns religion, death, immortality, love, nature. Style: her poems have no titles, so are always quoted by their first lines. In her poetry, there is a particular stress patters: dashes are used as a musical device to create
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dashes and capital letters as a means of

cadence owe punctuation and capital letters as a means of emphasis. The form of poetry: is more or less like that of hymns in community churches familiar communal and sometimes irregular. Sometimes her irregular and inverted structures confused the readers. Her expressions are famous for its brevity directness and plainness. O. Henry O. Henry is the pen name of the American author William Sidney Porter, whose short stories entertained millions of readers and influenced generations of writers In the united States and abroad. His main works: 1898, Cabbages And Kings 1906, The Four Million 1908, the Voice of the City 1909, Roads of Destiny 1912 Rolling Stones American Naturalism 1. It was influenced by Darwin?s evolutionary theory: 2. They accept the more negative implications of it and use it to explain the behavior of those characters in literary works. 3. They inherited qualities, and habits confined by social forces are depicted. 4. Theme: human "bestiality", especially the sexual desire. 5. Unpolished language 6. Philosophically, the truth is always partially hidden from the eyes of the individual, or beyond his control. 7. Material source from the lower ranks of society portray misery and poverty. 8. Naturalism is evolved from realism. Author?s tone in writing is less serious and sympathetic, more ironic and pessimistic. Theodore Dreiser 1.works:Sister Carrie 2.Trilogy三步曲:The Financier; The Titan; The Stoic
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greatest work: An American Tragedy 3.idea:naturalist (1)heredity and environment are the forces determining man?s destiny, under what life was ironic, even tragic. (2)human beings? life was trapped into ?a welter of inscrutable forces‘ (3)Darwin?s idea of "survival of the fittest" is embodied as "kill or to be killed" in Dreiser?s works. (4)He explains the insignificance of life and attack the conventional moral standards. (5)materialism is the core. Man has a meaningless, endless search for satisfaction of his desires, desires for money. (6)Sex is another human desire. Sexual beauty symbolizes the social status. Some terms Realism refers to the literary tendency appeared after the American Civil War. The harsh realities of life as well as the disillusion of heroism resulting from the dark memories of the Civil War had set the nation against the romance. The Americans began to be tired of the sentimental feelings of Romanticism. A new generation of writers, dissatisfied with the Romantic ideas in the older generation, came up with a new inspiration. This new attitude was characterized by a great interest in the realities of life. It aimed at the interpretation of the actualities of any aspect of life free from subjective prejudice, idealism, or romantic color. Instead of thinking about the mysteries of life and death and heroic individualism, people‘s attention was now directed to the interesting features of everyday existence, to what was brutal or sordid, and to the open portray of class struggle. This literary interest in the so-called reality of life started a new period in the American literary writings known as the Age or realism. Local colourism is a unique variation of American literary realism. It refers to the particular concern about the local character of region. The local colorists‘ writings are concerned with the life of a small well-defined region or province. The characteristic setting is the isolated small town. Local colorists were consciously nostalgic historians of a vanishing way of life, recorders of a present that faded before their eyes. They dedicated themselves to minutely accurate descriptions of the life of their regions. Some exercises 1. Which of the following is not right about Mark Twain?s style of language
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A. His sentence structures are long,ungrammatical and difficult to read. B. His words are colloquial,concrete and direct in effect. C. His humor is remarkable and characterized by puns, straight-faced exaggeration,repetition and anti-climax. D. His style of language had exerted rather deep influence on the contemporary writers. 2. The impact of Darwin?s evolutionary theory on the American thought and the influence of the 19th century French literature on the American men of letters gave rise to another school of realism: American ______. A. Romanticism C. Realism D 3. Which of the following is not written by Henry James A. The Portrait of A Lady B. The Wings of the Dove C. The Bostonians D. The Gilded Age 4. More than five hundred poems Dickinson wrote are about nature,in which her general Skepticism about the relationship between __ ____ is well-expressed. A. man and man B. men and women C. man and nature D. men and God 3. D 4. C 5. Which of the following is right about Emily Dickinson?s poems about nature A. In them,she expressed her general affirmation about the relationship between man and nature. B. Some of them showed her disbelief that there existed a mythical bond between man and nature. C. Her poems reflected her feeling that nature is restorative to human beings. D. Many of them showed her feeling of nature?s inscrutability and indifference to the life and interests of human beings. B 6. As a great innovator in American literature , Walt Whitman wrote his poetry in an unconventional style which is now called free verse,that is ___. A. lyrical poetry with chanting refrains
