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Wood

Summer 1976, $2.50

Fine woodworking deserves this fine wood finish.
?E ARTS. CRAfTS'

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*Beautiful also when hand· rubbed or when used in French polishing.

FREE CATALOG gives wood staining and finishing tips. Send self-addressed 9" x 12" envelope, stamped with 52<J: postage to Deft, Inc. Dept. FW, 17451 Von Karman Avenue, Irvine, CA 92714.

There can only be one best .... In woodworking benches it's LERVAD
Compare Lervad, feature for feature, with any other woodworking bench and you will see what we mean. Start with the 4-point hold system. It's exclusive with Lervad all other production benches have a 2-point hold. It incorporates a double row of surface slots, each row fitted with spring? loaded steel dogs. These work against identical dogs in the full-width tail vise. When the workpiece is positioned between the surface dogs and the vise dogs tightening the vise will lock the piece in almost any position. You can approach the project from all sides and seldom have to reposition the work. And that tailvise; it's a smooth working engineering triumph, made of solid Danish beech and fitted with high grade tool steel rods and spindle. The shoulder vise is also brilliantly engineered with jaws completely unimpeded by rods or spindle. The of .008" and, like fine furniture, it is impregnated with raw linseed oil and finished with two coats of clear lacquer to preserve these amazing tolerances. Lervad benches comes in four sizes in capacities up to 80". There are two models with storage cabinets; another easy-folds for quick storage. A 16-page manual "How To Use Your Lervad Bench" is included with each bench. Our ads usually carry a tear-off coupon to help you request our literature. We know you don't want to deface this fine magazine so, if you want more information about the world's finest woodworking benches - and our other excellent quality, hard-to-find tools - just send your name, address and zip to:

3" thick solid Danish beech top is sanded to tolerances

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Fine WoodW(ork-Ing
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Summer 1976, Volume 1, Number 3

CONTENTS

4 8 10 11 12 16 22

Letters Books Craftsman's Gallery

by John Kelsey: Shop / gallery combination works in

Philadelphia
Authors Wood

by R. Bruce Hoadley: A look at this fundamental material by Tage Frid: Choosing and making this basic joint by Francis J. Newton: Portland Museum mounts

Mortise and Tenon

The Christian Tradition

Editor and Publisher Paul Roman Contributing Editors Tage Frid R . Bruce Hoadley Alastair A. Stair Robert Sutter Associate Editor John Kelsey Associate Publisher Janice A. Roman

exquisite show
24 26 28 30 34 37 40 42 Hand Shaping

by Daniel Jackson: A simple approach to sculpturing by Jere Osgood: Boston show features interesting

wood
Yankee Diversity

designs
Plane Speaking

by Robert Sutter: One man ' s guide to the more useful by Thomas A .. Simons IV: Coping with six percent

ones
Desert Cabinetry

mOIsture
Hidden Drawers Green Bowls

by Alastair A. Stair: Some eighteenth-century examples

by Alan Stirt: Turn unseasoned wood, dry it, then turn by Franklin H. Gottshall: Styling elements used in table by Paul Buckley : A contemporary version of a classic by John Kelsey: Notes and information on a recent

agam
Queen Anne

designs
Gate-Leg Table

Editorial Assistant Ruth Maidman Subscription Service Carole E. Ando
52

design

44 46

Turning Conference

gathering
Stroke Sander

by M . G. Rekoff, Jr.: Building a machine to smooth flat A listing of what's available in book and sheet form

panels
Furnitu re Plans: Sources of Supply (continued) I've Got

Advertising Consultant Granville M . Fillmore

55 56

a Secret : "Little Man " of walnut

Cover: Scanning electron are vessels,

microscope photograph The

Fine Woodworking is published quarterly, March, June, September and December, by The Taunton Press, Inc., Taunton Lake Road, Newtown, CT 06470, Telephone (203) 4268171. Second-class postage paid at Newtown, CT 06470 and additional mailing offices. Copyright 1976 by The Taunton Press, Inc. No reproduction without permission of The Taunton Press, Inc. Subscription rates: United States and possessions, S8.00 for one year, S15.00 for two years; foreign rate, $9.00 for one year. Single copy $2.50. Postmaster: Send notice of undelivered copies on form 3 5 79 to : The Taunton Press, PO Box 3 5 5 , Newtown, CT 06470. Forwarding and return postage guaranteed. Please address all subscription , editorial and advertising correspondence to The Taunton Press, PO Box 3 5 5 , Newtown , CT 06470.

shows structure of yellow birch. Large vertical cells the smaller ones mostly fibers. ladder-like structures in the large vessels are the diagonal endwalls through which sap travels. Ra? dial ray cells and rays are clearly visible in all surfaces. Center of tree would be toward lower right. Photo from the Center for U Itrastructures Studies, SUNY, Forestry. College of Environmental Science and

3

LETTERS______________
. . . . As Me. Mattia states, there are many ways to make dovetails. Some of my peculiarities may be of some benefit to some readers. To begin with, most dovetail sawing is ripping ; conven? tional dovetail saws are ground with cross-cutting teeth and have a round .. pistol" grip . This makes for unnecessary strain and wobble for those of us not hugely muscled nor intensely dedicated. Great comfort, peace of mind, and accuracy can be obtained by having two dove-tail saws, both with convention? al hand-saw handles, one ground for ripping, one for cross-cutting, the latter of which I make noticeable by chiseling an "X" on the handle. Any good professional saw sharpener can convert cross-cut to ..raker teeth" for ripping. If one has a good number of dovetails to cut, e.g. 36 inches of dovetails on each corner of assorted drawers for a chest, it makes for considerable convenience to have a template of brass or aluminum on hand . Time making accurate templates will be repaid ten-fold in time saved. Scribing for pins theu tails can be frustrating if the stock is thick, the pins narrow . The labor saved by using a j ig saw or tight band saw to cut tails to me is as reasonable as using a table saw to cut stock. Sawing pins is simpler by hand. If marks are scribed rather than penciled, it should not be necessary to raise a light chip to preserve the mark so the chisel is placed precisely. A sharp chisel of the correct width can always find and hold a scribed line . I prefer to scribe depth lines with the material used, because sides of drawers are thinner than fronts or backs, etc.

I do not denigrate the use of a file; a fine flat file has helped to thin many a slightly recalcitrant tail or pin. After all , it is known as the " cabinetmaker' s friend. " Fine dovetails in thin wood can sometimes use a fine triangular file. Life has been simpler since I routinely dado' d all the sides of a drawer before dove-tailing - the slot is a constant point of reference for the inside of the board .

Paul W. Carn ey, DeKalb, III.

I am wrmng in regard to your Spring ' 76 issue of Fine Woodworking. In the article "Textbook Mistakes," Tage Frid talked about how it was better to glue boards with the end grain in the same direction because it is easier to hold down one big warp than smaller warps. It seems to me than if what he says is true, it wouldn ' t make any difference whether you use one wide board or many small ones because they will both warp the same.

Myself, being in the custom furniture and repair business, I see that in antique furniture where larger pieces of wood are used, there are obvious warps in those pieces. Whereas there seems to be no warp when glued up in narrower widths, with the end grain alternated. The method Tage Frid recommends seems very risky, especially on table leaves without skirts. I also question what he says about dowel joints as com? pared to mortise and tenon, especially if you want your furniture to last longer than yourself. The mortise and tenon joint is good, but people like driving nails through them to

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Garrett Wade tools let you do better, easier, safer work. Bencbes, carving tools, steel and wood planes, mallets, Arkansas sbarpening stones, cbisels, mea? suring and marking tools, mitre boxes, saws, clamps, vises, bundreds of acces? sories, books-The Yankee Wood Crafts? man Catalog is packed witb exciting gift ideas, information for beginner and expert.

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Letters (continued) hold them tight, which only leaves the furniture repair man one choice of chiseling the wood away from the nail to pull it. Then when the joint is apart, the glue must be scraped or sanded off which in many cases leaves the joint sloppy and requires wedges to make it tight again. As with dowels people don't nail them nearly as often, and are easily replaced if broken or sanded too small. The dowel may not be as good in theory, but to me seems superior in repairing, and in giving the original tightness that old loose chairs once had. cause a split. The sketch showing an alternate grain panel was very much exaggerated and never happens to dry wood.

H. C. Conkling,Jr. , South Dartmouth, Mass.
Tage Frid replies : "Responding to Mr. Van Sinderen, in the type of furniture I do , I am usually gluing up planed boards of the same or nearly the same thickness. I temporarily clamp battens (such as 2 by 4' s) top and bottom across the boards to align them . I remove the battens once the boards are clamped. " "Responding to Mr. Conkling, the drawing of the grain di? rections was exaggerated for clarity. Whenever I screw a top to a base, I always provide for the top 's movemen t. One method

Jim Surgent,Missoula,Montana
. . . . With respect to Tage Frid' s article in the March issue . I certainly agree, dowels are not necessary for strength , but how do you keep all these boards lined up when joining an eight-foot table rop? We all would love to work with perfect lumber, but it is not often you come across an eight-foot board of walnut that doesn ' t have a crook or two! By the time you plane and joint this wood it' s better, but when you go to edge glue-let 's say your boards are six inches wide-it would be very difficult to clamp these boards accurately at the edges without some type of guide.

North America's largest dealer in antique tools for the collector and craftsman now offers three catalogs per year (March, June, October). Send

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Donald Van Sinderen,Pembroke, Maine
. . . . The article by Tage Frid was great, and I agree with everything he said except one . I can ' t imagine anyone who thinks so clearly would suggest gluing up table tops and not alternating the grain. He was correct in what would happen if you do not altetnate grain, but the hold down screw can also

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Their Oak; $36.
Our hardwoods are not cheap, just cheaper. And we offer a wider selection of hardwoods. Veneers thru lumber. We have the old family favorites like maple, cherry and mahogany plus the exotics like bubinga, padouk and cocoabola. Send for our free catalog. Illustrated with wood veneers, it lists all our hardwoods, all our pre?cut I urnber sizes and explains how we will cut your lumber order to your specifications Mail the coupon, or come down and see us. We can make a difference in how much you pay for hardwood.

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City

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Letters

(continued)

is to use ftxed holes for screws down the center line , and slots for screws on either side . " " In response to Mr. Surgent's points, i n much old furniture, the underside of tables and leaves were not ftnished as well as the top surfaces. I always ftnish top and bottom equally, which helps prevent warpage. The reason for gluing up many narrow boards is usually lack of availability of wide stock. The glued top will act as a unit , as you say, but as Mr. Alan L. Sweet of Kentucky has written me, 'I can clearly understand now why my newly built solid walnut coffee table has a slight wave in its top . ' "

effective. Where the dowel crosses the grain of the cap , the wedge makes a good mechanical joint.

Richard Starr, Hanover, N.H.
. . I was pleased to see the statements by Jack Heath on " Bench Stones" and wasn ' t surprised by the objection from Mr. Hathaway. Why do we never see the simple solution to stone wear? A piece of one-fourth inch plate glass about a foot square, and a tablespoon of 60 / 90 grit silicon carbide (used by us desert rock hounds for the rough tumbling of rocks and available at rock shops anywhere) is the answer to an uneven stone. Assuming oil is normally used on the stone, I use water for the lubricant on the plate glass. Spread the wet grit on the glass and put the bench stone face down on the grit. Move the stone in an irregular ftgure eight. Hold it evenly to avoid a rocking motion and only press lightly. Lift the stone off frequently and wipe it clean to assess the progress . Since you are grinding with a water mix, it is easy to

Tage Frid discusses breadboard ends for table tops, and he makes his point. But the idea of pinning the cap through the tongue has weaknesses. The pin engages the tongue for a short distance and there is only short grain between the pin hole and the end of the tongue. That pin should break out very easily. The best joint for a breadboard end is to continue a tenon on the end of the tongue, in the center of the board. This tenon should pass through the endboard and be anchored with two wedges. The advantages of this joint can be approximated by drilling a hole in the cap , into the end grain of the board. Glue a dowel in the hole and wedge the exposed end in the cap . Use only one dowel in the center of the cap . This is a simple joint, but it works. Note that the dowel in the board is parallel to the grain so gluing is

Amazing new shop attachment eats sawdust and wood chips!

