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GWD-TN-15 做题解析


GWD-TN-15: Verbal Section
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1. GWD21-Q1: According to analysts, an alliance betwe

en three major personal computer companies and most of the nation’s largest local telephone companies would enable customers to receive internet data over regular telephone lines with speeds much higher than is currently possible. A. with speeds much higher than is B. with speeds that are much higher than are C. at much higher speeds as are D. at much higher speeds than that E. at speeds much higher than are

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2. GWD-18-Q11
In no other historical sighting did Halley’s comet cause such a worldwide sensation as did its return in 1910-1911. A. did its return in 1910-1911 B. had its 1910-1911 return C. in its return of 1910-1911 D. its return of 1910-1911 did E. its return in 1910-1911

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3. GWD21-Q3: Highway Official: When resurfacing our concrete bridges, we should use electrically conductive concrete (ECC) rather than standard concrete. In the winter, ECC can be heated by passing an electric current through it, thereby preventing ice buildup. The cost of the electricity needed is substantially lower than the cost of the deicing salt we currently use. Taxpayer: But construction costs for ECC are much higher than for standard concrete, so your proposal is probably not justifiable on economic grounds. Which of the following, if true, could best be used to support the highway official’s proposal in the face of the taxpayer’s objection? A. The use of de-icing salt causes corrosion of the reinforcing steel in concrete bridge decks and damage to the concrete itself, thereby considerably shortening the useful life of concrete bridges. B. Severe icing conditions can cause power outages and slow down the work of emergency crews trying to get power restored.

C. In weather conditions conducive to icing, ice generally forms on the concrete surfaces of bridges well before it forms on parts of the roadway that go over solid ground. D. Aside from its potential use for de-icing bridges, ECC might also be an effective means of keeping other concrete structures such as parking garages and airport runways ice free. E. If ECC were to be used for a bridge surface, the electric current would be turned on only at times at which ice was likely to form.

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4. GWD21-Q4: Which of the following most logically completes the passage? Appendicitis (inflammation of the appendix) is potentially fatal; consequently, patients with symptoms strongly suggesting appendicitis almost always have their appendix removed. The appropriate surgery is low-risk but performed unnecessarily in about 20 percent of all cases. A newly developed internal scan for appendicitis is highly accurate, producing two misdiagnoses for every 98 correct diagnoses. Clearly, using this test, doctors can largely avoid unnecessary removals of the appendix without, however, performing any fewer necessary ones than before, since ______. A. the patients who are correctly diagnosed with this test as not having appendicitis invariably have medical conditions that are much less serious than appendicitis B. the misdiagnoses produced by this test are always instances of attributing appendicitis to someone who does not, in fact, have it 誤診case: 把沒病說成有病!

盲腸炎

發炎

盲腸

C. all of the patients who are diagnosed with this test as having appendicitis do, in fact, have appendicitis D. every patient who is diagnosed with this test as having appendicitis has more than one of the symptoms generally associated with appendicitis E. the only patients who are misdiagnosed using this test are patients who lack one or more of the symptoms that are generally associated with appendicitis

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5. GWD-18-Q17 比得上
Rivaling the pyramids of Egypt or even the ancient cities of the Maya as an achievement, the army of terra-cotta warriors created to protect Qin Shi Huang, China’s first emperor, in his afterlife is more than 2,000 years old and took 700,000 artisans more than 36 years to complete. A. the army of terra-cotta warriors created to protect Qin Shi Huang, China’s first emperor, in his afterlife is more than 2,000 years old and took 700,000 artisans more than 36 years to complete B. Qin Shi Huang, China’s first emperor, was protected in his afterlife by an army of terra-cotta warriors that was created more than 2,000 years ago by 700,000 artisans who took more than 36 years to complete it