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B. Transcendentalism D. Naturalism

B. poetry without a fixed beat or regular rhyme scheme C. poetry without rhymes at the end of the lines but with a fixed beat D. poetry in an irregular metric form and expressing noble feelings B 7. By the end of the 19th century, the American realists sought to ______and therefore rejected the portrayal of idealized characters and events in their writings. A. describe the wide range of American experience B. show animal nature of human beings C. present the subtleties of human personality D. both A and C D

Chapter 3 American literature Between Two World Wars--Modernism
Introduction (Time, 20 century)
自 20 世纪开始,美国文学进入新的时代。一战对美国人的思想和精神面貌产生了极 大的影响。人们对自由民主的信念开始动摇,普遍感到迷惘,甚至绝望。战后虽然出 现暂时的经济繁荣,但是 1929 年股票市场的暴迭引起了特大的经济萧条,美国经济 刚刚回升,二战的阴影又开始笼罩大地。精神方面的危机导致文学的繁荣,因此,这 一时期是美国文学的第二次文艺复兴,第二次繁荣时期。现代主义文学是从诗歌开始 的,当时的诗人分为三类:芝加哥诗人,他们坚持惠特曼的传统,反映劳动人民的思 想感情;以庞德和 T·S 爱略特为首的海外诗人,他们是诗歌革命的主要力量;新英 格兰诗人弗洛斯特和罗宾逊属于第三类诗人。 两次世界大战期间还是小说极其繁荣的 时期,非茨杰拉德的《了不起的盖茨比》富有抒情的诗意。很多在 20 年代发表作品 的年轻作家被称为“迷惘的一代” ,海明威是这一代作家的代表人物。20 世纪 30 年 代,马克思主义的影响日益扩大,作家们关心政治,抨击资本主义制度,作品带有一 定的政治倾向,左翼文学兴起,其中最著名的是斯坦倍克反映 30 年代大萧条时代的 小说《愤怒的葡萄》 。南方文艺时期最主要的作家是福克纳,一共写了 19 部长篇小说 和 70 多个短篇故事。
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Features of the period influential writers Some terms (lost generation and Imagism) Procedures: 1. Age: second half of the 19th century to early decades of the 20th century. 2. Background: (1) The U.S. has become the most powerful country (2) Technological revolution (3) A decline in moral standard, a spiritual wasteland, feelings of fear, loss, disorientation and disillusionment. 3. Influencing ideas: (1)the same as English Modern period: Karl Marx,Darwin, Freud. (2)Stream of consciousness: 4."The Lost Generation" by Gertrude 5.John Steinbeck: "The Grapes of Wrath" Features of literature Novels (lost generation’s representative: Earnest Hemingway’s works) Drama: (the Emperor Jones, Anna Christie, and the Hairy Ape) Poetry: (Imagism Ezra Pound ) Harlem Renaissance. An African American cultural movement of the 1920s and early 1930s that was centered in the Harlem neighborhood of NY City. Variously known as the New Negro movement. The rise of the Modern American literature Writers of the first postwar self-consciously acknowledged that they were a lost generation, devoid of faith and alienated from a civilization that was, as Ezra Pound described it, ―botched‖, an old bitch gone in the teeth. In the years between two world wars American literature achieved a new diversity and reached its greatest heights. Lost Generation and its representatives The lost Generation came from the expatriate movement. When the first World War broke out, many young men volunteered to take part in ―the war to end wars‖ only to find that modern warfare was not as glorious or heroic as they thought it to be. Disillusioned and disgusted by
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the frivolous, greedy and heedless way of life in America, they began to write and they wrote from their own experiences in the war. These writers were later named by an American writer, Gertrude Stein, also an expatriate, ―the Lost Generation.‖ Among those greatest figures in the Lost Generation or modern American literature are famous poets such as Ezra Pound, William Carlos Williams, Robert Frost. F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, and William Faulkner are considered to be the masters in the field of American fiction. John Steinbeck is a representative of the 1930s, when ―Novels of social protest‖ became dominant on the American literary scene. His The Grapes of Wrath proves to be a symbolic journey of man on the way to finding some truth about life and himself, and a record of the dispossessed and the wretched farmers during the Great Depression as well. Ernest Hemingway 1. Life and creation Main works: In Our Time The Sun Also Rises A Farewell to Arms For Whom the Bell Tolls The Old Man and the Sea Men without Women (The Undefeated, The Killers, Fifty Grand) Death in the Afternoon The Green Hills of Africa The Snow of Kilimanjaro 2. His works characteristics: His world is limited. He deals with a limited range of characters in quite similar circumstances and measures then against an unvarying code, known as ?grace under pressure‘, which is actually an attitude towards life that Hemingway had been trying to demonstrate in his works. Typical of the ?iceberg‘ analogy is Hemingway‘s style, which he had been trying hard to get. His style is actually polished and tightly controlled, but highly suggestive and connotative. Render vividly the outward physical events and sensations Hemingway expresses the meaning of the story and conveys the complex emotions of his characters with a considerable range and