Install the K-IR Dust Collector and say goodbye to dangerous floating dust and chips from crosscut, miter and ripping operations. Efficient, patented design collects up to 97% of wood chips and floating dust from

crosscutting, 82% from mitering, 78% from rip cutting. The K-IR fits most all popular brands of radial saws, bench-mounted wood lathes and shop vacuums. It's compact, rugged, easily installed and low-priced. So join the many thousands of satisfied owners... get your K-IR Dust Collector today! Available at your local department and catalog stores.

This new color catalog represents the finest collection of top quality imported and domestic woodworking tools and ac? cessories. Over lOOO hard-to-find tools are pictured. Each tool is completely described and where necessary its use explained. Our book section is noted for the special care taken to find books by leading woodcraft authorities. No wood? working shop is complete without a copy of this catalog.

200 0 TOOL CATALOG

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WOODCRAFT FW 76
Dept. 313 Montvale Ave. WOBURN, MASS. 01801

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6

Letters (continued)
POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL, the new wood stabilizer and chemical seasoning agent. Make crack-free table tops from log cross sections and flawless bowls and carvings from green scrap wood. Also illustrated catalog and brochure 50c. Crane Creek Company, Box 5553, Madi? son, Wisconsin 53705.

see where the low spots in the oily sur? face have not been reached. Stop when the level of the surface has been brought down to the lowest wear spot . Fine checking can be done with a steel straight-edge . When finished, wash the stone thoroughly with soap and water to remove all of the coarse grit, and then let it dry before oiling . The stone will temporarily exhibit a coarse surface pattern, but if all the loose grit has been removed, it will behave as a normal fine stone . One precaution: Don ' t use the same piece of glass long enough for it to become concave .

coloring the wood. I suggest that he try another oxidizing chemical, potassium permanganate. Potassium permanga? nate has an intense purple color. When it reacts, it leaves a brown to black residue. This latter coloring might give Mr. Bargeron the color he wants. If the color is too dark, a wiping with a diluted laundry bleach (chlorine type) will decrease the intensity of the color.

Robert Convery, Steubenvtlle, Ohio

lOO-PAGE CLOCK BOOK Everything for Clock Builders
114 Movements 150 Dials, plus
Brass Hardware, Hands, Hardwood Moldings and Trim

.61G PLANS ?iI
A treasury 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
Colonial Series Early American Gun Cabinets Spice Cabinets W all Shelves Grab Bag (20 plans) Cape Cod Series Modern Series Outdoor Projects

WOODWORKING

W. Earl Stewart, Earp, Caltf
. In Spring 1976 Charles Bargeron requests help for a problem with coloring mahogany . He states that he has been using potassium dichromate which reacts with the wood . I n all probability, the dichromate is oxidizing the wood pigments. When dichromate reacts, it leaves a green residue. The dichromate itself has a yellow to orange color. The colored ma? terials from the dichromate may be

30 Clock Plans

33 Clock Kits

of plans for every home workshop, school, library. 18 series of individually printed, easy-read drawings for novice craftsman, each with 10 or more complete pla ns .

or

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

Wall Accessories Wall Furniture Miniature Chests Wall & Shelf Clocks Contemporary Series Old Salem Series Garden Projects Shaker Furniture Country K.itchen .

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Don't order until you have seen the most in? depth clock builder's catalog. Grandfather, grandmother, wall, shelf, school, bracket novelty clocks galore' The hard to find and the unusual are included for both the novice and the experienced horologist.

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MODERN MARQUETRY

An ancient art brought up to date, Enjoy the thrill of making this beautiful x inlaid wood picture as a unique personalized gift or for your own pleasure. All materials and tools required are included in the kit. All you need is a table or lap board. Our multiple patterns make it simple enough for a beginner yet challenging enough for the expert. Send plus for shipping and handling. Kans, res. add tax. Hamilton Art Veneers Co" Dept F, BroadmQor, PO Box Shawnee Mission, Kans.

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7

BOOKS____
Creative Woodturning

by Dale 1. Nish.

Illustrated, 248 pages, Bngham Young University Press, Provo, Utah 84602, 1975 , $6. 95 , paperback.
Of the dozen or so books devoted to the lathe, Dale 1. Nish ' s Creative Woodtuming is easily the best. Turning is a devilishly difficult art to describe in words, and learning to turn from a book, as mosr of us must do, is frustrating if not impossible. Nish solves the problem with 587 step-by-step photographs, ranked three to a page. The pictures are closely cropped, sharp and clear and the detailed instructions are right along? side - no maddening flipping from photo to text and back again. He breaks the subject into its component parts and devotes a chapter to each : equipment, sharpening, stock selection , smoothing a cylinder, beads and coves, and so forth . The test for such a book has to be its sections on using the skew chisel , that most difficult but most useful tool . Nish un? ravels the confusion m excellent, detailed sequences . In general, he tells us, he prefers to use cutting tools because they produce the best work and the most satisfaction, while allowing that scraping is easier to learn. The between-centers chapters give both methods. But bowl turning is another matter. Although a long-and? strong deep gouge for faceplate work graces the book' s cover, the tool never appears in the text. In every other respect the book is comprehensive. But all the bowls are scraped. One who would learn to use the bowl gouge must still rely upon Peter Child's authorita? tive, difficult and expensive book, The

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Setting up a first class home work? shop can be easy and does not need to cost you a small fortune. Send for your FREE copy of "What to look for when you buy power tools." This booklet will help you with your plans. You'll also receive information on how you can have a woodworking sys? tem any master craftsman would be proud to own. Over 300,000 Shopsmith owners since 1947 are evidence of the popularity and versatility of the Shop? smith Mark V system.

Small classes three times a day, six days a week in general woodworking and furn i ture mak ing. courses completely Cont inuous year-round,

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Massachusetts

"/ do antique repair and custom de? sign Jurniture. My business oj twenty-eight years has provided me with a good living. / get my business Jrom word-oj-mouth advertising."
Barbara Simpson Rockport, Mass.

"My twenty-year-old son is now pro? ducing as a business ... bookcases, gun cabinets, etc. which he is sell? ing (as Jast as he can make them) under the label "Wood by Scott."
Richard S. Haseltine Orrington, Maine

Cra ftsman Woodtumer.
Nish goes light on detailed plans for making pepper mills and lamp bases a good thing. Instead he displays 1 1 1 photos, some in color, of finished work. Most of it is by Nish himself and by his technical adviser, the venerable E . N . Pearson. Robert Stocksdale and Robert G. Trout are also represented. All of this work is lovely ; none of it ventures beyond the usual spindle and bowl. In sum, the book is a rare bargain at $6 . 9 5 . Nish succeeds where the others fail : by following his directions and with diligent practice, one could actually learn to turn wood.

Send for your FREE booklet and complete details about the Shopsmith Mark V today. NO OBLIGATION OF ANY KIND.
Shopsmith, Inc., Dept 63-F 320N. Second St., P.O. Box 32 Tipp City, Ohio 45371

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with woodworkers Catalog
ENJOY woodworking more! Let this new Constantine Catalog-Manual help you build new furniture-refinish, restore beat?llp cabinets, chairs, chests, tables faster, easier than ever before! 96 Picture·Packed GIANT PAGES Find instantly whatever you need. Buy at money-saving prices - cabinet lumber, carving blocks, pipe briar, picture molding, cane, furn. hardware, clock kits, lamp parts, woodwork plans & books, etc. Needed prod? ucts found nowhere else! Dollar Fully Refunded on First Order Accept this offer to own fascinating set of 20 2x4 specimens of world's most glamorous veneers-Rosewood, Satinwood, Lacewood, Walnut, Mahogany, Purplehean, Zebra, etc! Compare! Then identify instantly finest woods wherever you go!

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NAME

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Enclosed $1 for Wood Samples & Woodworkers Catalog. 0 Catalog Only ($1 Refunded)

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8

Books

(continued)

The Art

and Practice of Marquetry by William Alexander Lincoln . Illustrated.

3 03 pp., Amen·can edition avazlable from Constantine's, 2050 Eastchester Road, Bronx, N. Y. 1 0461 . Hardcover edition, $7. 95 ; paperback, $4. 95 .
The October 1 9 7 5 exhibit of the Marquetry Society of America at the Metropolitan Museum of Art has certainly sparked a revival of interest in the ancient art of marquetry . Mr. Lincoln, who is president of the Marquetry. Society in England, has written the definitive contemporary manual on marquetry . Anyone who is seriously interested in pursuing the subject further should have this volume in his library. After a brief summary of the history of the craft , the author gets solidly into the nitty-gritty mechanics of cutting marquetry pictures. He discusses knife and saw cutting in substantial detail, giving experienced attention to the pro 's and con ' s of each technique. Sections on fragmentation and artificial shading , among others , will be of interest to both the beginner and the advanced marquetarian. Leaving pictorial marquetry at this point, Mr. Lincoln offers a detailed section on applied marquetry . An old technique of engraved veneer inlays is described, and is then followed by a discussion of how this same old technique is transferable to modern materials such as lacquers and plastics. Boulle work, metal inlays, wirework in? lays, Bombay mosaic and other lesser? known techniques are discussed and illustrated in sufficient detail to tempt the craftsman to try one or more on his next project. One of the most valuable sections of this book is its appendix. Here is in? cluded for the marquetarian a descrip? tion of over 1 00 types of wood veneers . Detailed are such factors as color, grain and figure, "cut " -ability , availability and average widths. A final section lists the special pictorial marquetry uses for each wood, i . e . , sky effects , field , bodies o f water, etc. All in all this book is highly recom? mended. It will be an eye-opener for the beginner, for it is beautifully illus? trated , and it will be a constant refer? ence manual for the experienced wood? worker.

No matter how many books you own on furniture? making, you don't have one like this!

for them. Many of our tools are made s pecia l l y to our exac t i n g cations. Whether your need specifi c alls for carving, cabinet making, carpentry or log cabin tools, we have them. money. latest catalog and let us save you Please send 50 cents for our

You b et we do ! We search the world

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FROG TOOL CD. Ltd. Dept. X 548 North Wells
Enclosed is 50?. Please send your complete catalog and place me on your mailing list name

Chicago III.

60610

add ress C i ty

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CREATING M O DERN FURN ITURE shows you how to make items of furni? ture that are so modern, unusual, and imaginative that they will become collectors' items and fascinat? ing conversation pieces for years and years to come. 600 photo? graphs in color and black-and-white plus easy-to-follow, step-by-step in? structions guide you to the creation of all kinds of mod? ern furniture made from wood, found materials, fiber, rubber tubes, fiber? glass, molded plastic, bent chrome-even papier-mache. All techniques are cov? ered: joining, gluing, laminating, bend? ing, welding, veneering, finishing, etc. And besides being highly practical, CREATING MODERN FURNITURE is a handsome showplace for the most exciting furniture of today's top craftsmen.