C. it took 700,000 artisans more than 36 years to create an army of terra-cotta warriors more than 2,000 years ago that would protect Qin Shi Huang, China’s first emperor, in his afterlife D. more than 2,000 years ago, 700,000 artisans worked more than 36 years to create an army of terra-cotta warriors to protect Qin Shi Huang, China’s first emperor, in his afterlife E. more than 36 years were needed to complete the army of terra-cotta warriors that 700,000 artisans created 2,000 years ago to protect Qin Shi Huang, China’s first emperor, in his afterlife

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6. GWD21-Q6: Heirloom tomatoes, grown from seeds saved from the previous year, only look less appetizing than their round and red supermarket cousins, often green and striped, or have plenty of bumps and bruises, but are more flavorful. A. cousins, often green and striped, or have plenty of bumps and bruises, but are B. cousins, often green and striped, or with plenty of bumps and bruises, although C. cousins, often green and striped, or they have plenty of bumps and bruises, although they are D. cousins; they are often green and striped, or with plenty of bumps and bruises, although E. cousins; they are often green and striped, or have plenty of bumps and bruises, but they are ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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GWD 21-Q7 to Q9:

Q7: According to the author of the passage, which of the following is true of the distribution of the income derived from the total output of consumer goods in a modern economy? A. Workers receive a share of this income that is significantly smaller than the value of their labor as a contribution to total output. B. Owners of capital goods receive a share of this income that is significantly greater than the contribution to total output attributable to the use of capital goods.

被歸因於 <--Seventeenth-century philosopher John Locke stated that as much as 99 percent of the value of any useful product can be attributed to “the effects of labor.” For 學術 Locke’s intellectual heirs it was only a short step to the [知識分子] “labor theory of value,” whose formulators held that 100 繼承人 percent of the value of any product is generated by labor (the human work needed to produce goods) and that therefore the employer who appropriates any part of the 占用 product’s value as profit is practicing theft. 盜用 Although human effort is required to produce goods for the consumer market, effort is also invested in making 資本財 capital goods (tools, machines, etc.), which are used to facilitate the production of consumer goods. In modern economies about one-third of the total output of consumer goods is attributable to the use of capital goods. Approximately two-thirds of the income derived from this total output is paid out to workers as wages and salaries, the remaining third serving as compensation to the owners of the capital goods. Moreover, part of this remaining third is received by workers who are 類似的東西 撫恤金 shareholders, pension beneficiaries, and the like. The 忽視 受益人 labor theory of value systematically disregards the productive contribution of capital goods—a failing for which Locke must bear part of the blame. --------------------------------------------------------------------

C. Owners of capital goods receive a share of this income that is no greater than the proportion of total output attributable to the use of capital goods. D. Owners of capital goods are not fully compensated for their investment because they pay out most of their share of this income to workers as wages and benefits. E. Workers receive a share of this income that is greater than the value of their labor because the labor theory of value overestimates their contribution to total output.

-------------------------------------------------------------------Q8: The author of the passage is primarily concerned with A. criticizing Locke’s economic theories B. discounting the contribution of labor in a modern economy

C. questioning the validity of the labor theory of value D. arguing for a more equitable distribution of business profits E. contending that employers are overcompensated for capital goods

-------------------------------------------------------------------Q9:

支持者

Which of the following arguments would a proponent of the labor theory of value, as it is presented in the first paragraph, be most likely to use in response to the statement that “The labor theory of value systematically disregards the productive contribution of capital goods” (lines 44-47)? A. The productive contributions of workers and capital goods cannot be compared because the productive life span of capital goods is longer than that of workers. 無關比較 B. The author’s analysis of the distribution of income is misleading because only a small percentage of workers are also shareholders.

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C. Capital goods are valuable only insofar as they contribute directly to the production of consumer goods. D. The productive contribution of capital goods must be discounted because capital goods require maintenance. E. The productive contribution of capital goods must be attributed to labor because capital goods are themselves products of labor.

