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Gear design in MDESIGN gearbox

Tutorial for gear design and calculation with MDESIGN gearbox
Dipl.-Ing. Christian-Hartmann-Gerlach, DriveConcepts GmbH Dresden Dr.-Ing. Tobias

Schulze, DriveConcepts GmbH Dresden

Conclusion
This is a guide for generating a gear model and subsequent recalculation of the kinematics and the single parts with the software “MDESIGN gearbox”. In little steps will be illustrated how to design a 3D-modell of a single-stage spur gear unit and described how to check this construction. Additionally it will show how to get documented investigative results.

Figure 1: Example of an spur gear in MDESIGN gearbox

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Gear design in MDESIGN gearbox

1. Index

1. 2. 3. 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. 4. 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 5. 6.

Index ............................................................................................................................................ 2 Basic settings for calculation ....................................................................................................... 3 Modeling the gearbox .................................................................................................................. 6 Modeling the shafts ................................................................................................................. 6 Design of spur gears ............................................................................................................. 10 Modeling of bearings ............................................................................................................. 13 Modeling drive and output drive ............................................................................................ 15 Calculation ................................................................................................................................. 17 Calculation of kinematics ....................................................................................................... 17 Calculation of spur gears ....................................................................................................... 18 Calculation of the shafts ........................................................................................................ 22 Calculating the bearings ........................................................................................................ 26 Calculation of all elements..................................................................................................... 29 Save the project data ................................................................................................................. 30 Literature.................................................................................................................................... 31

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Gear design in MDESIGN gearbox

2. Basic settings for calculation
Start the software MDESIGN and open in the left content-menu the folder MDESIGN gearbox and choose the entry MDESIGN gearbox with double-click. Start a new project by clicking on data ? new ?reset. All data on the input page will be set on default values. Choose in the topic “Choice calculation” ? “Calculation”. Save the dataset gearbox (*.xml) into a variable folder. You are now working with this dataset and can change it by pressing “save” again.

Figure 2: Active dataset Now change to the graphical input interface. Therefore choose in the pull-down-menu the entry graphical input.

Figure 3: Choose graphical input On top of the working frame you can find the toolbar for the graphical input.

Figure 4: Toolbar

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Gear design in MDESIGN gearbox

In the Graphical input you will find different categories. The frame in the middle, where the coordinate system is shown, is the design space of your gearbox. The menu on the right is the element explorer, where you can select the required machine elements. The menu on the left side shows the properties of the selected element. At the bottom you find graphic and text helps, which should make the handling with the software more easily. In the toolbar you can find on the right the column objects operation. There you can chose to select parts or move them in the 3D-view. On the left of it is the column model / select object. It allows you to specify your machine parts with information from the database or by graphical selection.

Figure 5: Areas in the graphical input Before you start with the modeling, change back to the Input Page. In the topic materials you can find two tables where you can choose the material for the gearwheels and shafts. Therefore press the database-symbol on the right side over the tables and chose MDESIGNor user-database.

Figure 6: Material selection
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Gear design in MDESIGN gearbox

It appears a list with standardized materials from the MDESIGN database. For the gearwheels chose 16MnCr5 and for the shafts again 16MnCr5 and E295. Repeat the same procedure for the lubrication and chose “Oel1”. Now you see in the tables the chosen materials and lubricant. For modifications of the database entries you can use the module MDESIGN gearbox database. Next choose circular lubrication for the gearbox. In the topic “Load data” enter for KA = 1.1 and KAS 1.5. The required securities and live times should be preset like in the following graphic:

Figure 7: Definition of required securities and live times Go back to the graphical input.

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Gear design in MDESIGN gearbox

3. Modeling the gearbox 3.1. Modeling the shafts
In the graphical input are shafts modeled by single parts. Therefore you have to click in the element explorer ? “Shaft” ? “Shaft section” and drag it with pressed mouse button in the 3D-view. By selecting a part you can see the properties in the left menu. da l and dar represent the left and right outer diameter as well as dil and dir are for the left and right inner diameter. Enter the following parameters for the first part.