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astonishing intensity of feeling. He develops the style of colloquialism initiated by Mark Twain. The accents and mannerisms of human speech are so well presented that the characters are full of flesh and blood and the use of short, simple and conventional words and sentences has an effect of clearness, terseness and great care. 3. Hemingway’s writing theories—characterization and style. 1. His masculine heroes —The tough man fond of outdoor sports such as bullfighting , hunting and fishing. 2. Hemingway’s Iceberg Theory: ―If a writer of prose knows enough about what he is writing about he may omit things that he knows and the reader, if the writer is writing truly enough, will have a feeling of those things as strongly as though the writer had stated them. The dignity of movement of an iceberg is due to only one-eighth of it being above water. 3. Grace Under Pressure: Actually an attitude of his Code heroes 准则人物 towards life or his ideal of man‘s greatest achievement (continuing to work even in difficult times) that he had been trying to demonstrate in his works. 4. Hemingway’s Code heroes: Those who survive in the process of seeking to master the code with the honesty, the discipline, and the restraint. Code: in the general situation of his novels, life is full of tension and battle; the world is in chaos; man is always fighting desperately a losing battle. However, though life is but a losing battle, it is a struggle man can dominate in such a way that loss becomes dignity; man can be physically destroyed but never defeated spiritually. F. Scott Fitzgerald (1896-1940) Fitzgerald‘s fictional world is the best embodiment of the spirit of the Jazz Age, in which he shows a particular interest in the upper-class society, especially the upper-class young people. Young men and young women in the 1920s had a sense of reckless confidence not only about money but about life in general. Since they grew up with notion that the world would improve without their help, they felt excused from seeking the common good. (P436-440) His creation: This Side of Paradise 1920《人间天堂》
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The Beautiful and The Damned 1922 《美丽与幻灭》 The Great Gatsby 1925 《了不起的盖茨比》 Tender Is the Night 1934 《夜色温柔》 The Last Tycoon 1940 《最后的巨头》 His Style: 1. He is a great stylist in American literature. 2. His style, closely related to his themes, is explicit 直率的 and chilly 冷漠的. 3.His accurate dialogues, his careful observation of mannerism 特殊习惯, styles, models and attitudes provide the reader with a vivid sense of reality. 4.He fol1ows the Jamesian tradition in using the scenic method in his chapters, each one of which consists of one or more dramatic scenes, sometimes with intervening passages of narration, leaving the tedious process of transition to the readers' imagination. 5. He also skillfully employs the device of having events observed by a "central consciousness" to his great advantage. The accurate details, the completely original diction and metaphors, the bold impressionistic and colorful quality have all proved his consummate artistry. William Faulkner (1897-1962) Simultaneously original and assimilative, is regarded as one of the leading American writers in the literary history of the USA, and has become the most frequently and intensely interpreted writer of modern American literature. Difficult as it is, his work is a text endlessly searched for meanings. 1.Works: The Sound and The Fury; Light in August; Absalom, Absalom!; Go Down, Moses; The Marble Faun; Soldiers? Pay; As I Lay Dying; Wild Palms; The Hamlet; Intruder in the Dust (Nobel Prize); The Bear; Requiem for a Nun; The Fable; The Town; The Mansion 2.Background: American South, Northern Mississippi, Yoknapatawpha County 3.Theme: almost all his heroes are tragic (1) They are prisoners of the past or of the society, or of some social and moral taboos, or of their own personalities. (2) Society conditions man with its laws and institutions and eliminates man?s chance of
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responding naturally to the experiences of his existence. (3) Man tries to explain the incomprehensible by turning away from reality, but becomes weak, cowardly and confused (Emily-coward) 4. Nostalgic in The Sound and The Fury 5. Works? features: (1) Use of narrative techniques is remarkable, let the characters explain themselves, the reader experiences the work of art directly. (2) Breaks up chronology, juxtaposes the past with the present. (3) Stream of consciousness. (4) Inner musings of the narrator. (5) Good at presenting multiple points of view.