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9

THE WOODCRAFT SCENE

__

Craftsm.an's Gallery
Shop/gallery combination works
by John Kelsey

You turn onto Philadelphia's South Street, a thriving boutique row near Society Hill , and there' s a movie theater with a line stretching right by the window of Richard Kagan' s Studio and Gallery (and home) - believed t o b e the only gallery in the country exclusively devoted to fine woodwork? ing . A busy street of interesting shops in a big city: hundreds of weekend movie patrons, shoppers and strollers. A good percentage of them, drawn perhaps by Wendell Castle ' s music stand, B o b Stocksdale ' s bowls o r Igor Givotovsky' s amazing carved spider - all on display in Kagan 's window stop in to look around and touch the furniture . Some of them, perhaps hoping for Sears prices , snort and stroll on. Others stay to ask questions and talk. Some come back again and again and end up buying a piece of fine furniture. Kagan sells 90 to 95 percent of the pieces he shows. Even so , the gallery isn' t ever likely to pay its own way. Kagan subsidizes it from his workshop . But it does what it was meant to do: " It represents my work and it represents the work of craftsmen I respect. This gives me the freedom to make what I want. Otherwise you ' re uncertain of selling, and in the meantime you have to teach or make kitchen cabinets, which is not what I want. The gallery gives me visibility I wouldn' t have if I lived tucked away in the country somewhere . " Kagan fell into woodworking 1 0 years ago while studying in New York ' ' when a friend made a piece of furniture for my teacher. It was the most beautiful thing 1'd ever seen because of its honesty and simplicity. I started to think about working with my hands as my life work instead of as a hobby. " He did what everybody in that situation does, look for a cabinetmaker to work for. " And I found, as everybody does, that there isn' t anybody. So I rolled up the living roQm rug in my apartment to make room for a table saw. " During the next few years Kagan did find several craftsmen to work for and learn from , sometimes pestering the man he wanted until hiring Kagan was easier then fending him off. In college Kagan studied psychology, poetry and Oriental .religion , and practiced Zen for three years. These influences produced a craftsman who strives for simplicity, harmony, restraint and a kind of elegance. Kagan says he thinks about wood in the manner of a Japanese craftsman , as " not j ust something you use. It has a force of its own , wood is alive. The tree and I try to work together, I don ' t violate the wood. I accentuate the quality of the wood . " Kagan has been in business three years and he figures he has been paying for the privilege of working. " This year is the first I ' ll be making a living above welfare standards. " He believes a woodworker starting out has to accept such a

situation . " Anybody who does it for less than 1 0 years is on a road making a pilgrimage . . . You can ' t think about the economics of it, but life has a way of pressing realities. So you subsidize your work, you teach at night and do carpentry , your wife holds a job. While you build up a reputation and a way of making things, the j oy of working in wood has to be the payment. " He started with an investment of $8000 . By borrowing and plowing his earnings back into the enterprise, he figures he has accumulated $ 1 0 ,000 worth of machinery and the same amount in his lumber stash. He has recently hired his second shop assistant and currently produces about 30 pieces of furniture a year. He has orders a year to 1 8 months ahead. Kagan rarely goes out to sell his own work - the gallery brings customers to him . Rather than working through architects and interior designers , he prefers to deal directly with the buyer, "who is likely to have been in the shop a half-dozen times before he starts talking seriously. " He doesn ' t like to deal with people "who want a cabinet to fill a given space in the dining room, and want it soon. I like to deal with somebody who ' ll love having it as much as I love building it. " This sort of attitude isn' t likely to make millions, but that isn ' t the idea of the shop anyway. He runs the gallery the same way. Kagan doesn' t want to try to represent " modern woodworking in America " or to be far-reaching. He deals with about a dozen craftsmen and wants to show only " work that I ' m responsive to. Everybody in the gallery is someone I know. I have to know how they work, see their shops, really be able to work with them . " H e tries to mount three gallery shows a year, each to run about two months. In between shows, unsold pieces fill in the gap. "The pieces are here because I believe in them , " he says. " ' If they don ' t sell in a month I ' ll keep them six months ; 1 ' ve had some for a year. " Usually when a piece is sold, Kagan takes a 2 5 percent cut and the craftsman gets the rest . He has to absorb shipping costs, insurance bills, gallery maintenance and electricity, publicity and the headache of being there all the time , especially on the weekends, when the door buzzer zaps constantly and the sound drives him crazy. Frequently a person wants him to make something he doesn ' t think is in his line. So he puts the potential buyer in touch with a craftsman who can do the work. He takes a cut ranging from 10 percent down to nothing, if a deal is made. He muses for a moment. " It gets very personal ; the gallery is my living room. The nicest thing about it is , it gives me all this fine furniture to play with . "

10

___ S R HO AUT
("Wood" ) is Asso? ciate Professor of Wood Science and Technology at the University of Mas? sachusetts . . . Tage Frid (" Mortise and Tenon") is Professor of Industrial Design at the Rhode Island School of Design . . . Francis J. Newton ("The Christian Tradition " ) retired recently after serving for 1 5 years as director of the Portland Art Museum . . . Daniel Jackson (" Hand Shaping") teaches wood and furniture design at the Phil? adelphia College of Art . . . Jere Os? good (" Yankee Diversity") teaches wood and furniture design at Boston University . . . Robert Sutter (' ' Plane Speaking" ) is a professional cabinet? maker who' s never without his planes . . . Thomas A. Simons IV ( " Desert Cabinetry " ) is a Santa Fe lawyer and former ptofessional cabinetmaker . . . Alastair A . Stair ( ' ' Hidden Drawers" ) is a New York antique dealer who 's had quite a few guineas pop out of secret drawers in his time . . . Alan Stirt (' ' Green Bowls' ' ) is a professional wood turner in northern Vermont . . . Frank? lin H . Gottshall (' ' Queen Anne" ) is a cabinetmaker and teacher, with many books to his credit . . . Paul Buckley ( ' Gate-Leg Table" ) is a New Hamp? shire cabinetmaker and designer. . . M . G . Rekoff, Jr. (" Stroke Sander") IS an Alabama systems engIneer.
R. Bruce Hoadley

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'

1 2- 1 5 , Bruce Hoadley ; 30- 33, Steve McDowell ; 34-36, Stanley Tkaczuk ; 40-4 2 , Franklin H. Gottshall / Stanley Tkaczuk ; 43, Chip Hendrickson ; 44-45 , John Kelsey ; 46- 5 1 , David Downs.

Art and Picture Credits :

WOOD AND TOOL EXCHANGE
Wanted to Buy
Used jointer 6 inches or less ; also used hand tools. S.G. Weiss, Locust Road, Harwinton, CT 06790. A Forstner wood bit, 11116-inch size in good conclition. Justin F. Weber, 183 Parkway North , Brewer, ME 04412. Old tool catalogs, Stanley, etc. Will buy or trade for old tools. Warren Wilson, 28416 Thackeray Ave., Hayward, CA 94544. Violinmaker's plane(s) and clamps, new or used. Max Krauss, 670 W. Bel Air Avenue, Aberdeen , MD 21001. 24-inch Delta Scroll saw. O.e. Carlson, 8407 E. Valley Vista Dr. , Scottsdale, AZ 8 5 2 5 3 . l O-inch Rockwell Unisaw o r equivalent. 12-inch 16-inch thickness plane, Rockwell or or equivalent. Mortising machine. State price and conclition. Bill Bigelow, 1 Park Lane, Madison, NJ 07940. f Fine Furniture, Herman Books : Forty Pieces o Hjorth , or other book s by same author. Bill Bigelow, 1 Park Lane, Madison , NJ 07940. 1- 1 18 and 1-1I4-inch corner chisels, 112 and 13/4 and 2-inch square rabbet planes, Stanley 104 and 105 and 135 liberty bell side rabbet planes, right side. e.G. Rainey, Route 1 , Box 1 8 3 , Weyers Cave, VA 24486. Antique woodworking tools, cabinetmakers chests and work benches. Highest prices paid. Send description and price to Bill Durow, 405 Razorback Dr. , Mtn. Home, AR 726 5 3 . Stanley 5 5 plane, also wood hollow and round planes or moulcling planes - working conclition. W. Zeman 2430 . Hainsworth , North Riverside, IL 60546. Wanted - carpenter , cabinetmakers, woodworking handtools. Stanley and Sargent planes, new, old, very old. Price, describe. I.E. Bixler, 6943 Cozad? dale Road, Goshen, OH 4 5 1 22. Pre-cut marquetry kits including description and cost. Allen N. Keith , 1628 Bolton St. , Baltimore, MD 2 1 2 1 7 .

Renwick Tour Dates
The Renwick " Craft Multiples" Exhibition (FW, Winter 1 97 5) is now on tour. After a spring show in Cleve? land, the exhibit will be at the Paul Sargent Gallery, Eastern Illinois U. in Charleston, July 10 to Aug. 8 ; the Chippewa Valley Museum in Eau Claire, Wis . , Sept. 4 to Oct. 3 ; the University Art Gallery, U. of N . Dakota in Grand Forks, Oct. 30 to Nov. 2 8 ; the Octagon Art Center in Ames, Iowa, Dec. 2 5 , 1 976 to Jan . 2 3 , 1 97 7 ; N . W . Missouri State U . i n Maryville, Feb. 1 9 to Mar. 20 ; and Barton County Com? munity College in Great Bend , Kan . , April 1 6 to May 1 5 . There is n o word yet on the remaining schedule.

Will Swap
Pieces of figured walnut, chestnut, osage orange, others for figured hardwood pieces. Halfred Wertz, 28 DeWalt Drive, Mechanicsburg, PA 170 5 5 .

11

Wood
A look at this fundamental material
by R. Bruce Hoadley

Wood comes from trees. Not forgetting this obvious state? ment will help us work with wood as it really is, not as we wish it were. For wood has evolved as a functional tissue of plants, not as a material to satisfy the needs of woodworkers. For example, we all know that most of the wood we use comes from the trunk, bole, or stem, as it is sometimes called, not from the unseen root system below or the crown of limbs, branches and twigs that support the foliage. Some of the most prized wood does come from crotches and irregularities, such as burls or knees, but for the most part we prefer the regular grain found in straight trunks. But sometimes we come across a board that is different from other boards. It warps severely, or pinches our saw blade as we rip it, or doesn' t take a finish quite like the other boards. What we' re working with is a piece of reaction wood - wood taken from a trunk that is leaning or from a branch that doesn' t grow straight up (by definition most branches are made of reaction wood) . This is an extreme case, but it does illustrate why it's im? portant to remember where wood comes from and also to know something about its anatomical structure . As wood? workers, we usually know far more about our tools than we do about our materials. But as the architect Frank Lloyd Wright once said, "We may use wood with intelligence only if we understand it . " Understanding the difference between sapwood and heartwood, between earlywood and latewood, between " hardwoods" and " softwoods, " between ray cells and longitudinal cells, between ring-porous woods and diffuse-porous woods, between vessels and fibers, and so on, may give us a better understanding of why wood behaves as it does, especially when we're trying to shape it, finish it, or preserve it. Perhaps the best place to start is at the molecular level. Wood is a cellulose material, as is cotton. And because it's
Cherr y (diffuse porous)

cellulosic, it is hygroscopic - it absorbs water readily and swells and shrinks accordingly (therein much of the problem of the " movement of wood " ) . The cellulose material that wood i s composed of i s pretty much the same for all species. It's not until we start looking at wood at the cellular level that different woods start to look " different. " (And even here this is not necessarily the case. The sapwood of many species can look very much alike. Then it' s not until the sapwood turns into dead heartwood that differences among some species really become apparent) . In any event, the cellulosic material is arranged into tubular cells that run longitudinally along the length of the trunk or branch. There are three varieties of such cells vessels, tracheids, and fibers . Vessels have a large diameter, thin walls, and are very short (but they stack together like drainage tiles) . At the other extreme are fibers - narrow diameter, thick walls, and long. In between are tracheids moderate diameter, moderate thickness, and also very long. Because they're so large in diameter, vessels are good for conducting sap up the tree, but their thin walls don ' t con? tribute much to mechanical support. On the other hand, the thick walls of fibers make them good for suppOrt, but their narrow diameter doesn ' t do much for sap conduction . In between are the all-purpose tracheids, which can provide both sap conduction and physical support moderately well. In fact, one distinction between the so-called hardwoods and softwoods is this difference in cell structure . Softwoods, or conifers , are composed mainly of all-purpose tracheids. They are believed to have evolved earlier than hardwoods. Hence their more primitive structure, with no cell specialization. On the other hand hardwoods, or deciduous trees , do have celt specialization - vessels for sap conduction, fibers for support , and tracheids for both . The tracheids of conifers are about 1 00 times as long as they are wide. Thus their excellent paper-making qualities . Among
Red oak (ring porous)

