（1）表虚拟的时间 if从句谓语形式主句谓语形式 现在：did / were would (should, might, could)+do 过去：had done/ had been would (should/might/could)+have done(been) 将来：were
to/ should+do would (should, might, could)+do （2）与现在事实相反：If I had enough money, I would buy a book. 与过去事实相反：If I had had enough money, I would have bought a book. 与将来事实相反：If I were to have enough money, I would buy a book.
Eg, 1, Had I had enough money, I would have bought a book. 2, Were I to have enough money, I would buy a book. 3, Should I have enough money, I would buy a book.
1, (对过去事实虚拟+对现在事实虚拟) If I had studied English at school, I could read the English novel now. 2, (对现在事实虚拟+对过去事实虚拟) If she were not so careless, she wouldn?t have made such a mistake.
1, He would put on weight, but he doesn?t eat much. (与现在 事实相反) 2, He would have put on weight, but he didn?t eat much. (与 过去事实相反) 3, I forget where I read the article, or I would show it to you now. (与现在相反) 4,Mary couldn?t have received my letter, otherwise she would have replied before now. (与过去相反)
Wish… eg, 1, I wish I knew the answer.(与现在事实相反) 2, I wish I had known the answer. (与过去事实相反) 3, I wish you would shut up. (与将来事实相反) if only… 1, If only I were taller. (与现在事实相反) 2, If only he had followed your advice! (与过去事实相反) 3,If only the rain would stop. (与将来事实相反) would rather… 1, I would rather you didn?t speak rudely to her. (与现在 事实相反) 2,I?d rather you hadn?t spoken rudely to her. (与过去事实 相反)
一，句型: “It is / was…that / who / whom… 当被强调部分为sb.，可用who/whom, 也可用that，其 它情况一律用that。强调主语时，that后的谓语动词必须 与被强调的主语人称与数保持一致。
eg: 1, Tom does the experiment in the factory everyday.汤姆每天在工 厂里做实验。 2, It is Tom who (that) does experiment in the factory eve ryday. 是汤姆每天在工厂里做实验。（强调主语） 3, It is the experiment that Tom does in the factory everyday.汤 姆每天在工厂里做的是实验。（强调宾语） 4, It is in the factory that Tom does the experiment everyday.汤 姆每天是在工厂里做实验。（强调状语） 5, It is everyday that Tom does experiment in the factory.汤姆是 每天在工厂里做实验。（强调状语）
二，强调时间、地点、原因或方式状语时， 要用that,不能用when, where, why或how。
eg, 1, It was at the gate of our school that we gave the visitors a warm welcome. (强调地点状语) 2, It was with great joy that he received the news that his long lost son would soon return home. (强调程 度状语) 3, It is by bus that Mary usually goes to school. (强 调方式状语) 4, It was three years ago that I came to this school. (强调时间状语) 5, It was on Monday night that all this happened.这 一切是发生在星期一晚上。 6, It was because he was ill that he didn't go to school.他是因并而没来上学的。 7, It was in a different way that they played the game.他们比赛的方式是不同的。
三， 对"not...until..."结构的强调，要用"It is/was not until...that..."这一固定句型。由于 否定已经前移，that后只能用肯定形式。
1.It was not until she took off her dark glasses that I realized she was a famous film star. 五， 使用强调句型对状语进行强调时，有必要将其与下列句 型区分开来。 1， It was in the evening that the soldiers arrived at the small mountain village. (强调句型) It was evening when the soldiers arrived at the small mountain village.(when引导时间状语从句，it表示时间) 2， It was at 3 o'clock that they came back. (强调句型) It was 3 o'clock when they came back. (when引导时间状 语从句，it表示时间) 3，It is for three hours that they have been back. (强 调句型)