Figure 8: Definition of a shaft

The shafts in this example are solid shafts. So the inner diameter is always zero. Now the first shaft section must be spatial arranged by using snap layers. Click in the column objects operation on the button Move objects. If you drag the “Shaft section_01” by pressing the mouse button continuously, you will see on the face surface yellow snap layer. Move the shaft section to the black cross. When the snap layer changes it color to blue, the software detected the composition and connects the shaft with the cross, when you release the mouse button.

Figure 9: Snapping the first shaft section at the assembly center Now create two more shaft section. Connect them on the right side of the first shaft and use the following parameter for the sections.

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Gear design in MDESIGN gearbox

Figure 10: Properties of shaft section two and three After the sections are connected you can select them by pressing “Strg” and “left mouse button”.

Figure 11: Appearance of the first shaft To move component assemblies with the belonging coordinate system use the middle mouse button. In addition you can zoom with the mouse wheel. After selecting the whole shaft, you can choose the shaft material. Therefore mark the entry material in the properties and click on the button Selection in the model / select object column. Now you can choose one of the defined materials. Because “Welle_01” will be a bevel shaft use the material 16MnCr5. Due a double click the 2D shaft editor of the shaft calculation appears. Here it is possible to add and remove shaft sections and additional forces and notches.

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Gear design in MDESIGN gearbox

Now create the second shaft on your own with the following dimensions in mm:

Figure 12: Dimensions of the second shaft The first section of the “Welle_02” can be placed everywhere on the screen. The position will be specified later by connecting the spur gears. Try to build the shaft from left to right it will make it easier to position the spur gear later. Don’t forget to specify the material of the second shaft, it should be E295. Now you should have two shafts like in the picture below.

Figure 13: Design of the second shaft Tip: By clicking on a graphical element with the second mouse button it is possible to change the color settings.

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Gear design in MDESIGN gearbox

Figure 14: Color settings of an element

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Gear design in MDESIGN gearbox

3.2.

Design of spur gears

Spur gear can be modeled similar. Choose in the element explorer “Gear” ? “Spur gear” ? “External gear” and drag it into the 3D-view. Then select it to specify the bevel.

Figure 15: Specifications of the bevel Material and lubrication can be defined like described before. If you move the bevel you will see a yellow snap line in the bevel and also on the shafts. Place the bevel on the “Welle_01” until the snap line turns blue and release it.

Figure 16: Detect possible snap lines

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Gear design in MDESIGN gearbox

Figure 17: Snapping the gear on the first shaft The rotation axes are now associated but the position of the X-coordinate must be firmed. Therefore select the bevel and type in line PositionX the quality 275. The X-offset is always the distance from the shaft-origin to the middle of the gear.
Place a second gear on the “Welle_02” with following parameters.

Figure 18: Properties of the second gear The X-offset is 106 mm.

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Gear design in MDESIGN gearbox

Now you have to connect the two gears. You need to select component group (“Welle_02” and “Rad_02”) by holding down the Alt-button. Do not release the button otherwise you lose the connections between gear and shaft. In the middle of the gears appears yellow snap line. If you bring them together, they will turn blue. Now release the mouse and the Altbutton.

Figure 19: Snapping a gear pair The gears are connected when a blue padlock appears.

Figure 20: Definition and properties of a gear pair

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Gear design in MDESIGN gearbox

3.3.

Modeling of bearings

In the graphical input mode you can specify the dimensions of bearings. An exact specification is possible later. Place a bearing like before and define as below:

Figure 21: Specification and bearing type The bearing type can be set by the graphic selection button. Choose in the popup window the bearing, which is fixed on the left side. Also choose the lubricant. Like the gears, the bearings have to be placed by snapping lines on “Welle_01”. The X-offset has an amount of 171 mm.

Figure 22: Placement of the first bearing Create a second bearing with the same dimensions and place it on the other side of the bevel with an X-offset of 379 mm. This time you have to use a bearing, which is fixed on the right side, so you get a strut mount bearing. Now you have to create both bearings for the “Welle_02”. These have different dimensions:

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Gear design in MDESIGN gearbox

Figure 23: Specification bearing three and four The second shaft will also get a strut mount bearing, so the bearing types has to be set like “Lager_01” and “Lager_02”. For the X-offset use 20 and 214 mm.