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10. GWD21-Q10: Researchers in Germany have unearthed 400,000-year-old wooden spears from what it appears was an ancient lakeshore hunting ground as stunning evidence of human ancestors who systematically hunted big game much earlier than believed. A. it appears was an ancient lakeshore hunting ground as stunning evidence of human ancestors who B. it appears had been an ancient lakeshore hunting ground and stunning evidence that human ancestors C. appears was an ancient lakeshore hunting ground and is stunning evidence that human ancestors D. appears to be an ancient lakeshore hunting ground, stunning evidence that human ancestors E. appears that it is an ancient lakeshore hunting ground, stunning evidence of human ancestors who -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11. GWD7-Q37:(CD-5-37) tip: 這種經濟類型的題目,寫個筆記有助理解! Escalating worldwide demand for corn has led to a sharp increase in the market price of corn, and corn prices are likely to remain high. Corn is extensive used as feed for livestock, and because profit margins are tight in the livestock business, many farmers are expected to leave the business. With fewer suppliers, meat prices will surely rise. Nonetheless, observers expect an immediate short-term decrease in meat prices. Which of the following, if true, most helps to justify the observers’ expectation?

辯護
A. The increase in corn prices is due more to a decline in the supply of corn than to a growth in demand for it. B. Generally, farmers who are squeezed out of the livestock business send their livestock to market much earlier than they otherwise would. 被擠出....

C. Some people who ate meat regularly in the past are converting to diets that include little or no meat. D. As meat prices rise, the number of livestock producers is likely to rise again. E. Livestock producers who stay in the business will start using feed other than corn more extensively than they did in the past.

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12. GWD21-Q12: Birds known as honeyguides exhibit a unique pattern of behavior: the bird leads another animal, such as a honey-badger or a human, to a bees’ nest with their chattering when they fly ahead; after the larger animal takes honey, the bird eats the wax and bee larvae. A. with their chattering when they fly B. with chattering and its flying C. by chattering as it flies D. by chattering and its flying E. by chattering as they are flying ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

13. GWD-18-Q18
The first shots of the American Revolution, fired at Lexington and Concord. Massachusetts, were, according to legend, heard around the world, but news of these shots, which were sent by swift messenger, took four days in reaching New York City as well as another additional eleven days to reach Charleston, South Carolina. A. shots, which were sent by swift messenger, took four days in reaching New York City as well as another additional eleven days B. shots that was sent by swift messenger took four days in order to reach New York City, and also another eleven days

C. shots that were sent by swift messenger took four days to reach New York City and another eleven days D. shots took four days by swift messenger in order to reach New York City and another eleven days in addition E. shots took four days by swift messenger to reach New York City and another eleven days ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

14: GWD-18-Q30
The ancient Nubians inhabited an area in which typhus occurs, yet surprisingly few of their skeletons show the usual evidence of this disease. The skeletons do show deposits of tetracycline, an antibiotic produced by a bacterium common in Nubian soil. This bacterium can flourish on the dried grain used for making two staples of the Nubian diet, beer and bread. Thus, tetracycline in their food probably explains the low incidence of typhus among ancient Nubians. Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument relies? A. Infectious diseases other than typhus to which the ancient Nubians were exposed are unaffected by tetracycline. B. Tetracycline is not rendered ineffective as an antibiotic by exposure to the processes involved in making bread and beer.

C. Typhus cannot be transmitted by ingesting bread or beer contaminated with the infectious agents of this disease. D. Bread and beer were the only items in the diet of the ancient Nubians which could have contained tetracycline. E. Typhus is generally fatal. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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GWD 21-Q15 to Q18: In her account of unmarried women’s experiences in colonial Philadelphia, Wulf argues that educated young women, particularly Quakers, engaged in resistance to patriarchal marriage by exchanging poetry critical of marriage, copying verse into their commonplace books. Wulf suggests that this critique circulated beyond the daughters of the Quaker elite and middle class, whose commonplace books she mines, proposing that Quaker schools brought it to many poor female students of diverse backgrounds. Here Wulf probably overstates Quaker schools’ impact. At least three years’ study would be necessary to achieve the literacy competence necessary to grapple with the material she analyzes. In 1765, the year Wulf uses to demonstrate the diversity of Philadelphia’s Quaker schools, 128 students enrolled in these schools. Refining Wulf’s numbers by the information she provides on religious affiliation, gender, and length of study, it appears that only about 17 poor non-Quaker girls were educated in Philadelphia’s Quaker schools for three years or longer. While Wulf is correct that a critique of patriarchal marriage circulated broadly, Quaker schools probably cannot be credited with instilling these ideas in the lower classes. Popular literary satires on marriage had already landed on fertile ground in a multiethnic population that embodied a wide range of marital beliefs and practices. These ethnic- and class-based traditions themselves challenged the legitimacy of patriarchal marriage.