6.Works: A Rose for Emily (Gothic devices) Emily: the symbols of the Old South, the prisoners of the past. An eccentric spinster. She refuses the inevitable changes and loss with the pass of time. Ezra Pound

1. Imagist: (1) Direct treatment of poetic subjects. (2) Eliminate ornamental words. (3) Rhythmical composition in the sequence of the musical phrase rather than in the sequence of a metronome节拍. For example: "In a Station of the Metro―
2. Works:

Pound composed poems, wrote criticisms and did translations. (1) His poetic works: In 1915 Pound began writing his great work, The Cantos, which spanned from 1917 to 1959 and were collected in The Cantos of Ezra Pound (1986). He joined a famous literary salon run by an American woman writer Gertrude Stein, and became involved in the experimentations on poetry. His other poetic works include twelve volumes of verse Collected Early Poems of Ezra Pound (1982), and Personae (1909), and some longer pieces such as Hugh Selwyn Mauberley (1920). (2) His critical essays: Make It New (l934), Literary Essays (l954), The ABC of Reading (1934) and Polite Essays (l937), etc. These essays best reflect Pound's appraisals of literary traditions and of modern writing. (3) His translations: The Translations of Ezra Pound (1953), Confucius (1969), and
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Shih-Ching (1954) These translations have not only cast light on Pound's affinity to the Chinese and his strenuous effort in the study of Oriental literature, but also offered us a clue to the understanding of his poetry and literary theory. From the analysis of the Chinese ideogram Pound learned to anchor his poetic language in concrete, perceptual reality, and to organize images into larger patterns through juxtaposition. 3. Ezra Pound's poetic subjects or themes: (1) His earlier poetry is saturated with the familiar poetic subjects that characterize the 19th century Romanticism: songs in praise of a lady, songs concerning the poet's craft, love and friendship, death, the transience of beauty and the permanence of art, and some other subjects that Pound could call his own: the pain of exile, metamorphosis, the delightful psychic experience, the ecstatic moment, etc. (2) Later he is more concerned about the problems of the modern culture: the contemporary cultural decay and the possible sources of cultural renewal as well. In The Cantos, Pound traces the rise and fall of eastern and western empires, the moral and social chaos of the modern world, especially the corruption of America after the heroic time of Jefferson. From the perception of these things, stems the poet's search for order, which involves a search for the principles on which the poet's craft is based. 4. His artistic achievement: (1) He is the leader of the Imagist Movement: Led by the American poet Ezra Pound, Imagist Movement is a poetic movement that flourished in the U.S. and England between 1909-1917. It advances modernism in arts which concentrated on reforming the medium of poetry as opposed to Romanticism, especially Tennyson's wordiness and high-flown language in poetry. Pound endorsed three main principles as guidelines for Imagism, including direct treatment of poetic subjects, elimination of merely ornamental or superfluous words, and rhythmical composition in the sequence of the musical phrase rather than in the sequence of a metronome. The primary Imagist objective is to avoid rhetoric and moralizing, to stick closely to the object or experience being described, and to move from explicit generalization. The leading poets are Ezra Pound, Wallace Stevens, D.H. Lawrence, etc. Pound's famous one-image poem "In a Station of the Metro" would serve as a typical example of the Imagist ideas. (2) His use of myth and personae: Pound argued that the poet cannot relate a delightful psychic experience by speaking out
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directly in the first person: he must "screen himself" and speak indirectly through as impersonal and objective story, which is usually a myth or a piece of the earlier literature, or a "mask," that is a persona. In this way, Pound could sustain a dialogue between past and present successfully. (persona: It is an invented person; a character in drama or fiction. Persona, a Latin word meaning "mask ," is used in Jungian psychology to refer to one's "public personality"-the facade or mask presented to the world but not representative of inner feelings and emotions. In literary criticism, persona is sometimes used to refer to a person figuring in, for example, a poem, someone who may or may not represent the author himself. ) (3) His language: His lines are usually oblique yet marvelously compressed. His poetry is dense with personal, literary, and historical allusions, but at the