Figure 24: All bearings are in position

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Gear design in MDESIGN gearbox

3.4.

Modeling drive and output drive

The mechanic parts of the gear box are nearly complete configured. To start with the calculation, we have to place force elements. You can do that by select in the element explorer ? “Force elements” ? “Drive” and put it directly on the first shaft. It will appear as a green arrow.

Figure 25: Placement of the drive In the configuration menu you can decide if rotational speed and moment will be default or calculated. Therefore you can use the graphic selection.

Figure 26: Default moment and rotational speed In our example the drive has a fixed moment and rotational speed. So choose both as a default value. The algebraic sign in front the rotational speed changes the rotational direction. The torque must have a value higher than zero. The X-offset has to be 30 mm.

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Gear design in MDESIGN gearbox

Figure 27: Specification output drive Place an output drive on the right side of “Welle_02”. This time you have to set torque and rotational speed as calculated values. The X-position should be 360 mm. Now you have finished the graphic input part of our tutorial. If you have followed all steps proper, you should have a gearbox like in the following picture:

Figure 28: Final gear model

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Gear design in MDESIGN gearbox

4. Calculation 4.1 Calculation of kinematics
Now change back to the input page. There you chose in the pull-down menu the entry calculation. Now the software offers three possible calculations. You can choose them in the topic “choice of level of detail of the gearbox” or in the toolbar in the column actions.

Figure 29: Chose calculation of kinematics in the toolbar Under the topics material, load data and required securities & life times are all previous selected data present. Most of the other values are already set by the graphic input. The only wanting data is the tooth efficiency in the topic “Advanced parameters of the chosen variant” ? “Joints” ? “Gear pairs”. Set the value of it to 0.99. Further entries are not required. Press F10 to start the calculation. On the right side of the screen you can see now a window with the output page. It contains the results of the calculation (torque, rotational speed, power, transmission ratio). In the column “Document” you can document your results. The input- and calculation-data will be listed. They can be printed or saved in HTML-, RTF- or PDF-format. The document Language can be chosen in this column too.

Figure 30: Result of the kinematic calculation
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Gear design in MDESIGN gearbox

4.2 Calculation of spur gears
Close the output page again and choose “Detailing” ? “Machine elements”. It appears a selection of machine elements. Click on “Gear pair”.

Figure 31: Choose detailing

Figure 32: Choose Machine Elements

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Gear design in MDESIGN gearbox

Figure 33: Selection of the gear pair In the appearing database window can you decide between every gear pair, which are in the gear box. In our example we have only the one gear pair “Radpaar_01”. Select it and press “OK”. Now a message appears with the information that a reference profile for the gear pair is needed. Therefore select in “Advanced parameters of the chosen variant” ? “Machine elements” ? “spur gears” in the column “Reference profile” with the selection button a reference profile. In this case you can choose the first entry for both spur gears.

Figure 34: Selection of a reference profile Confirm in “Choice of level of detail of the gearbox” ? “Choice of elements for the calculation” the button “User function” or use the toolbar.

Figure 35: Reselection of the gear pair you like to detail

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Gear design in MDESIGN gearbox

Now you can change different tooth parameters. At first set the “Centre distance” to 218 mm. In the topic “Input method topland shortening” choose “No input” in the pull-downmenu. If these factors are set to zero, the program will calculate them with a standardized method. In the next row (“Addendum modification according to DIN 3992/3993”) select for the input method again “No input” and for the optimization “Balanced toothing”. Now you can start the calculation by pressing F10. After a few seconds you can see the calculated securities of the bearings. If these are lower than your requested securities a warning will be displayed in red color on top of the output site. In addition you can watch all calculation steps and in the graphic menu you can see different figures of your gear which can be easily saved to your hard drive. This can be for example the tooth profiles, pitting- and pitting bearing capacity diagrams.

Figure 36: Tooth profile pinion

Figure 37: Pinion, pitting bearing capacity diagram

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Gear design in MDESIGN gearbox

Figure 38: Results of the gear pair calculation Exit the gear pair calculation by pressing the cross.