Black walnut (semi-ring porous)

Variations in porosity between earlywood and latewood can create problems in staining. Comfers such as Doug las f ft) have ir (le earl ywood that is lighter but more porous than the latewood. There fore, stain reverses the grain effect, as in a photographic negative. With hardwoods like red oak (n'ght), the earlywood pores are already darker. Lines in the il'ght latewood are ray s.

conifer species, however, there can be a three-fold range of diameters, from fine red cedar to coarse redwood. This texture range due to tracheid diameter also affects the smoothness of surface or evenness of staining that can be achieved in woodworking. If wood were composed strictly of these longitudinal cells, whether vessels, tracheids, or fibers , it would be much less complex than it really is, and really much different , for consider how and where a tree grows. Growth occurs in the thin layer of reproductive tissues, called the cambium, that separates the wood from the bark . This tubular reproductive sheath , several cells thick , migrates ever outward, leaving behind layers of newly formed wood (which remain fixed in place forever) , and also forms new bark in front of it (which will eventually be crowded out by the newer bark cells, and by the ever-expanding girth) . The cambial cells vary in content with the growing seasons . During growth the content is quite fluid ; during dormancy there is a thickening. As a result, wood cut in summer usually loses its bark upon drying, while winter-cut wood does not , an important fact for those wishing to incorporate bark into their woodworking projects. In addition to vertical movement through the sapwood , there must be provision for horizontal sap movement . That 's where the ray cells come in . They are oriented radially out? ward from the center or pith and are stacked vertically in
Eastern white pine (even gram)

groups called rays to form flattened bands of tissue. The rays not only carry the nutrients horizontally through the sapwood , but also store carbohydrates during the winter. The rays are not great in number - typically they represent less than 1 0 percent of the wood volume - but they are significant for more than food conduction and storage. Their size - ranging from microscopically small in all softwoods to visibly big in many hardwoods - helps in wood identifica? tion. (For example, in red oak rays are less than one inch high ; in white oak, they're one to four inches.) And struc? turally they influence the shrinkage of wood and the formation of checks. Wood cells shrink and expand mainly across their girth, not their length , as they give off or take on moisture. That 's why wood moves across the grain , not with the grain. But because ray cells are aligned across the grain (radially) they inhibit the longitudinal cells from expanding as much in a radial direction (towards or away from the center) as in a tangential direction (around the circumference) . In effect , the radial cells act as restraining rods imbedded in the wood. That 's why wood contracts or expands only half as much radially as tangentially. The rays also form planes of weakness in hardwoods. End and surface checks, as well as internal honeycombing, will regularly develop through the rays in woods like oak. So far we ' ve discussed mainly the shape of wood cells, not

Southern yellow pine (uneven gram)

Earlywoodl latewood vanations are clearly visible in scanning electron microscope photographs. All the samples are on'ented the same way , with the growth n'ngs parallel t o the n'ght-hand face. Large "holes " in the pines are resin canals that help in sealing over in jun'es in the living trees. Pictures are from Structure and Identi? fication of Wood , by Core, Cote, and Day, a book to be published by the Syracuse University Press.
13

Red oak ha/f cross- section (be fore shn'nkage) shows pith dot at center, dark heartwood, light sapwood, and cambiu m sheath where bark and sapwood meet. Rays are clearly visible in the heartwood radiating outward. At nght is the section from a leaning hemlock tree. Reaction wood appears as abnormally wide latewood on lower side o f n·ngs.
whether they' re alive or dead. Live cells, called parenchyma, contain living protoplasm and are capable of assimilating and storing carbohydrates. In softwoods or conifers, the parenchyma are generally limited to the ray cells, but in hardwoods, longitudinal vessels and tracheids, as well as ray cells, can be parenchyma. It differs from species to species. But in general, most longitudinal cells lose their proto? plasm soon after development by the cambium and become non-living prosenchyma useful for sap conduction or mechanical support, but not for food storage . (When such a

Specific Gravity
Gymnosperms Angiosperms
Lignum vitae

Ebony Rosewood Purpleheart

Water : 1.0

Domestic ' ' Hardwoods' Domestic ' ' Softwoods "
Southern yellow pine Douglas fir Eastern red cedar Hemlock , Redwood

,

White ash Black walnut B?d ?ffry

I I Hard maple, Birch , Beech, Oak I
Hickory
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Chestnut, Yellow poplar Butternut, Aspen Basswood

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White pine White cedar

-.J

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0.1

Balsa

Di fferences in the speci fic g ravity (the density relative to water) shows that the range o f densities o f domestic "hard? woods " and "so ftwoods " overlaps.
14

change takes place, the cell wall structure remains unchanged. Only the protoplasm in the center cavity of the cell disappears. ) Thus the wood nearest the cambium, where sap conduction and food storage can take place, is called sapwood . As the tree grows and the oldest sapwood is no longer needed for water conduction, a gradual transition to heartwood occurs. This transition is accompanied by the death of parenchyma and loss of both food storage and conductive functions, with the heartwood serving the tree only as a supporting column. Heartwood formation is accompanied by the deposition in the cell walls of chemical additives called extractives which can change the color of the wood. Whereas most sapwood is a cream to light yellow or light tan color, extractives are respon? sible for any rich browns, reddish or other contrasting dark colors the heartwoo.d may have, as is characteristic of species like walnut, cherry, or red cedar. In some woods, such as spruce or basswood, the extractives may be insignificant or colorless so that there is little color difference between heartwood and sapwood . Heartwood extractives can make changes other than color. Some extractives may be toxic to decay fungi and thus impart decay resistance to heartwood , as in redwood. Sapwood not only lacks decay resistance, but is attractive to stain fungi and certain powder post beetles because of 'the stored carbo? hydrates in the parenchyma cells. In some species the original sapwood moisture content is remarkably higher, but the permeability of sapwood is usually greater, so that it loses moisture faster, but also absorbs preservatives or stains better. On the other hand, because of the bulking effect of extractives - they occupy molecular space within the cell wall - the shrinkage of heartwood may be less than that of sapwood . For the woodworker, the heartwood-sapwood distinction is important. But what about the more general " hardwood? softwood" distinction? The names themselves are misleading because balsa wood is really a " hardwood" and hard southern pine is really a "softwood. " While softwoods are generally evergreens, and hardwoods are generally deciduous, this is not always the case. The precise distinction is that the seeds of softwoods (gymnosperms - all conifers plus the familiar ginkgo tree) are naked (as in a pine seed) , while for

fquarter- sawed ash to separate it into strips (left) . Severely fter pounding) o f weak earlywood (a Basketmakers take advantage o fter earlywood fflat- sawed hemlock (center) resultsfrom harder latewood being compressed into so raised grain on pith side o azlure along large ray. during planing, then springing back later. Honeycomb checks in red oak (nght) can cause f

hardwoods (angiosperms) , they are encapsulated (as in a walnut or acorn) . The hardness and softness of wood does come into play when we consider earlywood and latewood. Earlywood is that grown early in the season, when the moisture needed for rapid growth is present. In conifers, this means those longitudinal tracheid cells have thinner walls and larger cavities to favor conduction of sap . As latewood develops later in the growing season, the tracheids develop thicker walls (and in effect , denser wood) . In other words, there is less airspace in latewood . To a woodworker, what is also important is how this transition between latewood and earlywood occurs. Soft pines (e . g . eastern white, western white, and sugar) are characterized by fairly even grain , with gradual transition from earlywood to latewood. The result is fairly low average density with pleasing uniformity of wearing and working properties. By contrast , species such as the hard pines (e .g. southern yellow pine, pitch pine, red pine) Douglas fir, larch and hemlock are notably uneven-grained. In southern yellow pine there is a three-to-one ratio in the densities of the latewood versus earlywood . Thus the difficulty of machining it and the woodcarver' s preference for the soft pines. The latewood-earlywood differentiation can also present problems in staining - especially in conifers. In natural wood the latewood appears dark, the earlywood light. But earlywood is more porous, so that it absorbs stain more readily and thus stains darker than die latewood. The effect is to reverse the grain pattern, giving us the grain that would appear in a photographic negative . We' ve probably all seen this happen in the conifers such as pine or Douglas fir. However, in certain hardwoods, the large vessel size found in early wood makes it appear darker. Therefore, stain merely accentuates this darkness, rather than reversing it. Hardwoods have a wider variety of longitudinal cells so there is less consistency in the differentiation between early wood and latewood. Rather than a change in the size of the tracheids, there is a change in the distribution of the larger vessels and smaller fibers. In some woods, the large vessels appear only during early growth , the fibers mainly during late growth (along with smaller vessels) . This results in sharply defined rings of growth and the classification " ring-porous

hardwoods" (such as oak, elm, ash, chestnut, catalpa) . As in southern yellow pine , there is a sharp difference in the densities of the earlywood and latewood. By contrast , there are also the " diffuse-porous hardwoods" (where the pores or vessels are evenly distributed throughout the growth ring) . The relative pore size, or " texture , " may vary from the finest (or invisible) pores in gum , maple or aspen, to medium (or barely visible) in birch , and to coarse (or conspicuous) in mahogany . Although the vessels remain open in many species (e .g. red oak) , in o.ther species (e . g . white oak, locust) the vessels o f the heartwood become blocked by bubble-like obstructions called tyloses that occur as sapwood changes to heartwood. These tyloses have a profound effect on the liquid permeability of the wood. That' s why white oak is good for casks , but red oak is not. The last distinction of interest to woodworkers is that of " reaction wood" found in leaning trees and in branches. The usual symptoms are eccentricity of ring shape and abnormally high longitudinal shrinkage, causing severe warpage in drying, as well as unexpected hidden stresses. In softwoods , the reaction wood is found on the underside and is called compression wood. It's also brittle. In hardwoods , it's found on the upper side, and is called tension wood, which machines with a microscopic wooliness resulting in a blotchiness when stained. Perhaps all this shows that wood is no simple subject to talk about. Take the word "grain" for example. Normally , we mean the alignment of the longitudinal cells, because wood splits "along the grain. " In the same context we have such terms as spiral grain , cross grain , wavy grain and interlocked grain. But grain can also refer to the uniformity of the growth ring structure. Douglas fir is an " uneven-grained" wood while basswood is " even-grained. " Sometimes grain refers to the ray cell structure , as in the "silver grain" of white oak cut radially - slicing along the rays, in effect . And sometimes we refer to the "open grain" of oak and the "closed grain" of cherry when we' re really talking about the texture caused by the presence or absence of large vessels. Finally, there is the " grain" of rosewood - not really grain , but figure, caused by the extractives in the heartwood . So the word " grain" is not so clearcut and simple as 1t seems. Neither is the study of wood. 15

Mortise and Tenon
Choosing and making this basic joint
by Tage Frid

Furniture construction is broken down into two categories - frame and casegood . Casegood construction uses joints such as dovetails, finger joints, spline miters, rabbets and the like. Frame construction depends on the mortise and tenon joint and is usually used in tables, chairs, paneled doors, windows, etc . There are a great many variations of the mortise and tenon joint, and the task of the cabinetmaker is to know which variation to choose for a particular application , and why , and then how to make it quickly and well. The mortise and tenon is probably the oldest and certainly the most essential joint in woodworking. An Egyptian sar? cophagus now in the British Museum was framed with mortise and tenon joints at least five thousand years ago. During the Middle Ages, the development of the mortise and tenon permitted the framing of chests. The elaborate variations of paneling led finally to a distinction between the two crafts of carpentry and cabinetmaking. In house construc? tion the use of the mortise and tenon has quite disappeared. We no longer have the skill or the patience, nor can we afford the mortise and tenon for the framing of a house. Perhaps we do not expect our houses to endure for much more than a few generations. But we do still find esthetic and practical satisfaction in a well-constructed piece of furniture. The strength of the mortise and tenon joint depends entirely on the interplay between the cheek and shoulder of

creased greatly because of the stop-action o f the shoulders. Now double the surface area of the glue by making a slip joint

- a form of mortise and tenon - and we have an extremely strong joint that is easy to make and requires minimum tools. The disadvantage of the slip joint is that not only do we have to clamp the tenon shoulder tightly against the mortise, (as in all mortise and tenon assembly) , but we must use a second clamp to make sure the cheeks are glued to the mortise sides. Moreover, the tenon is completely exposed. We get around these drawbacks by changing the slip to a

?