expense of syntax and summary statements. Robert Lee Frost 1. Works: His first book A Boy's Will (1913), whose lyrics trace a boy's development from self-centered idealism to maturity, is marked by an intense but restrained emotion and the characteristic flavor of New Eng1and life. His second book, a volume of poems North of Boston (1914), is described by the author as "a book of people," which shows a brilliant insight into New England character and the background that formed it. Many of his major poems are collected in this volume, such as "Mending the Wall," in which Frost saw man as learning from nature the zones of his own 1imitations, and "Home Buria1," which probes the darker corners of individual lives in a situation where man cannot accept the facts of his condition. Mountain Interval (19l6) contains such characteristic poems as "The Road Not Taken," "Birches". New Hampshire (1923) that won Frost the first of four Pulitzer Prizes includes "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening", which stems from the ambiguity of the speaker's choice between safety and the unknown. The collection West-Running Brook (1928) poses disturbing uncertainties about man's prowess and importance. Collected Poems (l930) and A Further Range (1935) gathered Frost's second and third Pulitzer Prizes. Both translate modern upheaval into poetic materia1 the poet could skillfully control. Frost's fourth Pulitzer Prize was awarded for A Witness Tree (l942) which includes "The Gift Outright," the poem he later recited at President Kennedy's inauguration. Frost took up a religious question most
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notably in "After Apple-Picking:" can a man's best efforts ever satisfy God? A Masque of Reason (l945) and A Masque of Mercy (1947) are comic-serious dramatic narratives, in both of which biblical characters in modern settings discuss ethics and man's re1ations to God. 2. His thematic concerns: (1) Generally Frost is considered a regional poet whose subject matters mainly focus on the landscape and people in New England. These thematic concerns include the terror and tragedy in nature, as well as its beauty, and the 1oneliness and poverty of the isolated human being. But first and foremost Frost is concerned with his love of life and his belief in a serenity that only came from working usefully, which he practiced himself throughout his life. (2) Frost wrote many poems that investigate the basic themes of man's life: the individual's relationships to himself, to his fellow-man, to world, and to his God. Profound meanings are hidden underneath the plain language and simple form. His poetry, by using nature as a storehouse of analogy and symbol, often probes mysteries of darkness and irrationality in the bleak and chaotic landscapes of an indifferent universe when men stand alone, unaided and perplexed. 3. His nature poems: Robert Frost is mainly known for his poems concerning New England life. He learned from the tradition, especially the familiar conventions of nature poetry and of classical pastoral poetry, and made the colloquial New England speech into a poetic expression. A poem so conceived thus becomes a symbo1 or metaphor, a careful, loving exploration of reality, in Frost's version, "a momentary stay against confusion." Many of his poems are fragrant with natural quality. Images and metaphors in his poems are drawn from the rural world, the simple country 1ife and the pastoral 1andscape. However, profound ideas are delivered under the disguise of the p1ain language and the simple form, for what Frost did is to take symbols from the limited human world and the pastoral landscape to refer to the great world beyond the rustic scene. These thematic concerns include the terror and tragedy in nature, as well as its beauty, and the 1oneliness and poverty of the isolated human being. But first and foremost Frost is concerned with his love of life and his belief in a serenity that only came from working usefully, which he practiced himself throughout his life. 4. Frost's style in language: By using simple spoken language and conversational rhythms, Frost achieved an effortless grace in his style. He combined traditiona1 verse forms -- the sonnet, rhyming coup1ets, blank verse with a clear American local speech rhythm, the speech of New England farmers with its