Figure 39: Exit the calculation

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Gear design in MDESIGN gearbox

4.3 Calculation of the shafts
To calculate and specify a shaft, select the entry shaft in the topic “Choice of elements for the calculation”. At first we will use “Welle_01”. Most of the geometrical data are already set threw the graphical input. For a realistic calculation there are some more information necessary like notches. They can be chosen in an appropriate table. In the column “Type” is a button for graphical help. It will show you the required dimensions for the different notch shapes. On top of the table you will find a button which allows you to choose the notch by a graphical selection. Please click on the entry “Feather key joint, 1 groove”. Use the following parameters:

Figure 40: Specifications of the feather key joint To check if all parameters are set correctly, you can use the graphic help button on top of the table. In the right graphic display should be a 3D-model of the shaft with all torques, forces, bearings and notches. Now you can start the calculation by pressing F10.

Figure 41: 3D calculation model of “Welle_01” The output page now shows the resulting securities and intermediate results of the calculation. They can be documented if designated.

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Gear design in MDESIGN gearbox

Figure 42: Results of the calculation for “Welle_01” In addition the graphical output will show you diagrams with torque, force and bending trend curves. Two examples are pictured bellow.

Figure 43: Trend of curve of the bending moment

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Gear design in MDESIGN gearbox

Figure 44: Safety factor against yielding

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Gear design in MDESIGN gearbox

Now make the calculation for “Welle_02”. Enter two notches in the table like bellow.

Figure 45: Specifications of the two notches The resulting 3D-model should look like in the following picture.

Figure 46: 3D-model for the second shaft Leave the detailing mode by clicking on the cross in the topic “Advanced parameters shaft”.

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Gear design in MDESIGN gearbox

4.4 Calculating the bearings
This time select the entry “Choice bearing” and start with “Lager_01”. Now you can specify your requirements of the bearings. Gearbox will suggest you suitable bearings from the internal database. For this example, you can use the standard settings. In the topic “Bearing parameters” you can choose a bearing type by using the graphical interface. Please click on the entry “Tapered roller bearing”.

Figure 47: Graphical interface for choosing a bearing type from the bearing catalog
If you have destined a special bearing for your gear, you can specify your bearing parameters. In this example it is not necessary. Start the calculation by pressing F10 on your keyboard. A table with tapered roller bearings, which will conform to the required lifetime, will appear. Select the bearing 32316A.

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Gear design in MDESIGN gearbox

Figure 48: Chose the bearing type from the database
On the output page you will find the expected lifetime of the bearing as well as the static security. In addition there will be the data of the selected bearing.

Figure 49: 3D-model of the first bearing

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Gear design in MDESIGN gearbox

Figure 50: Figure of the chosen bearing
Repeat these steps for the other bearings. Choose bearing types like this: Lager_02: Tapered roller bearing – 32316A Lager_03: Tapered roller bearing – 30224A Lager_04: Tapered roller bearing – 33024 Now you have constructed the gear completely and specified sufficiently. Please consider, that this example will give you just a rough gear design to give you an understanding of the single steps in the software

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Gear design in MDESIGN gearbox

4.5 Calculation of all elements
Now that all mechanic parts are specified, you can make a calculation for all parts. Choose in the topic “Choice of elements for the calculation” ? “All elements”.

Figure 51: Calculation all elements As a result you will get an overview of all calculation results.

Figure 52: Calculating all elements
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Gear design in MDESIGN gearbox

5. Save the project data
All calculation data for the calculation are stored in a project folder. By default the folder is temporarily on your PC. If you create a new calculation file, all data in the temporary folder will be erased. That’s why it is important to choose a new target directory. If you do this after the calculation, you can copy all data to the new directory. Choose a directory like figured below and confirm the warning with “yes”. Afterwards you should safe the project again. By the next use of the software all data will be restored.