Shoulder

the tenon , which is the projecting part of the joint. One can imagine two crossed boards glued together. Despite the holding power of the glue, they can be twisted apart relatively easily . But connect them as a lap joint, and the strength 1S In-

~

haunched mortise, or to a mitered haunched mortise where the tenon is completely hidden . When designing a mortise and tenon joint, one should aim for the maximum glue surface. A tenon of about one-third the thickness of the stock is usually the best choice. If the tenon is thicker, the mortise sides become too thin ; if the tenon is thinner, it becomes too weak. (But sometimes in table construction , where the leg is much thicker than the aprons, the aprons may have tenons half or more the apron thickness .) Four shoulders should never be used unless absolutely necessary . The joint becomes more difficult to fit because all

16

four shoulders must be precisely located in the same plane. Also, glue surface is lost. On the other hand, if the design calls for carving and material will be removed around the joint, four shoulders ensure that the joint will not be revealed. If the design calls for round corners it is advisable to glue a block on , or to have the mortise stock wider. These provisions

Wedges are used t o strengthen the joint. When the tenon is cut to receive the wedge be sure to drill a small hole at the

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prevent problems with the end grain which will break and crumble, especially if carved. There are two different ways to make a round corner in a frame . The left one is used if the inside corner is going to be

base of the saw cut to prevent cracking. When hammering in wedges in a through tenon, be sure to hammer evenly on each wedge so as not to force one half or the other too far which could result in splitting. If the tenon is to be hidden, use this method. If a mortise and tenon is to be disassembled, a loose wedge is used. The wedge could be substituted with a wedged dowel

carved or shaped for a molding, and the right one is fine if the edge will be left straight, because then you don ' t have to worry about carving into the joint. When a tenon is very wide, haunches should be put in at either end . A wide tenon is more difficult to glue as it

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for the same effect. If the piece which receives the wedge is too thin, the two shoulders could be placed on the top and bottom instead of the sides. In a chair, the back is usually one to two inches narrower than the front. This is done more for appearance than for any other reason. This requires the sides to angle into the back .
Back

Front

requires extra clamps for gluing the cheeks. But the haunches are necessary to keep the wood from twisting. When a tenon is very narrow, the temptation is to run the tenon across the grain . But this should never be done because

Usually the angle is made in the tenon , because it is easier than angling the mortise. Of course there is a limit to how much the tenon can be angled, but as long as some long grain reaches the full length of the tenon, it is safe . A variation o f the slip joint i s used where a third o r fourth leg is necessary, as in a sofa . This is also used where a table

Wrong

then the cheeks glue into end grain which is not a glue surface. The way to fasten narrow tenons is to use double (or triple) tenons, running the mortises in the direction of the long grain to provide good glue surface .

apron is joined to the legs if the table apron round or oval as in a Hepplewhite table.

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bricklayed

17

There are several ways to make a mitered mortise and tenon . Often a spline is used, as it is easier to cut. Sometimes

a spline is used purely for visual effect. The spline can also be hidden. If a tenon should break, a spline can be inserted . The same method is often substituted for a mortise and tenon .

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Although it is not as strong, the spline is in most cases sufficient , and is again much easier to make. There are many other variations of the mortise and tenon joint but virtually all depend on the cheek and shoulder action for their strength. Similarly, the technique used in making these joints is basically the same. In making mortise and tenon joints, I find it easier and quicker to use hand tools, unless there are so many joints that power tools turn out to be quicker. But this is rarely the case because power tools - whether I ' m using a saw, or a router or a drill press with a mortising bit - do take time to set: up for the particular job . But even if you plan to use power tools, it's best to learn to do them by hand, so that you understand what you ' re trying to do with the power tools. The first step in making the basic two-shoulder joint is to mark both pieces to keep the orientation right. Then I outline

two outside holes first , then the holes i n between . Stop work on the mortise at this point and transfer its dimensions to the tenon board. First measure the depth of the mortise with a rule and make the tenon 1 I 8-inch shorter

the tenon piece on the mortise piece, but I use a square to put lines just inside (less than 1 / 1 6-inch) those marks, because the mortise should be made slightly smaller to allow for sub? sequent sanding of the tenon. I pick a drill or bit about 1 / 3 the thickness of the tenon board . If this size is between bit sizes, I use the next larger one . Although it isn ' t absolutely necessary , I recommend using a doweling jig to guide your bit while boring the mortise . You ' ll end up with straight and even sides. Make the 18

to allow for excess glue . I use a square and a scribe to draw this depth line around all four sides of the tenon board. This marks where the shoulders will go . Don ' t use a pencil be-

cause its line is too wide and the shoulder must be cut with great accuracy. Then take a marking gauge and adjust it so its point j ust touches the nearer side of the holes bored for the mortise. Transfer this measurement to the ends and two sides of the

The trick to cutting accurate cheeks is to cut the back line and part of the top first ; then turn the board around and cut the rest of the top and the front lines. That way you don ' t have to worry about following two lines a t once. When cutting the front line , the saw blade will be automatically

tenon. Then do the same for the other side of the mortlse (but continue using the same reference surfaces) . You are now ready to cut the cheeks of the tenon. I use a frame saw for this (as I use for almost all hand sawing because it's the fastest and best saw there is) but if you don ' t have one , use a dovetail or back saw. The thinner the blade, the easier it will be to make accurate cuts.

guided at the back by the kerf you made before . You ' ll also get a little more accuracy in this guiding process if you use a slightly thinner blade for cutting the back lines than you do for cutting the front . In any event, when sawing the cheeks, " split" the line on the waste side. The tenon cheeks must fit j ust right. If they're too tight they may split the mortise piece ; if too loose , the glue joint may come apart under strain . Furthermore , the surface over a mortise that holds a loose tenon will in time become concave as the wood dries. 19

After the cheeks are sawed , it 's time to saw the shoulders. One trick I've found helpful to improve the accuracy (since the shoulders must be perfectly aligned) is to make in effect a small or mini-shoulder for the saw to lean against. Take one corner of a flat chisel and deepen the shoulder line by

off the tenon corners slightly for easy insertion . Then sand the edge of the tenon so it will fit into the slightly shorter mortise.

drawing the chisel along it. Then take a second cut at an angle to create half a " vee" . You can then use this notch as a guide for your dovetail or frame saw. Finish sawing the shoulders and use a flat chisel to clean up the cheeks, and then round

Now finish making your mortise. Take a small chisel and mallet to square off the corners, and a wide chisel (but no mallet) to flatten out the sides. Sand the outside edge of the

/
mortise piece as you did the tenon sides and you ' re ready to try the fit . You should be able to push it in by hand with the weight of your body. If you need to hammer it in , it' s too tight and you should shave some material off the tenon 20

assembled, make a clean sa"'; cut along the shoulder line , making sure not to cut into the mortised piece at all. Do the same for the other shoulder. Don ' t saw quite completely to the tenon . Instead, finish the cuts with a chisel after the joint is disassembled . If you ' re making a frame and notice one of

the shoulders is off after you ' ve dry clamped it, make the shoulder correction cuts to all the shoulders on the same side of the frame , so that after correction , the frame stays square (but one blade width shorter) . Of course, if a shoulder is re?lly off, you may need to go through the correction process twIce. cheeks because that' s the easier piece to correct. If the tenon is too loose, you can glue strips of veneer to the cheeks. If after fitting , the shoulders are slightly off as illustrated here, there' s a trick you can use to align them. With the j oint

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On complicated pieces where the joints may come in at odd angles, I sometimes don ' t worry about precise fitting of the shoulders during the initial cutting process , but rely instead on the correction cuts to get the fit I want. When gluing a mortise and tenon joint, it is very important to put a moderate amount of glue in the mouth of the mortise , and j ust a little on the beginning of the tenon cheeks and on the shoulders (as insurance) . There should not be so much glue that the glue runs out over the work and the bench and all over the craftsman . Any? way, a tight j oint does not allow room for too much glue . When gluing up a table or chair it is much better to glue up two opposite sections first and later glue them together. If everything is glued up at once, too many clamps are used, and it is more difficult to square the whole piece up at once. Regardless of the variation of mortise and tenon joint you are making, or whether you are using power tools, the con? struction process is the same. Make the mortise first and transfer it' s dimensions to the tenon piece. But don ' t try to make the mortise and tenon independently.

21

R Y __?__________________ GA LLE

The Christian Tradition
Portland Museum mounts exquisite show
by Francis J Newton

The Portland Museum recently held an exhibition of Christian wood sculpture from the 1 2th to the 1 9th century. The show included 5 1 works, featuring a wide variety of carving styles and religious themes. The project was supported by grants from the National Endowment for the Arts and from the American Revolution Bicentennial Commission of Oregon. The works in this exhibition were limited to those fashioned from wood in order to accentuate the statement that the medium , in this case wood, often carries much of the message in a work of art. Wood, by virtue of its numerous properties and associations,

was held in particular esteem by the Christians. The wood of the Cross was Christ's greatest tangible legacy to the Church. The wood of the Cross was reputed to have accomplished miracles and , through association , to have en? dowed many other woods with great symbolic and religious meaning. Other cultures before our own have shown a reverence for wood which we have not grasped or have lost. We no longer look at wood with eyes that com? prehend the preciousness of the natural forms and designs visible in wood in its unworked state. The majority of people in the United States today do not perceive the magical or representation-

al qualities each type of wood holds. On the other hand, a 1 2th-century people from the Black Forest in Germany knew that the wood of the holly tree could best be used for wood? en nails and hammer and axe handles. In addition, they recognized that the yew and the beech grew slowly and had delicate growth periods. Cypress has been associated with death because it has such dark foliage and , once cut , it will never grow again from its roots. As a result of this connection , the cypress is often planted near cemeteries, espe? cially in England and France. The artist-craftsman - carpenter if you will - working with sundry types of woods which carried varymg symbolic associations surely would have responded to the wood ' s physical and aesthetic properties : its strength, its weight, the beauty of its grain and its color, its response to surface treatment and its workability with the simplest of tools. While many of the works in the show have been painted or gilded , the intention was not to conceal the wood texture , but rather to enhance the spirit resident in the wood. The inspiration to create , partially drawn from the artisan ' s faith , was supplemented by

Carvings /rom the show include The Last Supper, by Hans Waldburger (1 7th century) ; 54 by 5 1 - 1 14 b y 16 in.; lent by Bob Jones University, Greenvtlle, S. C. Virgin of the Annunciation, German (late 15 th or early 1 6th century) ; walnut, 15-5 /8 in. ; lent by the Metro? politan Museum 0/ Art.