四， “It is + a + 形容词 +名词 + that”表示"无论怎 样……都不……"，是一种反语式的强调用法；这一句 型的肯定形式一般表示否定意义，反之否定形式表示 肯定意义。
1 ，It is a wise man that never makes mistakes. 智者千虑，必有 一失。 2 ，It is a wise father that knows his own child.无论怎样聪明的 父亲，也不会完全了解自己的孩子。
五，强调句型“what is / was…”
此句型可以强调主语，宾语和表语。 1，What he is is a genius.要说他是个什么的话，他是个天才。 2，What I want to do now is to beat him.现在我想做的是揍他。 3，What I like is her style. 我喜欢的是她的风格。
反意疑问句又叫附加疑问句，是指当提问的人对前面所叙述的事实不 敢肯定，而需要向对方加以证实时所提出的问句。其结构为：前一部 分是一个陈述句，后一部分是一个简单的问句。完成后一部分简单问 句时，要根据前面陈述句的动词时态和人称来选择适当的助动词进行 提问，前后两部分的人称和动词时态要保持一致。如果前一部分用肯 定式，后一部分一般用否定式；反之，前一部分为否定式，后一部分 要用肯定式，即“前肯定后否定，前否定后肯定”。
Your brother has gone to the library, hasn?t he? 你弟弟去图书馆 了，是吗？ 二，当陈述句的主语是指示代词this,
that时，反意 疑问句的主语用it代替；指示代词是these, those时， 反意疑问句的主语用they代替。
1,That isn?t a useful book, is it? 那不是一本有用的书，是吗？ 2,These are important reading materials, aren?t they? 这些都是 重要的阅读材料，是吗？
三，当陈述句部分是I am…时，反意疑问句部分通常要用 aren?t I；如陈述句部分的主语是I am not时，反意疑问句部分 通常要用am I。
1， I?m late for the meeting, aren?t I? 我开会迟到了，是吗？ 2，I?m not doing well, am I? 我干得不好，是吗？
四、当陈述部分是“there be + 主语 + 其它”结构时，反意疑 问部分要用“be (not) + there”结构。
There are some bananas in the basket, aren?t there? 篮子里有些香蕉，是吗？
五、当陈述部分有hardly, scarcely, barely, rarely, seldom, few, little, no, never, nothing, nobody, nowhere等否定词或 半否定词时，反意疑问句部分要用肯定形式。
It?s impossible for him to make such a mistake, isn?t it? 他不可能犯这样的错 误，是吗？
六、当陈述部分有情态动词ought to时，反意疑问句 部分要用ought / should (oughtn?t / shouldn?t)；如 陈述部分为情态动词used to，反意疑问部分可用 used或did；如陈述部分为had better，反意疑问部分 用hadn?t或shouldn?t。
1，Such things ought not to be allowed, ought they? 这种事是不允 许的，是吗？ ,2，You?d better do it by yourself, hadn?t / shouldn?t you? 你最好自 己做，好吗？
用must (mustn?t) 。
You mustn?t stop your car here, must you? 你不能把车停在这地方， 知道吗？
They must finish the work today, needn?t they? 他们今天必须要完成 这项工作，是吗？
EG： 1、You had no time for reading, did you ? \ had you? 2、He has a brother, hasn?t he, \ doesn?t he? 3、We have to go without him, don?t we ?
4、You have your dinner at school, don?t you?
5、He has a rest every two hours, doesn?t he? 6、This is your last chance to learn from the beginning, isn?t it? 7、Those were terrible days for us to recall, weren?t they? 8、There are some books you are interested in, aren?t there? 9、Let us do it as we please \ like to, will you? \ can you?
10、Let?s us do it right now, shall we? \ can we?
11、Come here, will you? \ won?t you \ can you \ can?t you \ do you \ don?t you?
12、Don?t say anything, will you? \ can you? \ do you?
13、Tom, you clean the window, will you?
14、I think \ say \suppose \ guess \ am sure he will come back soon, won?t he? 15、I don?t think he will come back , will he? 16、He old man never thought he was lonely, did he? 17、The old man used to be a farmer, usedn?t he \ didn?t he? 18、He ought to come, oughtn?t he \ shouldn?t?
20、It?s unfair, isn?t it? 21、One can?t be careful enough, can one \ can he?