Q15: The primary purpose of the passage is to A. argue against one aspect of Wulf’s account of how ideas critical of marriage were disseminated among young women in colonial Philadelphia B. discuss Wulf’s interpretation of the significance for educated young women in colonial Philadelphia of the poetry they copied into their commonplace books

C. counter Wulf’s assertions about the impact of the multiethnic character of colonial Philadelphia’s population on the prevalent views about marriage D. present data to undermine Wulf’s assessment of the diversity of the student body in Quaker schools in colonial Philadelphia E. challenge Wulf’s conclusion that a critique of marriage was prevalent among young women of all social classes in colonial Philadelphia

--------------------------------------------------------------------Q16: According to the passage, which of the following was true of attitudes toward marriage in colonial Philadelphia? A. Exemplars of a critique of marriage could be found in various literary forms, but they did not impact public attitudes except among educated young women. B. The diversity of the student body in the Quaker schools meant that attitudes toward marriage were more disparate there than elsewhere in Philadelphia society.

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C. Although critical attitudes toward marriage were widespread, Quaker schools’ influence in disseminating these attitudes was limited. D. Criticisms of marriage in colonial Philadelphia were directed at only certain limited aspects of patriarchal marriage. E. The influence of the wide range of marital beliefs and practices present in Philadelphia’s multiethnic population can be detected in the poetry that educated young women copied in their commonplace books.

-------------------------------------------------------------------Q17: The author of the passage implies which of the following about the poetry mentioned in the first paragraph? A. Wulf exaggerates the degree to which young women from an elite background regarded the poetry as providing a critique of marriage.

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B.

The circulation of the poetry was confined to young Quaker women.

C. Young women copied the poetry into their commonplace books because they interpreted it as providing a desirable model of unmarried life. D. The poetry’s capacity to influence popular attitudes was restricted by the degree of literacy necessary to comprehend it. E. The poetry celebrated marital beliefs and practices that were in opposition to patriarchal marriage.

---------------------------------------------------------------------Q18: Which of the following, if true, would most seriously undermine the author’s basis for saying that Wulf overstates Quaker schools’ impact (lines 17-18)? A. The information that Wulf herself provided on religious affiliation and gender of students is in fact accurate. B. Most poor, non-Quaker students enrolled in Quaker schools had completed one or two years’ formal or informal schooling before enrolling.

C. Not all of the young women whose commonplace books contained copies of poetry critical of marriage were Quakers. D. The poetry featured in young women’s commonplace books frequently included allusions that were unlikely to be accessible to someone with only three years’ study in school. E. In 1765 an unusually large proportion of the Quaker schools’ student body consisted of poor girls from non-Quaker backgrounds.

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19. GWD21-Q19: Regardless of their form or function, all aerodynamically enhanced, curved objects made for throwing have been called boomerangs by non-Australians even since 1788, when Europeans saw Dharug-speaking men tossing “bumariny” in the area later known as Sydney. A. Regardless of their form or function, all aerodynamically enhanced, curved objects made for throwing have been called boomerangs by non-Australians ever since 1788, B. Regardless of their form or function, any aerodynamically enhanced, curved object made for throwing has been called a boomerang by non-Australians ever since 1788,

C. Ever since 1788, non-Australians have called all aerodynamically enhanced, curved objects made for throwing boomerangs, regardless of their form or function, from D. Ever since 1788, any aerodynamically enhanced, curved object made for throwing has been called a boomerang by non-Australians, regardless of its form or function, from E. Non-Australians have called all aerodynamically enhanced, curved objects made for throwing boomerangs ever since 1788, regardless of their form or function, from