22

(right) Saint Christopher, German (c. 1400) ; 3 0 in. ; lent by the Fine Art Museums fSan Francisco. (above nght) Bishop , probably Saint Ambrose, German (c. 1500) ; o f Art. (above) Mourning oak, 28- 1 /2 in. ; lent by the Metropolitan Museum o Virgin , German (c. 1525 ) ; lindenwood, 14 in. ; lent by the Metropolitan Museum f Art. o

his respect for the material itself. One should try to imagine the artist swept up in the rhythm of the Church year as he works on his images - art historians make a great point of Michelangelo attending daily Mass on his way to work on a sculpture or paint? ing . Whether sophisticated and versed in his materials or uninitiated and awk? ward in his rendering, the artist communicates his involvement with the

guiding spirit behind his work through manipulation of the material . An idea and the embodiment of an idea became synonymous in a creation of wood carved by an inspired artist. [ Catalogs of the exhibit ' 'The Christ? ian Tradition " are available at a cost of $6 . 50 , including postage, from The Portland Museum , 1 2 1 9 SW Park, Portland , Oregon 9720 5 . J 23

Hand Shaping
A simple approach to sculpturing wood
by Daniel Jackson

While my primary concern is with good design, my special pleasure is the process of carving and otherwise re? moving material from the wood. My designs tend to be highly sculptural ; therefore , the removal of wood is an important part of my work. But I do not rely on special techniques or gimmicks, and the tools I use are neither overly simple nor overly com? plex. I don ' t insist on doing everything by hand, nor do I insist on doing every? thing by machine . But I do rely on a band saw to remove as much wood as possible and on a horizontal slot mortiser to make most mortises for either conventional or spline-tenon joints . Once the piece is rough bandsawed out and the spline tenon joints made, the fun really begins. First, I use a 1 - 1 / 4-inch diameter ball-mill bit in a

router to remove freehand the bulk of the material . For safety , I recommend a ball mill with a 1 I 2 -inch shank, if your router has that capacity. I would use pneumatic tools if I could afford them because they are much safer and more efficient, but I don' t do enough specialized work to justify the invest? ment . If the wood is not extremely dense or figured, it might be more efficient to do the roughing out with gouges , chisels, spokeshaves or other hand tools ; but in the case of a wood like purple heart or tiger maple, the ball-mill gives the advantage of not needing to pay attention to grain direction. No splitting or tear-outs occur. Having done what I can with the ball-mill, I · then remove most of the ball-mill marks with either a half-round or fully-round Surform rasp . (A flat-

blade Surform is useful only on convex surfaces, so I do not even own one . ) Much more careful control i s possible with a Surform than with a ball-mill, and I am usually able to remove all lumps and other irregularities. To remove Surform marks and do finer shaping, I turn to a selection of round and half-round pattern-maker rasps and rifflers. My favorite is a #50 lO-inch Nicholson . It is far superior to most other rasps I have used due to its " staggered" teeth and fine cut. With the rasp and riffler (for hard-to-get-at places) I am able to smooth the piece even more . Prior to final hand sanding, I use a flexible rubber disk sander held in a high-speed portable drill. Surform and rasp marks can be removed very quickly. I own, but seldom use, a pneumatic drum sander - because the shapes of the forms I deal with j ust don ' t lend themselves to that tool . Usually I can " smell the oil" at this stage, so I quite enjoy final scraping (using a cabinet scraper) and hand sanding. My preference is garnet paper, beginning at either 50 or 80 grit and going through 1 20 and 2 2 0 . I find more sanding to be excessive, but the use of 320 wet-or-dry during oiling produces very fine results . Another sanding option is to dampen the sanded 220 surface (thus raising the grain) , re-sand with used

Tools author uses are grouped into rough, medium and smooth categories. Rough includes gouges, chisel and ball mill. Medium consists o f rasps, Sur/orms, and riffle r. Fine includes disc sander, cabinet scraper and sandpaper.

24

paper, and burnish the finished surface with hand plane shavings , especially teak and rosewood shavings which have natural oils. This produces a very rich patina and may require no further finishing if you are not dealing with a surface that gets hard use. Because I use mortise and tenon joints, glue up can occur at several points. I don ' t glue until I absolutely have to, so that I can work on the pieces unassembled . Of course, I do assemble dry occasionally to check my progress.

Chair and partiallyfinished peacock mirror held by the author require hand shaping. Ball mzll in a router and a riffler (above) come in handy, as does the horizontal slot- mortising machine for helping mak e spline- tenon joints.

25

CRITICISM ___

Yankee Diversity
by Jere Osgood
The Society of Arts and Crafts in Boston recently had an exhibition of woodwork by contemporary craftsmen . I was impressed with the show. The design level appeared to be very good . The pieces were very well displayed, though a little confined . I have two general comments on the show (and not all the pieces are shown here) . Although the furniture is gen? erally well designed, I don ' t feel that some of the craftsmen have come to grips with a major technical problem the expansion and contraction of wood across the grain. This lack may or may not hurt these pieces after a few years, but in one extreme case, splits were already occurring. The other thing that stands out is the generally low prices. While a low price tag may ensure fast turnover, I wonder whether the wood? workers will get enough return. Gerald Curry ' s mahogany lowboy is a derivative piece, definitely in the vein of reproduction with its sensitive articulation of period detail , particular? ly in the carving of the claw and ball feet. Yet I felt a little more attention to

Gerald Curry 's mahogany lowboy is 30 in. high and sells for $1 000.

technical detail would have made it a really fine piece. The end panels are fastened tightly all around, with no allowance for the problem of shrinkage. I think this must have been a problem for early craftsmen too. They may have used very dry or well-balanced wood, but I doubt whether wood of such dryness or quality ever existed. Stephen Nutting 's collapsible dining

table is a very nicely designed piece. The walnut and willow go well together. The proportions are good between the thickness and size of the top and its relationship to the legs, but I would question the construction of the top , with no provision to counteract warping . Nutting could have set a bat? ten back slightly from the edge with screws through slots to allow for move-

Wade's co ffee table, 36 in. long, $250. Nutting 's dining table top is 36 by 48 in. , $280.
26

Gagnon 's mirror, 32 by 3 7 in. , $600. Franklin 's chest, 61 by 20 by 20 in., $800.

ment , or a narrow rail at the top of the legs. It's' another case of achieving a good clean design and not paying enough attentIon to a technical problem . Wyatt Wade has an excellent design in his oak coffee table. The leg and rail proportions are what we normally find in a Parsons table. I enjoy seeing the joints done this way, with the mitered

tenons exposed. The glass top , which is seemingly " floating" (on a piece of Plexiglass) , may give some difficulties because dust or cigarette ashes could get 10 the groove around the glass or under the glass and be difficult to clean . There is a child's corner chair in walnut by William Doub . While I question whether it is to a child's scale

Daub's corner chair, 28 in. high, $400. Sabin 's chair, 29 in. high, $150.

or not , there is a real sense of humor in the back detailing which makes it a very interesting piece. Theodore Franklin 's five-drawer chest of red oak and white Formica is a very fine contemporary piece. It has uncluttered lines and the oak is shaped well around the drawer fronts. The Baltic birch plywood used for the drawer fronts and panels, with Formica applied to its face, is a particularly good material for pieces such as this, and Franklin has used it to advantage. The mirror by Priscilla Gagnon is fantastic because of the looseness of her carving and the bold use of simple plant forms and a variety of woods mahogany, walnut , maple and obeche. It's an amazing piece. Christopher Sabin had one of the better pieces at the show. His well? constructed teak and reed chair is rem? iniscent of the Danish and Chinese. The back is quite uncomfortable, but I'm willing to accept it as is because he shows a good understanding of the structure and joinery needed in a chair. (However, the chair back, while low for the average person , would fit a shorter person very well .) 27

1 7 1 8'.iiii 17

13 14 15

..

28

Plane Speaking
One man ' s guide
by Robert Sutter

Nowadays, when everything in a woodworking shop tends to go buz z , or whirr, or rat-a-tat-tat, or give off some other harsh and less onomatopoeic sound, it is reassuring to hear the " snick " of a sharp plane slicing long thin curls off a piece of wood . Reassuring? Yes, for to me the sound and feel of handplaning stock to a smooth surface is a link to the crafts? manship of the past. I agree it is faster and easier to push a chunk of wood through a machine which automatically makes it smooth, true and dimensioned. But what about the shop which hasn ' t got 1 500 pounds of 1 8 - inch planer squatting there waiting to be run, or a 62 by 9-inch jointer to zip off straight smooth edges? How will you handle the wide board which won ' t go through either? What ro do to smooth a figured table top which the machines would tear to bits? Or fit a door, set in a box-bottom when the box is j ust the least bit cockeyed, widen a groove a little, or fit a tongue snugly? Easy! Just reach up on the shelf behind your bench and pick off the appropriate hand plane . And which one is that, you ask. Well , I ' ll tell you what I can about hand planes using the 18 different planes (and spokeshaves) in my own shop as examples. I ' ve taken a family photograph so I can tout them one by one ac? cording to breeding and track record. You can assume availability unless otherwise specified . 1 . Stanley #79 side rabbet is the only plane which will pare the side of a narrow groove or trim a doorstop in place. It may not be readily available, so buy one when you see it for this plane is most useful. 2 and 3 . Stanley #7 1 and its little cousin , the #2 7 1 router, are just the ticket for cleaning up the bottom of lock morrises and hinge butts or truing up the bottom of grooves . The #7 1 can be used to rout out a groove or a stop-dado if the sides are first cut with a saw. The #2 7 1 is great for cleaning up flat backgrounds in carving. Both are designed for use in normal and bullnose positions and are adjustable for depth of cut. (Record , in England, used to make a similar router plane but has discontinued it. The rwo Stanley planes are still available, but I ' d advise haste if you decide you must have them for your shop. 4. Record and Stanley block planes have irons angled at about one-half that of a bench plane and are set bevel up in an adjustable mouth, thus allowing a smooth cut on end or figured grain. The same features permit taking fine shavings with little or no chance of tearing side grain. Since the block plane fits nicely in the hand, it is useful where stock is held with one hand and worked with the other. Because of its adjustability, the block plane seems to me to be the easiest plane to use when making chamfers.

