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高考能力测试构词法 Word Formation 一.合成 Compounding 两个或更多的词合成一个词。 方式:1. 直接写在一起。 2. 用连字符(-)连接。 3. 由两个分开的词构成。 (1) 合成 adj 方式 1 adj+adj 2 adj+n 3 adj+现在分词 4 adj+过去分词 5 adj+n-ed 6 n+n-ed 7 n+adj 8 n+现在分词 9 n+过去分词 10adv+adj 11adv+现在分词 12adv+过去分词 13 num+ n 14 num+n+adj 15num+过去分词 例词 red-hot first-class, full-time, part-time good-looking, free-thinking, ready-made good-tempered, middle-aged, cold-blooded iron-willed world-famous, day-long beauty-loving, freedom-loving, job-hunting, man-made, water-covered, ever-green hard-working, far-seeing well-prepared, quickly-cured, well-known five-year five-year-old four-legged, six-storied (2)合成动词 构成方式 1 n+v 2 adv+v 3 adj+v (3)合成 n 构成方式 1 n+n 2 adj+n 3 动名词+n 4 v+adv 5 adv+v 例词 horseback , bank-note, newspaper, cellphone, back-yard, forehead, hiding place, reading-room get-off, break in, output, overflow 例词 day-dream overcome, upturn 翻起 white-wash

(4)合成 adv however, maybe, wherever, whenever, forever (5)合成代词 whoever,, whatever, everyone, nobody, myself, something, anything, (6)合 成 介 词 inside 在……里
后 缀

二、派生 Derivation 前缀 aendisun含义 处在…… 使可能 不,否定 不,做相 反动作 不,非 例词 arise, aside, alone enrich, enable, enslave dissatisfy, dishonest, disorder, disagree disappear, -al -an -ern -able -ful -ish -ive -y -less 形 容 词 -en -ous -ary -ic anti-freeze, anti-fascist misdoings, misunderstand, misfortune rewrite, remarry, reunite, recycle, co-exist, co-operate, co-education ex-husband, ex-president telephone, telegraph, telescope supermarket, superpower, -ish -some -like -ant -ent -ly

central, industrial, national, natural European, American, Australian eastern, northern, southern reasonable, horrible, terrible, comfortable, forgettable, sensible careful, cheerful, grateful, faithful, childish, Swedish, selfish destructive, collective, active, creative, effective thirsty, dirty, windy, sunny, cloudy, healthy, funny careless, hopeless, helpless, homeless, sleepless, fearless, limitless golden, wooden, woolen courageous, various famous, continuous, serious, believable,

unable, unknown, uncommon, uncomfortable, unfair, unclose, undress, uncover, untie inactive, incapable, inpatient, incorrect impossible, impersonal, impolite, immature, impractical irregular, irresponsible illogical, non-existent,non-interference, non-conductor, non-stop decentralize(分散), defrost(解冻)

inimirilnondeantimisre coex tele

不,非 向相反方 向发展 反(对) 错误的, 坏的 重复,再 共同 以前的 远程

imaginary, revolutionary, secondary realistic, historic, poetic troublesome, burdensome, lonesome, handsome childlike, womanlike, manlike ignorant, significant, observant, important diligent, silent, excellent, frequent lively, friendly, motherly childish, foolish




underintersubtransvicesemibi tri mulkilo-

在 …… 之 下 相互,之 间 下,次

underline, underestimate, underground, international, interact, inter-change subtitle, submarine, subcontinent, subconscious, 动 词

-ize -en -fy 后 缀 副 词 -ward(s) -ly

realize, modernize, mechanize, criticize, widen, strengthen, lengthen, sharpen, widen, shorten, quicken, deepen Simplify, beautify, terrify, 例 词

过, 穿过, transformation(变形), translate 变 副 半 两个 三个 多,多种 千 vice-premier, vice-president semifinal, semicircle, semi-automatic bicycle, biennial 两年一次的 triangle 三角形, tricycle 三轮脚踏车, triplets 三胞胎 multiply, multi-national, multi-coloured kilometre, kilogram

forward, northward, backward, downward slowly, quickly, carefully, loudly, happily, friendly

三、 转化 Conversion: 指一个词不变化词形, 而由一种此类 转化为另一种词类或几种词类。 1. 名词和动词之间的转化 telephone 电话—打电话, mirror 镜