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20: GWD-18-Q19
New genetic evidence—together with recent studies of elephants’ skeletons, tusks, and other anatomical features—provide compelling support for classifying Africa’s forest elephants and its savanna elephants as separate species. A. provide compelling support for classifying B. provide compelling support for the classification of C. provides compelling support to the classification of D. provides compelling support for classifying E. provides compelling support to classify

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------21. GWD21-Q21: Which of the following most logically completes the passage? Mastitis is an infection of the udder in cows that, although not dangerous, causes them to give poor-quality milk. Most cases of mastitis are caused by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, against which antibiotics are ineffective. However, a related bacterium, Staphylococcus simulans, quickly clears up even severe infections of S. aureus simply by displacing the bacteria. S. simulans is nevertheless unlikely to become the preferred treatment for cases of mastitis, since ______. A. certain dangerous bacteria that normally cannot take hold can do so in the presence of S. simulans B. the current resistance of S. aureus to antibiotics derives in part from a past pattern of overuse of those antibiotics C. the milk from cows infected with S. aureus is generally not of such poor quality as to be entirely unusable D. careful farming practice can reduce the incidence of mastitis to a minimum E. the only symptom of mild cases of mastitis is the deterioration in the quality of the milk produced

生根; 扎根

源於

發生率

惡化;變壞
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22. GWD-18-Q38
A survey of entrepreneurs who started companies last year shows that while virtually all did substantial preparatory research and planning, only half used that work to produce a formal business plan. Since, on average, the entrepreneurs without formal plans secured the capital they needed in half the time of those with plans, these survey results indicate that, in general, formal plans did not help the entrepreneurs who produced them to secure the capital they needed. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument? A. Companies started by entrepreneurs who had used formal business plans to attract investment were on the whole as profitable in their first year as were companies started by entrepreneurs who had not produced such plans. B. In surveys of entrepreneurs who have attempted without success to raise sufficient capital, more than half of the respondents indicate that they have produced a formal business plan.

C. Among the entrepreneurs surveyed, those who did not produce formal business plans sought and received a much larger proportion of their capital from investors with whom they had a long-standing business relationship. D. The entrepreneurs surveyed who did not produce a formal business plan spent nearly as much time doing preparatory research and planning as the entrepreneurs who produced plans. E. The entrepreneurs who produced business plans generally reported later that the process of writing the plan had increased their confidence that their company would succeed.

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GWD-18-Q35-Q37 To compete effectively in international markets, a nation’s businesses must sustain investment in intangible as well as physical assets. Although an enormous pool of investment capital exists in the United States, the country’s capital investment practices put United States companies at a competitive disadvantage. United States capital investment practices, shaped by sporadic and unpredictable changes in tax policy and high federal budget deficits, encourage both underinvestment and overinvestment. For example, United States companies invest at a low rate in internal development projects, such as improving supplier relations, that do not offer immediate profit, and systematically invest at a high rate in external projects, such as corporate takeovers, that yield immediate profit. Also, United States companies make too few linkages among different forms of investments. Such linkages are important because physical assets, such as factories, may not reach their potential level of productivity unless companies make parallel investments in intangible assets such as employee training and product redesign. In general, unlike Japanese and German investment practices, which focus on companies’ long-term interests, United States investment practices favor those forms of investment for which financial returns are most readily available. By making minimal investments in intangible assets, United States companies reduce their chances for future competitiveness. ---------------------------------------------------------------------

23. GWD18-Q35: The passage is primarily concerned with A. B. C. D. E. evaluating strategies for improving United States competitiveness in international markets illustrating the possible uses of investment capital analyzing some failings of capital investment practices in the United States suggesting reasons for increasing linkages among different types of investments contrasting the benefits of investment in physical assets with the benefits of investment in intangible assets

------------------------------------------------------------------24. GWD18-Q36: According to the passage, which of the following characterizes the capital allocation strategy of United States companies? A. They tend to underinvest in intangible assets. B. They tend to invest heavily in product redesign. C. They tend to underinvest in physical assets. D. They make parallel investments in internal and external projects. E. They seek to allocate capital in ways that reduce their tax burden.