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idiosyncratic diction and syntax. In verse form he was assorted; he wrote in both the metrical forms and the free verse, and sometimes he wrote in a form that borrows freely from the merits of both, in a form that might be called semi-free or semi-conventional. Eugene O‘Neill 1. Works: The Hairy Ape Characters seek meaning and purpose in their lives through love or religion or revenge. The result is disappointment or despair. Use Expressionism. 2. The Hairy Ape: concerns the problem of modern man?s position. Yank?s sense of belonging nowhere is a typical of the mood of isolation and alienation in the early twentieth century in the US and the whole world as well. During all his career as a dramatist, O'Neill wrote and published about forty-nine plays altogether of various lengths. He wrote some one-act melodramatic plays at first, including Bound East for Cardiff (1916), which describes the dying sailor Yank and his dream about the security and peace which could never exist. O'Neill's first full-length play, Beyond the Horizon, made a great hit and won him the first Pulitzer Prize. Its theme is the choice between life and death, the interaction of subjective and objective factors, and this theme is dramatized more explicitly in The Straw (1921) and Anna Christie (1921). Anna Christie is more of a success because it deploys the developing complexity of O'Neill's personal vision, showing us that life is a closed circle of possibi1ities from which it is impossible to escape. Between 1920 and 1924 came his prominent achievements in symbolic expressionism: The Emperor Jones (1920), The Hairy Ape (1922), All God's chillun Got Wings (1924), and Desire Under the Elms (1924). These plays are daring forays into race relations, class conflicts, sexual bondage, social critiques, and American tragedies on the Greek model. What is more, the expressionistic techniques are used in these plays to highlight the theatrical effect of the rupture between the two sides of an individual human being, the private and the public. Built on the success of these expressionistic experimentations, O'Neill reached out to extend his mastery of the stage and worked up to the summit of his career. He concerned himself with some non--realistic forms to contain his tragic vision in a number of his plays, such as The Great God Brown (l926), which fuses symbolism, poetry, and the affirmation of a pagan idea1ism to show how materialistic civilization denies the life--giving impulses and destroys the genuine artist, and Lazarus Laughed (1927), which makes full use of the Bible, Greek choruses, Elizabethan tirades, expressionist masks,
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populous crowd scenes, and orchestrate laughter. With the winning of the third Pulitzer Prize for Strange Interlude (l928), O'Neill consolidated his experience of two decades of playwriting and paved the way to the honor of the Nobel Prize in 1936. Late in his life, he produced the best and greatest plays of the modern American theater. The Iceman Cometh (l946) proves to be a masterpiece in the way it is a complex, ironic, deeply moving exploration of human existence, written out of a profound insight into human nature and constructed with tremendous skill and logic. Long Day's Journey Into Night (1956) can be read autobiographically. However, like most great works of literature, the play reaches beyond its immediate subject, dedicated not only to the life of the American family, but also "to the life of Man, to Life itself." As a product of hard-won art, Long Day's Journey Into Night has gained its status as a world classic and simultaneously marks the climax of O'Neill's literary career and the coming of age of American drama. 3. Themes: O'Neill is always remembered for his tragic view of life and most of his plays deal with the basic issues of human existence and predicament: life and death, illusion and disillusion, alienation and communication, dream and reality, self and society, desire and frustration, etc. His characters in the plays are described as seeking meaning and purpose in their lives in different ways, some through love, some through religion, others through revenge, but all meet disappointment and despair. As a playwright, O'Neill himself was constantly wrestling with these issues and struggling with the perplexity about the truth of life. He was searching for an answer both psychologically and artistically, and his dramatic thought fol1owed a tragic pattern running through all his plays, from a celebration and exaltation of "pipe dreams," the romantic dream so to speak, to the doubt about the reality of the dream or the inevitability of the defeat. So, his final dramas became" transcendental," in the way that the dramatization of man's effort in finding the secret of life results in a reconciliation with the tragic impossibility. 4. O'Neill's experimentations in dramatic art: O'Neill's inventiveness seemingly knew no limits. He was constantly experimenting with new styles and forms for his plays. (1) He introduced the realistic or even the naturalistic aspect of life into the American theater. He borrowed freely from the best traditions of European dramas, be it Greek tragedies, or the realism of Ibsen, or the expressionism of Stringberg, and fused them into the organic of his own. In those expressionistic plays, abstract and symbolic stage sets are used to set off against the emotional inner selves and subjective states of mind; lighting and music are