22、Everything goes well, doesn?t it?
23、Everybody agrees with him, doesn?t he \ don?t they? 24、All we needed has been bought, hasn?t it? 25、All we invited have arrived, haven?t they?(All refers to people) 26、Learning English is very hard, isn?t it? 27、He studies hard and he is often praised by his teachers, isn?t he?
19、He seldom goes to the cinema, doesn?t he?
28、We must be more polite in this occasion, needn?t we? 29、He must be a brave man, isn?t he? 30、It must have rained last night, didn?t it? 31、He mush have known the answer, hasn?t he? 32、He can?t have done such a foolish thing, has he? 33、I am a student, aren?t I ? 34、So he has known the secret, has he? 35、Oh, you have the same type of sell phone as I, do you?
eg, 1,Only in this way can you solve this problem. 只有用这种方法,你才可以解决这个问题。 2,Only after he had spoken out the word did he realize he had made a big mistake. 只有当他已经说出那个字后才意识到自己犯了个大错误。
二. hardly,in no way,little,scarcely,seldom,never,no more, no longer,not, not only, no sooner, not only … (but also),not until… 等具有否定意义的词或词组位于句 首,句子用部分倒装。
eg,1,No sooner had I got home than it began to rain. 我刚到家就下起了雨。 2,Seldom do I go to work by bus. 我很少乘公共汽车上班。
三， so / such...that结构中的so或such位于句首 可以构成部分倒装句,表示强调so /such和that之间 的部分。
To such length did she go in rehearsal that the two actors walked out. 她的彩排进行得那么长,以致于那两个演员都走出去了。
1，as…as和……一样， 2，not as/not so … as …和……不一样， 3，twice (half) as … as…是……两倍／一半 三组表示同级 比较。 4，more/less…than，not more…than，not/no+比较级 （＝最高级）三组表示不等比较：“……比……更”。类似 词还有never better, nothing better, than ever before, than anyone else, than anything else 等等。? 5，其它：the more…,the more…表示越……越……，not so much… as (=less… than …) 与其说……不如说……? 其它暗含的比较形式还有：动词prefer… rather than/to … , reduce … (to)，形容词 top, favorite，句型 would rather … than … (宁可……也不……)，the last （＝ the least likely），not the less （＝none the less）仍然， 依然??
1,形容词的原级可与as…as连用表示“和……同样……”， 与not as／so…as连用表不“不如……那样……”：
A boy of sixteen is often as tall as his father． 一个16岁的男孩常常长得和他父亲一样高。 He was as white as a sheet． 他面色苍白如纸。 Manslaughter is not as/so bad as murder． 杀人罪没有谋杀罪那么重。 Your coffee is not as／so good as the coffee my mother makes． 你煮的咖啡不如我母亲煮的好。
The new tower blocks are much higher than the old buildings． 新建的塔楼群比旧楼房要高得多。 He makes fewer mistakes than you（do）． 他犯的错比你少。 He is stronger than I expected． 他长得要比我想像的结实。相当于： I didn’t expect him to be so strong． 我没想到他长得这么壮。
The youngest of the family was the most successful． 全家年龄最小的是最有成就的。 关系从句中经常使用完成时态： It／This is the best beer（that） I have ever drunk． 这是我所喝过的最好的啤酒。 It／This was the worst film（that） he had ever seen． 这是他所看过的电影中最差的一部。 It was the most worrying day（that） he had ever spent． 这是他度过的最烦恼的日子。
I have never drunk better beer． 我从来没喝过这么好的啤酒。 He had never spent a more worrying day． 他从来没有度过这样烦恼的日子。
You are most kind．相当于： You are very kind．