------------------------------------------------------------------25. GWD18-Q37: Which of the following best describes the purpose of the second paragraph? A. To propose a solution to the problem introduced in the first paragraph B. To provide support for an argument presented in the first paragraph

C. To provide data to refute an assertion made in the first paragraph D. To discuss the sources of investment capital mentioned in the first paragraph E. To discuss the competitiveness of international markets alluded to in the first paragraph

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26. GWD-18-Q29
The contractor and the engineer agree on the cause of the bridge failure, but both blame the other. A. both blame the other B. each blames the other C. each blame the other person D. both are blaming the other E. each blames one another -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------27. GWD21-Q27: The electronics company has unveiled what it claims to be the world’s smallest network digital camcorder, the length of which is that of a handheld computer, and it weighs less than 11 ounces. A. to be the world’s smallest network digital camcorder, the length of which is that of a handheld computer, and it weighs B. to be the smallest network digital camcorder in the world, which is as long as a handheld computer, weighing C. is the smallest network digital camcorder in the world, which is as long as a handheld computer, and it weighs D. is the world’s smallest network digital camcorder, which is as long as a handheld computer and weighs E. is the world’s smallest network digital camcorder, the length of which is that of a handheld computer, weighing -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------28. GWD21-Q28: Since it has become known that several of a bank’s top executives have been buying shares in their own bank, the bank’s depositors, who had been worried by rumors that the bank faced impending financial collapse, have been greatly relieved. They reason that since top executives evidently have faith in the bank’s financial soundness, those worrisome rumors must be false. They might well be overoptimistic, however since corporate executives have sometimes bought shares in their own company in a calculated attempt to dispel negative rumors about the company’s health. In the argument given, the two boldfaced portions play which of the following roles? A. The first summarizes the evidence used in the reasoning called into question by the argument; the second states the counterevidence on which the argument relies. B. The first summarizes the evidence used in the reasoning called into question by the argument; the second is an intermediate conclusion supported by that evidence.

C. The first is an intermediate conclusion that forms part of the reasoning called into question by the argument; the second is evidence that undermines the support for this intermediate conclusion. D. The first is an intermediate conclusion that forms part of the reasoning called into question by the argument; the second is the main conclusion of the argument. E. The first is an intermediate conclusion that forms part of the reasoning called into question by the argument; the second states a further conclusion supported by this intermediate conclusion.

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29. GWD21-Q29: While studying the genetic makeup of corn, a new class of mutant genes was discovered by Barbara McClintock, a discovery which led to greater understanding of cell differentiation. A. a new class of mutant genes was discovered by Barbara McClintock, a discovery which led B. a new class of mutant genes in corn were discovered by Barbara McClintock, leading C. Barbara McClintock discovered a new class of mutant genes, and it led D. Barbara McClintock discovered a new class of mutant genes, a discovery that led E. Barbara McClintock, who discovered a new class of mutant genes, leading -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------30. GWD21-Q30: In the past, most children who went sledding in the winter snow in Verland used wooden sleds with runners and steering bars. Ten years ago, smooth plastic sleds became popular; they go faster than wooden sleds but are harder to steer and slow. The concern that plastic sleds are more dangerous is clearly borne out by the fact that the number of children injured while sledding was much higher last winter than it was ten years ago. Which of the following, if true in Verland, most seriously undermines the force of the evidence cited? A. A few children still use traditional wooden sleds. B. Very few children wear any kind of protective gear, such as helmets, while sledding. C. Plastic sleds can be used in a much wider variety of snow conditions than wooden sleds can. D. Most sledding injuries occur when a sled collides with a tree, a rock, or, another sled. E. Because the traditional wooden sled can carry more than one rider, an accident involving a wooden sled can result in several children being injured.