5. Stanley # 1 30 is the same as (4) but hard to find. It's worth the hunt because a second bullnose-like blade position allows it to get into tight corners otherwise out of bounds to planes. 6. Stanley #90 is a bullnose plane, but also a dandy shoulder rabbet plane since the sides are machined square to the sole. It can also be used as a chisel plane (with bullnose removed to expose the blade completely) . I find the plane digs in unless there is a bearing surface ahead of the blade. It is a low-angle, bevel-up, adjustable-throat plane . 7. Record #07 3 shoulder rabbet plane, weighing in at a tad over four pounds, is the king of planes for accurate work in any situation. A 1 - 1 I 4- inch iron set at a low angle bevel-up, an adjustable throat, a micrometer smooth adjustment for depth of cut, beautiful machining and sufficient heft all combine to make a tool which gets a lot of use in my shop. With it I clean up projecting joints, fit tenons, trim edging, true miters, true joined surfaces and rabbets, and on and on . 8. Record #04 1 shoulder rabbet is j ust like #043 but only 5 / 8-inch wide with a fixed nose, and runs a close second for favorite status. Unfortunately, it is no longer available, having been replaced by the #042 (with a 3 / 4-inch sole but otherwise the same) . 9. Stanley #78 rabbet - a workaday plane that somehow survived the Stanley blitzkrieg and is still in the current catalog. It does a creditable but coarser job of cutting and trimming rabbets than (7) . Its built-in fence and depth gauge makes for easy, accurate use. 10. My Victor #20 compass plane with adjustable flexible sole is an antique. With it one can plane curved surfaces. A similar plane is now available. 1 1 and 1 2 . These are both scrapers. The larger one , with a tote and plane-like sole, is the Stanley # 1 1 2 , now extinct. It has a toothing blade for veneering and working curly stock . The other is a Stanley #80 cabinet scraper. Note : wooden toothing planes are still available . 13, 14, 15. These three form the bench plane triumvirate. The foreplane or scrub plane ( 1 3) with convex blade will do a fast job of surface cleanup . The j ack ( 14) eliminates most hills and hollows and prepares the surface for final truing with the try plane or jointer ( 1 5) . I prefer wood planes, but you can get these three in iron with plain or corrugated soles. All work, so it' s your choice. 16. This deluxe smoother comes from Ulmia in West Germany. Its lignum vitae sole glides over a surface, and because of an adjustable mouth, the plane can be set to take the thinnest of shavings. It is a finishing tool which leaves an almost polished surface in its wake. Note : wooden planes are now available with screw adjustments under the " Primus" name. 1 7 and 1 8 . These spokeshaves are not planes, strictly speak? ing , yet they alone will produce a contoured surface or form and smooth work in the round. If you realize that they were used in earlier days to make spokes for wheels, then you ' ll know what they can do for you . To be sure, there are a gaggle of other good and useful wood-paring tools I ' ve neglected. But to tell the truth, I was abashed to find as many as I have in and around my bench. I feel that I ' ve covered the most common ground and that perhaps this brief Baedeker to plane-land will help sort out some choices for you.

29

Desert Cabinetry
Coping with six percent moisture
by Thomas A. Simons IV

The climate of the desert Southwest can have a devastating effect on furni? ture. People moving there from the East often watch their antiques, which have survived hundreds of years in a relatively humid climate, break up before their eyes. Cabinetmakers suffer similar discouragement. It is rare to find even experienced cabinetmakers who have not had pieces ruined by cracks or broken joints. As atmospheric conditions change, wood expands or contracts until an equilibrium moisture content is reached. Furniture from the East Coast has an equilibrium moisture content of twelve to fifteen percent. When this fu;niture is brought to the Southwest, its equilibrium moisture content may decrease to six percent with significant shrinkage resulting. Normal midwestern hardwoods are kiln-dried to approximately twelve percent. When that lumber is shipped to the Southwest, the moisture content will decrease and cause shrinkage. Furthermore , seasonal humidity and

temperature changes affect the mois? ture content of the wood and cause movement, which may result in shrink? age, expansion, distortion (such as cupping, warping, bowing or spring? ing) , and even splitting. Wood moves different amounts in different directions. Lengthwise move? ment is negligible. However, radial movement is significant, and circum? ferential (or tangential) movement is approximately fifty percent greater than radial movement. Therefore, joints between end grain and edge grain, and between plainsawed lumber (with tangential movement across its face) and quartersawed lumber (with radial movement across its face) will be subject to significant stress upon changes in wood moisture content. (The same is also true in the lamination of different types of wood with differ? ent movement characteristics.) This stress generates tremendous forces which can break joints and split wood. Many cabinetmaking techniques

used to minimize wood movement can be seen in New Mexican Spanish Colonial furniture (hereafter, Spanish Colonial furniture) . Modern Spanish Colonial furniture is the embodiment of a desert cabinetmaking tradition stretching back for centuries. The Arabs from Syria and Egypt and the Berbers from Northwestern Africa (collectively called the Moors) introduced designs and techniques from their homeland during their long occupation of Spain. By the beginning of the 1 7 th century when colonists supplanted Conquista? dores in New Mexico, the Spanish? Moorish furniture design confluence had produced the popular mudejar style. Although most colonists took little or no furniture with them, they did imitate the traditional and mudejar designs popular in Spain when they left . Their designs and execution were cruder than Spanish renditions and in native pine rather than the traditional Spanish hardwoods (mostly walnut) . Nonetheless, they incorporated many

An early Spanish Colonial through tenon (below, le ft) , with irregularly shaped wedg es to ensure unt/orm pressure. E ffects o f wood shrinkage can be seen in pro? truding dovetad btJlet on table (below) and protruding tenon on leg o f modern Spanish Colonial chair (right) .

30

of the cabinetmaking techniques used by the Spanish and Moors before them. The relative isolation of New Mexico and the fact that the original designs produced simple furniture that held up well under the rigors of frontier life enabled Spanish Colonial furniture design to endure for hundreds of years . Even today, in s?all villages all over northern New Mexico, local craftsmen use the same furniture designs and techniques as their forefathers . In the larger towns and cities this same basic design and construction, often supple? mented with Spanish and Mexican design and modern techniques, is used in commercial production. One of the most conspicuous construction techniques in Spanish Colonial furniture is the doweled mortise and tenon joint. Of course, the mortise and tenon were not used merely to accommodate wood move? ment . Until the development of doweled joints, the mortise and tenon joint was the only one to use in many types of fine joinery. Nor would it be accurate to say that the doweling of the tenon is solely a desert cabinetmaking technique . It was used in fine furniture in many countries and was considered the best insurance against joint breakage from any cause. For whatever reason the doweled mortise and tenon joint was used in other countries, it does appear probable that its almost universal use in Spanish Colonial furniture and its continuation after virtual abandonment elsewhere is at least partly due to its ability to hold tight even when the glue joint is broken by shrinkage. The joining of edge grain to end grain is normally the point of greatest weakness and susceptibility to wood movement damage in furniture construction. A characteristic feature of the Spanish Colonial doweled mortise and

f spool turnings ty pical This well executed headboard tflustrates the extensive use o o f Spanish Colonial woodworking.

tenon is the almost exclusive use of only one dowel. European and American cabinetmakers often used two dowels at either side of the tenon to increase the strength of the joint. The absence of this extra dowel in most Spanish Colonial furniture is possibly due to the fact that shrinkage across the face of the tenon will cause stress to build up between the two dowels and split the tenoned piece. The use of only one dowel prevents such stress from developing. Another characteristic of this JOInt, although seldom seen today, is the wedged tenon. Traditionally the wedges were driven in at the edge of the tenon. This compression of the pine tenon minimized loosening of the joint through shrinkage. To wedge the tenon with the crude tools they had , the New Mexicans broke with the almost universal Spanish tradition of using blind tenons and began cutting most mortises through. Modern makers of Spanish Colonial furniture have continued to use the through tenon for stylistic reasons even though the main .reason for its use, ease of tenon wedging , has been largely abandoned.

Offset tenon doweling is sometimes used in the Spanish Colonial doweled mortise and tenon joint. The dowel hole is bored through the mortised piece (with a waste piece inserted in the mortise to prevent breaking out of the mortise sides) . The tenon is inserted, and the mortise dowel hole marked on it. The tenon is then removed, and the dowel hole bored, offset slightly toward the shoulder of the tenon . A tapered dowel is then cut 1 I 8-inch shorter than the dowel hole. When the dowel is inserted, glue is used only on the final 1 I 4- inch to prevent the dowel from protruding when the piece shrinks.

When driven home, the tapered dowel wedges the tenon shoulders tightly against the mortised piece, resulting in a joint that will stay extremely tight even if the tenon shrinks away from the mortise sides.

31

Another movement-accommodating feature in Spanish Colonial furniture is the dovetailed billet. It was a unique Spanish method for attaching trestles to table tops. It was not widely used in colonial New Mexico, probably because the early New Mexicans could not execute it satisfactorily with their crude tools, but has become a standard tech? nique in modern Spanish Colonial furniture. It is made by first cutting fe? male dovetail dadoes the width of the table top at the places on the bottom where the trestles attach. A tight-fitting male dovetail billet is driven into each dado , cut off flush with the sides and often molded. The trestle is usually then attached to the billet by hinges, screws or bolts. Thus the table top is free to float on the billet while the legs are still firmly attached. This system not only prevents splitting but also con? trols the cupping tendency of plain? sawed table tops. When the table top shrinks, the billet will invariably protrude. An improvement on the technique is to drive in a short billet,

feature on any frame and panel) is that the panels are never glued into the frame groove . Another Moorish technique is the sheathed door. It is made by sheathing a rigid door frame on one side with

affect the appearance of the piece. This device can be seen in cupboards or trasteros , as well as in certain head? board designs. The early New Mexicans sometimes substituted a doweled finger joint for the traditional through dovetail in their chests or arcos. Characteristically they used wide fingers and doweled through only one side. A superior joint was produced, however, in 1 5 th-century Spain where the fingers in each side were doweled. The resulting joint held

vertical boards. The boards are joined without glue by a shiplap or tongue and groove joint. Each board is then attached to the frame at the top and bottom by a nail, screw or bolt . Thus, each board is held independently and can move freely without affecting the shape or appearance of the door. The technique of replacing solid panels with a series of turned or shaved spindles is also derived from Moorish the in woodworking . Shrinkage spindles is inconsequential compared to that in a panel, and ordinarily does not

even with broken glue lines, as long as the bottom or top remained in place. The double dovetail or butterfly key across edge joints has come into fairly widespread use in modern Spanish Colonial furniture. Although many times only thin inlaid ornamentation,

leaving approximately 1 - 1 1 2 inch of dado at each end. Then end plugs ap? proximately 1 - 3 / S inches long are glued into each end, leaving shrinkage joints of l / S inch. To prevent all move? ment from accumulating on one side, a dowel is inserted through the middle of the billet and into the table top . The next three movement-accommo? dating techniques can be traced directly to the Moorish influence in Spain. The first is multiple paneling. Also used on furniture, this technique is most common in large door construction . The rationale for multiple paneling is as follows : a wide panel will shrink con? siderably across its face , thus loosening the panel in the frame and exposing the unfinished panel tongue and even the panel edge. Multiple panels across the same width will each shrink less and cause less tongue exposure and loosen? ing per panel. Moreover, the smaller confinement of the wood gives it less room to distort on the panel face . An additional feature of this frame and panel construction (and an essential 32

A multip le-panel door in p ine. The panels were beveled with a gouge. The use o j s pindles (below, right) in the central section o f this trastero door accommo? dates wood movement and also allows f the cupboard to be the contents o viewed.

the key can significantly inhibit edge joint breakage due to shrinkage dis? tortion when amply made and carefully inlaid. Careful edge joint preparation by the Spanish Colonial furniture maker reduces the possibility of joint breakage caused by shrinkage distortion . (Edge joint gluing is a relatively recent phe? nomenon in New Mexico and Spain. Early cabinetmakers had single pieces of almost any needed width or thickness, or used an unglued tongue and groove joint. ) Often a gap in an edge joint must be planed true before gluing even though it can be pulled up with clamps. Further shrinkage may in? crease the spring and break the joint. Sawed edges are jointed before gluing unless extremely smooth and straight. If possible, prepared edges are glued relatively quickly before further wood movement distorts the edge line. The glue joint is allowed to dry thoroughly before surface planing or sanding. This is to prevent a depression from forming at the glue line when the wood, which swells with the moisture of the glue, shrinks back to its original position. If several plainsawed boards are glued up, the annual ring arc in the end grain is reversed alternately, so that cupping of the individual boards does not cup the entire piece. Wood selection is another important aspect of the Spanish Colonial furniture maker' s wood movement awareness. An extremely popular wood is the very stable Honduras mahogany. Relatively stable black walnut and white pine are also used extensively. The most movement-conscious cabinetmakers try to use relatively straight-grained ma? terial . They also try to use quarter? sawed lumber in preference to the more beautiful but less stable plainsawed material . (Unfortunately, quartersawed lumber is now practically unavailable.) Also , when laminating, the Spanish Colonial cabinetmaker tries to choose material of similar movement charac? teristics, matching wood types and avoiding a combination of plainsawed and quartersawed stock. When possible the Spanish Colonial furniture maker chooses lumber that has had time to air-dry to the ambient equilibrium moisture content over lumber recently shipped from the kiln. (The rise of solar-heated kilns may soon allow lumber yards in the Southwest to dry furniture wood down to acceptable