Tom is very like Bill． 汤姆长得很像比尔。 Bill and Tom are very alike． 贝尔和汤姆长得很像。 He keeps the central heating full on．It’s like living in the tropics． 他把暖气开到最大。就好像住在热带一样。
5,原级与like和as连用（下面列举几个副词和形容词 的句子）从理论上讲like（介词）只能与名词、代词 和动名词连用：
He swims like a fish． 他游起泳来像条鱼。 Be like Peter／him：go jogging． 像彼得／他那样：去慢跑吧。 The windows were all barred．It was like being in prison． 窗子都用铁棒封住了。就像住在监狱里一样。
Why don’t you cycle to work as we do？ 你干嘛不像我们这样骑车上班？ 但在英语口语中，这些地方常用like代替as： Cycle to work like we do． 像我们一样骑车上班。
7,要表达两个事物彼此相应增长时可用the+比 较级…the+ 比较级这种结构：
House Agent：Do you want a big house？ 房地产经纪人：你想买一栋大房子吗？ Ann：Yes，the bigger the better． 安：是的，越大越好。 Tom：But the smaller it is，the less it will cost us to heat． 汤姆：可是，房子越小，花的取暖费就越少。
The weather is getting colder and colder． 天气越来越冷了。 He became less and less interested． 他越来越不感兴趣。
Riding a horse is not as easy as riding a motor cycle． 骑马不像骑摩托那么容易。 It is nicer/more fun to go with someone than to go alone． 偕伴同去比自己独自去好玩。
He worked like a slave． 他像奴隶一样地干活。（非常劳累） He worked as a slave． 他作为奴隶干活。（他是奴隶。） She used her umberlla as a weapon． 她拿伞当武器。（她用伞打他)。
（一），形肯定意否定 一、I?d like to／I ?d love to，but．．．。表否 定，重点放在but后面。
Eg, 1, The students' English club is having a party on Saturday night．Can you come？ 2,I would like to，but I work at a restaurant on weekends．
二，使用虚拟语气的句子。这些句子形式上是肯 定的，但往往表达一种“本应该，本可以（却没 有），希望”的情绪，放在一定的语言环境中表 否定。
Eg, If the traffic wasn't so bad，I could have been home by 6： 00． —What a pity！John was here to see you） （如果早到家的话，就可以见到约翰了，但是事实是因为交通堵 塞，没能及时回家）
三、I?m sorry，．．．。这种句型是委婉的否 定，其后一般接原因。
—Hello，may I speak to John Smith， please？ —I'm sorry，nobody by that name works here（意思是说没 有叫约翰?史密斯的人）
四、anything but句型。 “除……以外的任何 事物”或“根本不”，
—Everyone is helping out with dinner． Could you make the soup？ —Anything but that． （意思是我不可能做汤）
（二），形否定意肯定 一，Why don't you／Why not．．？ “为什么不 呢？”， “建议做某事”
Eg, 1. John，I don't know what to get for your father．He has just about everything，doesn't he？ 2, Do you have any suggestions？ 3，Why don‘t you get him a pocket calculator？,
二，Do you mind．．．？回答用No， of course not．或者Not at all．考虑到具体的语境，通常理 解为肯定的.“不介意”，对方可以做其想做的。
eg, 1, Do you mind if I borrow your note？ —No，of course not．
三，not．．．until．．．句型。“直到……才”。 是 肯定的。
Eg, 1， —When can the doctor see me？ —He won't be free until tomorrow（意思是直到明天才能见你）
四、not．．．more／better构成的特殊句型，不可 能有比这样更好的情况发生了，反过来讲就是指这 样很好，说者对此表示赞许，所以此句型仍然表示 的是肯定意思。
eg, 1, I think it's high time we turned our attention to the danger of drunk driving now． 2,I can't agree with you more（意思是说后者非常同意第一人 的观点）
五，Without a doubt；Don't mention it；No problem等作为回答的否定句型。在语境中通常是 用作肯定的回答， “没问题”
eg, —Do you think we have to review the chapter of Industrial Revolution？ —Without a doubt，it will be on the exam．
六，、由一些除not和never之外的否定词如hardly， seldom ，scarcely，rarely等构成的句型。应归 结为否定句.
Eg, —What a surprise！Tim has improved his English so much after a holiday abroad． —I can hardly hear an accent． （意思是几乎听不出有任何地方口音）