子—像镜子一样反映, drink 喝—饮料, record 录音—记录, name, date, hand, study, 2. 形容词转化为动词 4.形容词转化为名词 perfect 完美的——使完善 3.名词转化为形容词(副词) chief 主要的——首领 front 前面——前面的

训练要旨:构词法是英语学习的一个重点,也是近年来常考的项目。特别是在词语辨析的综合运用中,对词汇掌握的要求越来越高。检测 构词法,在阅读理解中,已不把这种词汇看作生词,而是把这类词的理解看作学生通过对构词法知识的学习,应该具备的一种能力。如有的 生词,只要其词根是学生们该掌握的或熟悉的,只是加上了前缀或后缀,再者或是合成词等,命题人就认为不必再注出汉语注释。

1.That man was________enough not to tell the manager that he would not do the job.A.care B. careful C. careless Dcarelessness 2.The soldier died for saving the child,so his________ is heavier than Mount Tai. A. die B. dead C. died D. death 3.The child looked_______ at his brother who was badly wounded. A. sadly B. sadness C. sadly D. sad 4.He is an expert at chemistry. We all call him a ________. A. chemistry B. chemical C. chemis D. physician 5.The three- ________chair isn’t suitable for a young child. He may fall off. A. legging B .legged C. legs D.leged 6.Stephenson became the________railway engineer in the world. A. lead B. leader C. leading D. leadership 7.When the teacher praised him for working out the maths problem,Jack looked_______about at his classmates. A.proud B.proudly C.pride D. pridely 8.To everyone’s ________, the girl finished the job quite well. A.satisfied B.satisfactory C.satisfying D.satisfaction 9.—What are you doing here? —Oh,my teacher asked me to write a passage about ________in English. —You can write______ _passage in English? A.600 words;a 600-words B.600-word;a 600-words C.600 words;a 600-word D.600 words;a 600-words 10.No one should enter the spot without the________of the police. A.permit B.permission C.permitting D.permittence 11You must come with us to the police _______.Our head is waiting for you.A.headquarters B.headline C.headmaster D.headache 12.Letting that animal escape was no accident;you did it ________.A.intend B.intention C.intentionally D.intentional 13.The shop owner welcomed all the guests with a________smile. A.practice B.practise C.practical D.practiced 14.The_______ordered him to pay a $100 fine. A.judger B.judgment C.judge D.judgement 15.My TV is out of order.Can you tell me what is the________news about Iraq War? A.lately B.latest C.later D.latter 16.The Great Wall is more than 6000 li in ________. A.longer B.length C.long D.longing 17.To my ________,I passed the exam easily. A.joy B.joyful C.joyless D.joyness 18.Canada is mainly an________country. A.English-speaking B.speak-English C.spoken-English D.English-spoken 19.How________ he is! He is always acting________.He is really a ________. A.foolish;foolishly;fool B.fool;foolish;fool C.foolish;fool;fool D.foolishly;foolish;fool 20.The necklace that she lost is very expensive.It’s of great ________. A.valuable B.value C.valueless D.unvaluable