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31: GWD-18-Q27
One critic’s response to the philosopher’s new work is not that the position it takes is heretical, as some have asserted, but instead nothing new to anyone who knows anything about the topic. A. not that the position it takes is heretical, as some have asserted, but instead B. not that the position it takes is heretical, like some have asserted, but it is C. not that the position it takes is heretical, as some have asserted, but rather that it is D. that the position it takes is not heretical, like some have asserted, instead E. that the position it takes is not heretical, as some have asserted it to be, but rather it is -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------32. GWD21-Q32: Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging, the manufacturer has announced that it will cut production by closing its factories for two days a month. A. Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging B. Because of plunging prices for computer chips, which is due to an oversupply C. Because computer chip prices have been sent plunging, which resulted from an oversupply D. Due to plunging computer chip prices from an oversupply E. Due to an oversupply, with the result that computer chip prices have been sent plunging

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-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------33. GWD21-Q33: One of the limiting factors in human physical performance is the amount of oxygen that is absorbed by the muscles from the bloodstream. Accordingly, entrepreneurs have begun selling at gymnasiums and health clubs bottles of drinking water, labeled “SuperOXY,” that has extra oxygen dissolved in the water. Such water would be useless in improving physical performance, however, since the only way to get oxygen into the bloodstream so that it can be absorbed by the muscles is through the lungs. Which of the following, if true, would serve the same function in the argument as the statement in boldface? A. the water lost in exercising can be replaced with ordinary tap water B. the amount of oxygen in the blood of people who are exercising is already more than the muscle cells can absorb C. world-class athletes turn in record performances without such water D. frequent physical exercise increases the body’s ability to take in and use oxygen E. lack of oxygen is not the only factor limiting human physical performance ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

34: GWD-18-Q31
Between 1990 and 2000 the global economy grew more than it did during the 10,000 years from the beginning of agriculture to 1950. A. Between 1990 and 2000 the global economy grew more than it did during the 10,000 years from the beginning of agriculture B. Between 1990 and 2000 the growth of the global economy was more than that during 10,000 years, from when agriculture began

C. The growth of the global economy between 1990 and 2000 exceeds that which had been for 10,000 years from the beginning of agriculture D. The growth of the global economy between 1990 and 2000 exceeds what it has been for 10,000 years, from when agriculture began E. The growth of the global economy between 1990 and 2000 exceeded what it did for the 10,000 years from the beginning of agriculture

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35-37. GWD-23-Q25-Q27

35. GWD23-Q25: The passage suggests that which of the following has resulted from the influence of the rational model (line 8) ? A. It has deflected researchers’ attention from a critical factor affecting managerial decision-making. B. It has focused decision-making procedures on managers’ presumed ability to prioritize key corporate values.

迫切需要

組織價值觀

A pressing need in the study of organizations is for more research into how an organization’s values (an organization’s guiding principles and beliefs as perceived by its members) affect managerial decision-making. Traditional theories have been based on a “rational model,” which focuses on the decision-maker and either ignores the organizational value climate or conveniently assumes that the organization’s values are consistent or clearly prioritized. In reality, however, decisions are shaped not only by a manager’s own values, but also by those of the corporate culture and of organizational 機構高層 superiors. A recent study found that managers’ most stressful decisions involved “value contention” (conflicts among any of these sets of values). Furthermore, 價值爭論 different types of organizational value systems were associated with different frequencies of contending values 競爭 as well as with different types of managerial response. Explicit corporate values, for example, produced a greater percentage of decisions that were stressful due to value contention. Hidden values (those that an organization practices but does not acknowledge or which a superior 私下 furtively pursues in opposition to the values of the 追尋 organization) produced a lower level of value contention. Although explicit values created more value contention, they were nonetheless more likely to produce flexible, well-reasoned decisions. Conversely, managers perplexed by hidden values reported feeling unable to identify an 使困惑 appropriate range of options. 相反的 ----------------------------------------------

使轉向

C. It has diverted attention from the need for orientation of nonsupervisory employees to organizational values. D. It has hampered communication between academic researchers and mangers of organizations. E. It has produced theories that are practicable for analyzing decision-making processes only in relatively large organizations.