Figure 53: Definition of the poject folder

Figure 54: Copy the date from the temporary folder to the new project directory

Figure 55: Calculation data in the project folder

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Gear design in MDESIGN gearbox

6. Literature
[1] B?rner, J., Senf, M., Linke, H.; Beanspruchungsanalyse bei Stirnradgetrieben – Nutzung der Berechnungssoftware LVR; Vortrag DMK 2003, Dresden, 23. und 24. September 2003 Baumann, F, Trempler U.: Analyse zur Beanspruchung der Verzahnung von Planetengetrieben, Vortrag DMK 2007, Dresden B?rner, J.: Modellreduktion für Antriebssysteme mit Zahnradgetrieben zur vereinfachten Berechnung der inneren dynamischen Zahnkr?fte. Dissertation TU Dresden, 1988 B?rner, J.; Senf, M.: Verzahnungsbeanspruchung im Eingriffsfeld – effektiv berechnet. Antriebstechnik 34, 1995, 1 B?rner, J.: Genauere Analyse der Beanspruchung von Verzahnungen. Beitrag zur Tagung ?Antriebstechnik, Zahnradgetriebe“, Dresden, 09/2000 Bulligk, Chr.: Theoretische Untersuchung zur modularisierten Berechnung und Auslegung von Getrieben, Diplomarbeit, DriveConcepts GmbH, 2009 CalculiX: freies FEM Programm , MTU Aero-engenier-GmbH, (www.calculix.de); Gajewski, G.: Untersuchungen zum Einfluss der Breitenballigkeit auf die Tragf?higkeit von Zahnradgetrieben. Dissertation TU Dresden, 1984 Gajewski, G.: Ermittlung der allgemeinen Einflussfunktion für die Berechnung der Lastverteilung bei Stirnr?dern. Forschungsbericht, TU Dresden, Sektion Grundlagen des Maschinenwesens, 1984

[2] [3]

[4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]

[10] Hartmann-Gerlach, Christian: Erstellung eines Berechnungskerns für die Software MDESIGN LVRplanet. Unver?ffentlichte interne Arbeit, DriveConcepts GmbH 2007 [11] Hartmann-Gerlach, Christian: Verformungsanalyse von Planetentr?gern unter Verwendung der Finiten Elemente Methode. Unver?ffentlichte interne Arbeit, DriveConcepts GmbH 2008 [12] Hartmann-Gerlach, Christian: Effiziente Getriebeberechnung von der Auslegung bis zur Nachrechnung mit MDESIGN gearbox und MDESIGN LVRplanet, Vortrag anl?sslich des SIMPEP Kongresses in Würzburg, 18.-19. Juni 2009 [13] He?, R.: Untersuchungen zum Einfluss der Wellen und Lager sowie der Lagerluft auf die Breitenlastverteilung von Stirnradverzahnungen. Diss. TU Dresden, 1987 [14] Hohrein, A.; Senf, M.: Reibungs-, Schmierungs-, Verschlei?und Festigkeitsuntersuchungen an Zahnradgetrieben. Forschungsbericht TU Dresden, 1977 [15] Hohrein, A.; Senf, M.: Untersuchungen zur Last- und Spannungsverteilung an schr?gverzahnten Stirnr?dern. Diss. TU Dresden, 1978 [16] Linke, H.: Untersuchungen zur Ermittlung dynamischer Zahnkr?fte. Diss. TU Dresden, 1969 [17] Linke, H.: Stirnradverzahnung – Berechnung, Werkstoffe, Fertigung. München, Wien : Hanser, 1996

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Gear design in MDESIGN gearbox