21.There were________fish in the river in South America. A.in danger B.danger C.dangerous D.dangerless 22.The letter “b” in the word “doubt” is________. A.sound B.silent C.silence D.sounded 23.The child looked at me________. A.stranger B.strangely C.strange D.strangeless 24.The black people were against slavery and fought for their________bravely. A.free B.freely C.freedom D.frees 25.What you said sounded________ but in fact it was untrue. A.reasonable B.reasonful C.reasonless D.unreason 26.We have to learn________technology from other countries. A.advance B.advancing C.advantage D.advanced 27.The children live in a village ________.They come here almost every day. A.nearby B.near C.nearly D.near by 28.Mr Black is an ________in the army,not an________in the government.You can not easily find him in his________. A .official;officer;office B.officer;office;official C.official;official;official D.officer;official;office 29.You’d better give up smoking if you want to keep ________.A.health B.healthy C.healthily D.healthier 30.________ speaking,I didn’t do it on purpose. A.Honestly B.Honest C.Honesty D.Dishonest 31.It sounds like a good plan,but there are some________difficulties in carrying it out. A.practiced B.practical C.practice D.practicing 32.His father possesses a________factory,which does most of the pollution to this river. A.paper-make B.paper-making C.papers-made D.paper-made 33.Marx left his homeland for some________reasons. A.politically B.politics C.political D.politician 34.It’s________to persuade him to give up smoking.He’s very stubborn.A.possible B.possibly C.impossible D.impossibility 35.Dan caught two________birds in the wood last week and they are still________in the cage. A.alive;live B.live;live C.live;alive D.alive;alive 36.The doctor said that the old man’s condition was__and that they had tried their best. A.hope B.hoped C.hopeful D.hopeless 37.Ann felt so________that she could hardly open her eyes. A.sleepy B.asleep C.sleep D.sleeping 38.We stood there______at the_____sight.A.frightened; frightful B.frightening frightful C.fright; frightening D.frightful; fright 39.The doctor’s advice________him from drinking and smoking. A.encouraged B.couraged C.encouragement D.discouraged 40I’d like to buy a house,modern,comfortable and above all in a quiet_.A.neighbour B.neighbourhood C.neighbours Dneighbour’s Ⅱ.改错练习(每小题有一个构词法错误,请找出并更正) 1.The Milu deer are living in the wild in a natural park. 2.This blouse is fit for him at all.It’s too long and the color has run. 3.The possibly that the majority of the labor force will work at home is often discussed. 4.We must strength government of the people,by the people and for the people. 5.The sperm whale can dive to a deep of more than 1000 meters in the sea. 6.He is a very famous actress.He has played many important parts in different films. 7.Personal,I’d rather stay at home watching TV. 8.Because of her ill,she can’t go out for the sight-seeing. 9.Thank you for your describe of the conditions here. 10.It’s really dust in this room.It’s a long time since someone last lived in it. 11.We all don’t know how dark happens. 12.He opened the envelope,folded the letter and began to read it. 13.She offered us lots of value information,which played an important part in catching the thief. 14.We wish you a pleasure journey back home. 15.The captain made an apologize to the passengers for the delay caused by bad weather. 16.I wish that you could interview these journals who come. 17.Coral is not a plant but a various of animal life. 18.In my opinion,Harry is the most suitful person for the job. 19.The food was good but the serve was poor. 20.This meeting is of great important to all of us. 21.There comes a large collection of soldiers in the distant. 22.When he got to the destination,he was quite out of breathe. 23.Traditionally speaking,Russia is a Europe country. 24. “Actual” means “in fact” , and we can also use “as a matter of fact” .25.It is possible to persuade Adam to give up that decide. 26.The doctor said that the patience was comfortable after the operation. 27.Some people say that this new discover might change the whole society completely. 28.The Chinese government treasure the friendly between the people of two countries and we are waiting for a peaceful settlement of this matter. 29.She was afraid of high and dared not jump out of the plane. 30.Her mother died of hungry after the flood. 31.I bet you are mistake this time. 32.The man said that he was merely a pass-by and that he didn’t watch the accident. 33.—Do you follow me? —Yes,perfect. 34.Personal possess of guns causes lots of troubles in the USA. 35.The greatest wealthy is being content with a little. 36.I believe our dream that humans will travel to and from the moon will come truth one day.