-----------------------------------------------36. GWD23-Q26: The passage identifies which of the following as a way in which hidden corporate values affect managerial decisionmaking? A. They tend to discourage consultation organizational subordinates and superiors. B. with

They tend to undermine managers’ confidence in their own ability to determine the available alternatives.

C. They tend to produce a heightened degree of value contention. D. They tend to produce a heightened degree of conflict among different levels of the organizational structure. E. They tend to cause greater anxiety among managers than do explicit corporate values.

-----------------------------------------------------------------37. GWD23-Q27: According to the passage, value contention has been shown to affect managers by A. decreasing their ability to conform to the values of the organization B. decreasing their ability to discern clearly the guiding principles and beliefs of the organization

C. narrowing their range of options in the decisionmaking process D. increasing the frequency and intensity of conflicts with superiors and subordinates

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E.

increasing the level of mental or emotional strain that accompanies the decision-making process

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38. GWD21-Q38: Because it was long thought that few people would watch lengthy televised political messages, most televised political advertisements, like commercial advertisements, took the form of short messages. Last year, however, one candidate produced a half-hour-long advertisement. During the half hour the advertisement was aired, a substantial portion of the viewing public tuned into the advertisement. Clearly, then, many more people are interested in watching lengthy televised political messages than was previously thought. Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends? A. The candidate’s ratings improved significantly as a result of the half-hour-long political advertisement. B. Political advertisements have become increasingly influential in determining voters’ decisions at the polls. C. Many people would appreciate the opportunity to become better acquainted with political candidates’ views on current political issues. D. Most people who are interested in political issues watch television regularly. E. Most of the viewers who tuned in to the candidate’s half-hour-long advertisement last year did not change channels after the first few minutes.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------39. GWD21-Q39: Almost like clones in their similarity to one another, the cheetah species’ homogeneity makes them especially vulnerable to disease. 無性繁殖的生物 A. the cheetah species’ homogeneity makes them especially vulnerable to disease B. the cheetah species is especially vulnerable to disease because of its homogeneity C. the homogeneity of the cheetah species makes it especially vulnerable to disease D. homogeneity makes members of the cheetah species especially vulnerable to disease E. members of the cheetah species are especially vulnerable to disease because of their homogeneity

獵豹

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------40. GWD21-Q40: A manufacturer of workstations for computer-aided design seeks to increase sales to its most important corporate customers. Its strategy is to publish very low list prices for workstations in order to generate interest among the buyers for those corporations. Which of the following, if characteristic of the marketplace, would tend to cause the manufacturer’s strategy to fail? A. The proposed list prices would seem low to a typical buyer for the manufacturer’s most important corporate customers. B. The capabilities of workstations suitable for given jobs are not significantly different among various manufacturers. C. The manufacturer’s most important corporate customers employ as buyers persons who are very knowledgeable about prices for workstations for customer-aided design. D. Customers differ significantly in the percentage of resources they can devote to computer workstations. E. Buyers for corporations that purchase workstations for computer-aided design receive bonuses for negotiating large discounts from the list price.

17

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------41. GWD21-Q41:

柴油機

點燃反擊

The Environmental Protection Agency’s proposal to place restrictions on both diesel fuel and diesel engines has sparked a counterattack by the oil industry, saying that the move will exacerbate the nation’s fuel supply problems.

惡化
A. on both diesel fuel and diesel engines has sparked a counterattack by the oil industry, saying B. on both diesel fuel and engines have sparked the oil industry to counterattack, and they say C. on both diesel fuel and diesel engines has sparked a counterattack by the oil industry, which says D. both on diesel fuel and engines has sparked the oil industry to a counterattack, saying E. both on diesel fuel and diesel engines have sparked the oil industry to counterattack, and it says

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

18


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