[18] Linke, H.; Mitschke, W.; Senf, M.: Einfluss der Radk?rpergestaltung auf die Tragf?higkeit von Stirnradverzahnungen. In: Maschinenbautechnik 32 (1983) 10, S 450456 [19] Neugebauer, G.: Beitrag zur Ermittlung der Lastverteilung über die Zahnbreite bei schr?gverzahnten Stirnr?dern. Dissertation TU Dresden, 1962 [20] Oehme, J.: Beitrag zur Lastverteilung schr?gverzahnter Stirnr?der auf der Grundlage experimenteller Zahnverformungsuntersuchungen. Diss. Technische Universit?t Dresden. 1975 [21] Polyakov, D..; Entwicklung eines durchg?ngigen Rechenmodells zur Bestimmung der Geh?usesteifigkeit unter Verwendung der FE Methode, Diplomarbeit, DriveConcepts GmbH [22] Schlecht, B., Hantschack, F., Schulze, T.; Einfluss der Bohrungen im Kranz auf die Tragf?higkeit von Hohlradverzahnungen; Antriebstechnik 41 (2002), Teil I, Heft 12, S. 45-47; Antriebstechnik 42 (2003), Teil II, Heft 2, S. 51-55 [23] Schlecht, B. Senf, M.; Schulze, T.: Beanspruchungsanalyse bei Stirnradgetrieben und Planetengetrieben - Haus der Technik e.V., Essen, 09./10. M?rz 2010 [24] Schlecht, B.; Schulze, T.; Hartmann-Gerlach, C.: Berechnung der Lastverteilung in Planetengetrieben unter Berücksichtigung aller relevanten Einflüsse Zeitschriftenbeitrag Konstruktion 06/2009 S12.ff, DriveConcepts GmbH, 2009 [25] Schulze, Tobias: Getriebeberechnung nach aktuellen wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnissen, Vortrag anl?sslich des Dresdner Maschinenelemente DMK2007 in Dresden, DriveConcepts GmbH, 2007 [26] Schulze, Tobias: Load Distribution in planetary gears under consideration of all relevant influences, Vortrag anl?sslich JSME International Conference on Motion and Power Transmissions, Sendai (Japan), 13.-15. Mai 2009 [27] Schulze, Tobias: Berechnung der Lastverteilung in Planetengetrieben unter Berücksichtigung aller relevanten Einflüsse, Vortrag auf KT2009 in Bayreuth zur Lastverteilung in Planetengetrieben, 08.-09.10.2009 [28] Schulze, Tobias: Ganzheitliche dynamische Antriebsstrangsbetrachtung Windenergieanlagen. Sierke Verlag 2008, Dissertation TU Dresden von

[29] Schulze, Tobias: Load distribution in planetary gears. Danish gear society “Gearteknisk InteresseGruppe”, 11th february 2010 at SDU in Odense, Denmark [30] Schulze, Tobias: Calculation of load distribution in planetary gears for an effective gear design process. AGMA Fall Technical Meeting 2010, October 17-19, 2010, Milwaukee Wis, USA Normen | Standards [31] DIN 867:1986 – Bezugsprofile für Evolventenverzahnungen an Stirnr?dern (Zylinderr?dern) für den allgemeinen Maschinenbau und den Schwermaschinenbau. [32] DIN 3960:1987 – Begriffe und Bestimmungsgr??en für Stirnr?der (Zylinderr?der) und Stirnradpaare (Zylinderpaare) mit Evolventenverzahnung.
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Gear design in MDESIGN gearbox

[33] Beiblatt 1 zu DIN 3960:1980 – Begriffe und Bestimmungsgr??en für Stirnr?der (Zylinderr?der) und Stirnradpaare (Zylinderpaare) mit Evolventenverzahnung; Zusammenstellung der Gleichungen [34] DIN 3990:1987, Teil 1 - 5 Tragf?higkeit von Stirnr?dern. [35] DIN 743:2008 T1-T4 & Beiblatt 1,2 Tragf?higkeitsberechnung von Wellen und Achsen [36] DIN ISO 281:2009 W?lzlager – Dynamische Tragzahlen und nominelle Lebensdauer Berechnung der modifizierten nominellen Referenz-Lebensdauer für W?lzlager [37] ISO 6336:2008 Calculation of load capacity of spur and helical gears [38] VDI 2737:2005, Berechnung der Zahnfu?tragf?higkeit von Innenverzahnungen mit Zahnkranzeinfluss, VDI-Richtlinie Software [39] MDESIGN? LVR 2012, software for load distribution of multi stage spur- and helical gears. DriveConcepts GmbH, 2012 [40] MDESIGN? LVRplanet 2012, software for load distribution of planetary gear stages. DriveConcepts GmbH, 2012 [41] MDESIGN? gearbox 2012, design and calculation software for multi stage gearboxes. DriveConcepts GmbH, 2012

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