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employed to convey the changes of mood. (2) He borrowed freely from modern literary techniques such as the stream-of -consciousness device with the help of which he managed to reveal the emotional and psychological complexities of modern man. He made use of setting and state property to help in his dramatic representation (3) As to his language, O'Neill frequently wrote the lines in dialect, or spelled words in ways which indicate a particular accent or manner of speech. This, sometimes, makes his plays difficult to read, but when they are spoken aloud, the sense becomes clear and the meaning is amplified by the accent. O'Neill's ceaseless experimentation enriched American drama and influenced later playwrights. 5. Expressionism: It is used to describe the works of art and literature in which the representation of reality is distorted to communicate an inner vision, transforming nature rather than imitating it. In literature it is often considered a revolt against realism and naturalism, a seeking to achieve a psychological or spiritual reality rather than to record external events. In drama, the expressionist work was characterized by a bizarre 古怪的 distortion of reality. Expressionist writers's concern was with general truths rather than with particular situations, hence they explored in their plays the predicaments of representative symbolic types rather than of fully developed individualized characters. Emphasis was laid on the internal, on an individual's mental state-the emotional content, the subjective reactions of characters, and symbolic or abstract representations of reality; hence the imitation of life is replaced in Expressionist drama by the ecstatic evocation of states of mind. In America, Eugene O'Neille's Emperor Jones, The Hairy Ape, etc. are typical plays that employ Expressionism to highlight the theatrical effect of the rupture between the two sides of an individual human being, the private and the public. The movement, though short-lived, gave impetus to a free form of writing and of theatrical production. Imagism, poetic movement that flourished in the us and England between 1909 and 1917. The movement was led by the American poets Ezra Pound and later Amy Lowell. This is a movement that advanced modernism in arts which concentrated on reforming the medium of the poetry as opposed to Romanticism, especially Tenn yson‘s wordiness and
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high-flown language in poetry. It follows the three principles which include direct treatment of poetic subject, elimination of merely ornamental or superfluous words and rhythmical composition in the sequence of the musical phrase rather than in the sequence of metronome. Influential poets of the periods are T.S. Eliot, William Carlos Williams, Robert Frost, E.E. Cummings and Wallace Stevens. Modernism’s features Literature: convey a vision of social breakdown and moral decay writer: develop techniques that could represent a break with the past. Modernistic works are discontinuity and fragmentation. The differences between Modernism America and England (1)American writers emphasize the concrete sensory images or details as the direct conveyor of experience. (2)modern fiction employ the first narration or confine the reader to the "central consciousness" or one character?s point of view common ground: directness, compression, vividness, sparing of words. Some exercises: 1. In the first part of the 20th century,apart from Darwinism, there were two thinkers -____A__, whose ideas had the greatest impact on the period. A. the German Karl Marx and the Austrian Sigmund Freud B. the German Karl Marx and the American Sigmund Freud C. the Swiss Carl Jung and the American William James D. the Austrian Karl Marx and the German Sigmund Freud 2. Which of the following can be said about Eugene O?Neill plays. D A. Most of his plays are concerned about the root,the truth of human desires and human frustrations. B. His tragic view of life is reflected in many of his works. C. His plays are concerned about the relationship between man and nature as well as man and woman. D. both A and B. 3. As to the great American poet Ezra Pound,which of the following is not right D
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A. His language is usually oblique yet marvelously compressed and his poetry is dense with personal,literary ,and historical allusions. B. His

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