37.Fail is the mother of success. 38.Every year millions of visiters come to visit the dams. 39.The Chinese people are building socialist and have achieved great progress. 40.People all went up to offer their congratulate on their winning the key match. 前后缀“冰山一角”练习 一.形容词后缀 1-ous 结尾 advantage________ ambition________ anxiety________ continue________ courage________ danger________ disaster________ fame________ glory________ humor________ mountain________ mystery________ nerve________ number________ poison________ prosper________ religion________ suspicion________ vary________ vigor________ 2. 以-al 结尾 Chemistry________ class________ economy________ editor________ education________ exception________ finance________ function________ logic________ memory________ nation________ origin________ parent________ person________ physics________ politics________ region________ substance________ technique________ technology________ 3. 以 -able 结 尾 ability________ accept________ access________ adapt________ avail________ avoid________ capability________ change________ comfort_________ compare________convert________desire________ duration________ favor________ flexibility________ honor________ move________ notice________ permit________ reason________ sense________ vision________ 4. 以-ful 结尾 beauty________ care________ cheer________ doubt________ faith________ fruit________ glass________ hand________ harm________ help________ mouth________ peace________ power________ skill________ spoon________ success________ thought________ wonder________ 二 名 词 后 缀 1. 以 -ment 结 尾 achieve________ advance________ advertise________ agree________ disagree________ argue________ assign________ attach________ appoint________ develop________ embarrass________ encourage________ engage________ enjoy________ equip________ establish________ govern________ install________ manage________ move________ pave________ pay________ punish________ ship________ state________ 2. 以 -al 结尾 approve________ disapprove________ arrive________ propose________ refuse________ remove________ survive________ try________ withdraw________ 3. 以 -ance/-ence/-ency/cy 结 尾 abundant________ accurate________ agent________ allow________ apply________ attend________ bankrupt________ competent________ compliant________ confident________ consist________ convenient________ inconvenient________ correspondent________ current________ dependent________ independent________ innocent________diplomat________ distant________ efficient________ elegant________ evident________ exist________ fluent________ frequent________ infer________ infant________ influential________ intelligent________ interfere________ offend________ patient________ perform________ prefer________ refer________ resident________ significant________ silent________ tend________ urgent________ vacant________ violent________ 4. 以 -ion 结 尾 act________ add________ admit________ attract________ associate________ collect________ combine________ complete________ commit________ communicate________ compose________ conclude________ consider________ consume________ create________ decide________ declare________ define________ describe________ destroy________ determine________ devote________ direct________ distinct________ discuss________ dominate________ educate________ elect________ evolve________ except________ exhaust________ exhibit________ exploit________ found________ identify________ illustrate________ imitate________ impress________ include________ intend________ introduce________ investigate________ invite________ liberate________ locate________ oblige________ occupy________ operate________ organize________ participate________ permit________ predict________ produce________ provide________ pollute________ possess________ recognize________ recommend________ regulate________ relate________ satisfy________ select________ solve________ submit________ suggest________ utilize________ verify________ 三动词前后缀、 1.以-en 开头或结尾 large________ able________ courage________ rich________ hard________ weak________ broad________ soft________ moist________ length________ strength________ threat________sharp________ sure________ 2. 以 -ify 结 尾 magnified________ simple________ pure________ intense________ beauty________ clear________ electrical________ note________ unite________ dignity________ 3. 以 -ize/ise/yze/yse 结 尾 real________ industrial________ mechanic________ central________ popular________ evaporation________ standard________ neutral________

高考能力测试 答案 构词法 Ⅰ.单项填空 1~5 BDACB 6~10 CBDCB 11~15 ACDCB 16~20 BAAAB 21~25 CBBCA 26~30 DADBA 31~35 BBCCC 36~40 DAADB 【解析】 6.leading 主要的,领头的。 9.这类合成词用作前置定语时必须用连字符连接,而且不能有复数。 10.permit 的名词是 permission。 11.headquarters 总部。 12.intentionally 是 intend 的副词形式,“故意地”。 13.practiced 在这里作“熟练的”解。 14.judge 在这里作“法官”解。 20.be of great value“很有价值”。 22.silent“不出声的”“沉默的”。 24.freedom“自由”,名词。 30.honestly speaking,“老实说”。 36.hopeless,“没有希望的,绝望的,不可救药”。 38.frightened 意为“感到害怕的”,frightful“可怕的”,frightening“令人害怕的”。 40.neighbour 表“邻居”,neighbourhood 表“周围环境”。 Ⅱ.改错练习 1.natural→nature 2.fit→unfit 3.possibly→possibility 4.strength→strengthen 5.deep→depth 6.actress→actor 7.Personal→Personally 8.ill→illness 9.describe→description 10.dust→dusty 11.dark→darkness 12.fold→unfolded 13.value→valuable 14.pleasure→pleasant 15.apoligize→apology 16.journals→journalists 17.various→variety 18.suitful→suitable 19.serve→service 20.important→importance 21.distant→distance 22.breathe→breath 23.Europe→European 24.Actual→Actually 25.decide→decision 26.patience→patient 27.discover→discovery 28.friendly→friendship 29.high→height 30.hungry→hunger 31.mistake→mistaken 32.pass-by→passer-by 33.perfect→perfectly 34.possess→possession 35.wealthy→wealth 36.truth→true 37.Fail→Failure 38.visiters→visitors 39.socialist→socialism 40.congratulate→congratulations


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