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Low humidity has caused the wood to shn'nk to such an extent that the edge o f the panel is exposed. At nght, butterfly keys on a miteredJoint. The middle key was in? accuratel y laid and required the use o f filler.
moisture levels, thus allowing produc? tion shops to use properly dried material . ) Some Spanish Colonial furniture makers use relatively ' 'wet" kiln-dried wood to their advantage by making female pieces out of it before it dries and making male pieces out of drier wood. After gluing, the female piece shrinks to hold the joint more tightly. Many Spanish Colonial cabinetmak? ers now use synthetic glues, most notably aliphatic resin . However, some continue to use liquid hide glue exten? sively. The low moisture resistance of the glue is less of a problem in the desert, and its tough elasticity allows it to stand a fair amount of joint movement before breaking. Movement accommodation consider? ations have played little part in the choice of finishes. In colonial New Mexico little or no finish was used on furniture. Today relatively low mois? ture-resistant oil finishes are the most popular. One of the reasons for this could be that the finish on furniture does little to retard seasonal or longer moisture content changes, and shorter changes affect the wood moisture content insignificantly. One rule of furniture finishing almost universally followed by the Spanish Colonial cabinetmaker is to finish both sides of any board liable to cup , and to use a finish with similar moisture-resistant qualities on both sides. A final tradi? tional rule of the Spanish Colonial cabinetmaker is to avoid endbanding of solid stock if at all possible . Not only does it lead to an unsightly overhang of the end band, but it will break the banded plank if secured tightly at more than one point. The Spanish Colonial cabinetmaker IS In many ways the present embodiment of a long and fascinating tradition of furniture making. How? ever, the movement-accommodating techniques that have developed as part of that tradition should not be of in? terest solely to the desert cabinetmaker. Wood moves with the temperature and humidity of the air around it. In a New York City apartment which is heated in the winter and open in the summer, wood moisture content may change more than in the desert. Few cabinet? makers know whether the lumber they use is at its equilibrium moisture content, or whether the furniture they build will be moved to a markedly dif? ferent climate. For these reasons every cabinetmaker, no matter what style of furniture he or she produces, must make design and execution decisions with the possibility of wood movement in mind . The history of Spanish Colonial furniture construction can offer valuable techniques useful in mInImIZIng the effects of that movement. 33

Hidden DraW"ers
Some eighteenth-century examples
by Alastair A. Stair

In the George II bureau bookcase above, the columns on either side 0/ small cupboard just above the writing surface push out by spring actio n to reveal drawers. In the George I box be/ ow, the side raises to reveal drawer.

Before the invention of the burglar-alarm system and the combination safe, ladies and gentlemen of means concealed their valuables in all manner of locked boxes and containers. Furniture often contained secret drawers and compartments cleverly hidden by the cabinetmaker. The need for such con? cealment afforded many opportunities for the English craftsman to exercise his highly developed sense of invention and surprise and his fondness for devices, to the delight of his clients. Many items that are readily available today were difficult to obtain in the 1 7th and 1 8th centuries due to the slowness of trade, and were therefore very expensive . Tea, sugar and spices were precious enough to be kept under lock and key. Small tea chests, today called " caddies, " became popular for carrying tea to the table. They are partitioned or fitted with canisters and often contain hidden compartments. Tea chests and various other boxes and caskets designed as receptacles for coins, jewels and documents were made with locks and sometimes carrying handles, themselves often hidden from view. Some boxes, fitted with padlocks, were used for the dis? patch of conf idential communications ; one key was kept by each correspondent. Boxes of all types were so much in demand that an independent trade guild of box-makers was incorporated in the 1 7 th century. One of the most fascinating pieces I have seen is a small George I rectangular box, inlaid and veneered with walnut. The interior is divided into triple compartments. To the eye, the container is all of a piece. However, when open, one shorr side cleverly slides up to reveal a shallow drawer which runs the length of the box and can be pulled by a tiny ivory knob. S lope-front desks and secretaire bookcases will almost always reward the seeker of the secret drawer. These are fitted inside the flap with a series of pigeonholes for ledgers , documents and letters and very often a small central cupboard. The pigeonholes often hold one or more secret compartments most cunningly contrived in what appears to be part of the fixed construction . The cupboard often con? tains a secret compartment hidden under a sliding panel , sometimes operated by a wooden or steel spring. A walnut slope-front desk (c. 1 7 2 5 ) , currently at Stair and Company, illustrates several ingeniously arranged hiding places. The central cupboard appears to be fixed, but is actually a box in itself which pulls out entirely and when reversed reveals two high, narrow drawers located behind the half columns. In addition, the decorative carving on top of the pigeonholes appears to be one-dimensional . In fact, four of the sections are, but the last pigeonhole at either end has a carved molding which is in realiry the end of a very shallow

34

Desks

A hidden desk compartment can be located
almost anywhere : (clockwise from above) under a sliding panel , behind a spring-action pilaster, on the back of a removable central cupboard, behind a decorative molding or inside the desk? top support arm.

35

drawer which pulls out by hand. This is a very common device. There is also a George I walnut bureau bookcase that has a central cupboard flanked by half columns. When one takes hold of the capitals, these columns reveal the fact that they are the short sides of rather deep sections, perfect for the secreting of important papers 'and currency . And here once again we find the common practice of using a decorative molding on a p igeonhole to hide a shallow drawer. Sometimes the entire pigeonhole or series of pigeonholes will pull out to show smaller, concealed sections behind. I recently sold a George II mahogany bureau bookcase (c . 1740) in which the skilled cabinetmaker had hidden a pair of drawers , the ends of which are disguised as two inlaid pilasters which flank the central cupboard. When slight pressure is applied to them, they pop fotward by spring action . Such bureau bookcases sometimes contain wells revealed by panels which slide back or lift up on hinges to show one or more secret drawers. Probably one of the rarest and most ingenious hiding places contrived by the 1 8th-century English cabinetmaker is located within the sliding supports that hold the slant top of a bureau open. When purchasing a case piece of this type, I always move my fingers along the underside of these supports

Old guineas will often drop out . Hidden drawers are found less often in tables than in case pieces. When present, they are rather skillfully camouflaged as in a small Sheraton kidney-shaped writing table (c. 1 780) . Here a central drawer, marked by a keyhole , is obvious to the eye . But two more drawers are disguised in the frieze, in the shape of wedges which swing out from each side of the table when hand pressure is applied to the underside. Another very interesting examp le of a drawer concealed in the frieze of a table is found on a George II mahogany card table. Almost the entire frieze is in fact a rather large drawer, extending for 2 3 inches. Because it lacks both escutcheon and brass pull, its existence completely eludes the eye . A Chinese C hippendale card table (c. 1 760) contains a secret drawer which defies detection due to the screen of open fretwork around three sides. The small drawer is under the table directly behind the gate leg which swings out to support the table when open . It is invisible when the table is closed. Many secret drawers and hidden compartments are awaiting discovery by the diligent collector of antiques. Even today it might be a wise idea to remove one's valuables from the burglar's eye by tucking them away into devices created two hundred years ago. Or some craftsmen may wish to incorporate hiding places into new pieces.

in search of a sliding panel .

Tables
Some examples of concealed table drawers : Chinese Chippendale card table showing drawer behind gate leg (right) ; Sheraton kidney-shaped writing table with wedge-shaped drawers dis? guised in the frieze or apron (below, right) ; George II card table with the frieze doubling as the drawer front.

36

Green Bow-is
Turn unseasoned wood , dry it , then turn again
by Alan Stirt

A big problem in bowl turning is obtaining thick, wide, dry wood. You might be able to get 4 - 1 1 2 or 5 -inch thick mahogany or 4- inch teak from an importer. In the Northeast you might find some 3 or 4-inch maple, birch or cherry at local mills. These planks usually contain numerous checks and splits. If they are sound, they will be more expensive than thinner material . If you want to turn a number of bowls, such sources will be quite frustrating in terms of cost and available speCIes. However, green (unseasoned) wood can readily be found and is often free . Even exotic woods are much cheaper when bought in the log . Working directly from the log gives you an opportunity to fit sizes and grain patterns to your own re? quirements, rather than accepting material that has been milled to a predetermined size . Green planks also offer ad? vantages over dry wood. You can get larger sizes (the sawyer won ' t mind cutting extra-thick planks if he knows that he won ' t have to dry them) , and the material will be in better condition. In rural areas, logging waste - often containing the most figured wood - sawmill slabs and storm-damaged trees are usually free or sold cheaply. Firewood piles yield nice chunks of local hardwoods. Small local mills usually are glad to cut logs to whatever dimensions you want. Here in northern Vermont, mills charge $40 to $50 per 1 , 000 board feet for milling logs that you bring them. If you buy a log from the mill and have it cut, the cost is 20 to 30 cents per board foot. If the log is in good condition , such material is virtually check-free . Even in cities, green wood can be had from local tree-removal services and highway departments. After you ' ve found a supply of green wood, you have to dry it. One way is in planks or bowl-size blocks, but this is un? likely to produce perfect material . The easiest method is to turn the wood when it's green . Once the wood is in a bowl shape it dries much faster and with fewer defects than a solid chunk. You might start with a slab of lumber 4 or 6 inches thick, but if you turn the walls of the bowl down to an inch, it dries more like 4 / 4 stock. The analogy isn ' t exact because the grain orientation of the bowl isn ' t the same as that of milled lumber, but proper drying procedures minimize the differ? ences. As the bowl dries it will warp and shrink, but once it is dry the walls are thick enough to be turned true again. As an example of green turning, I'll show how to get a dry bowl from a green log of lignum vitae about 9 inches in diam? eter. It had been drying for about two years, but it was still quite wet . Similar procedures can be used for most hardwood species, both native and exotic. First, cut about an inch off the end of the log to find check-

free wood. If the log has been in the sun , it may be necessary to cut a series of thin slices to reach sound material . In some hardwoods small center checks run the whole length of the log, but these will be removed when trimming the block for the lathe. Next cut off a cross section as long as the diameter of the log, and rip this piece along the grain through the center of the log. If there are any center checks, make this second cut parallel to them and the saw kerf will often obli? terate them . It is important to make sure the center of the tree -the pith-does not end up in your bowl as it will almost certainly split. Note any other checks and defects and plan your cuts to eliminate them from the final shape. Next , flatten the outside of each slab . This will be the bottom of the bowl. The flat surface will make the block safe to cut on the band saw. On the lignum vitae I roughly flattened the bottom with a 1 - I I 2 -inch carving gouge, but these cuts can be made with a chain saw or a band saw. To cut down vibration and make turnings easier, I taper the sides of the block. I used the gouge but the easiest way is to saw a tapered circle. My band saw just doesn ' t have the capacity to make this cut . The more you refine the shape with hand or power tools, the easier the initial turning will be . How far you go depends upon the size and species of your block of wood, the size and weight of your lathe, and your confidence and skill in using your tools. It's best to start with a balanced shape and dis? cover how much unevenness you and your lathe can take. Even a small, out-of-balance piece can cause a lot of vibration. First I turn the back of the bowl , with the face that was at the center of the log attached to the faceplate. Use long screws to grip the wet wood since the bowl will be absorbing a

Bowls turned /ro m green wood by the author. Largest, 15 inches across, is o f quzlted, broad- lea f maple. Others (clock? wise) are from zebrawood, white ash and cherry burl.

number of hard knocks in getting it true. Even if you don ' t usually wear a face shield when rurning, i t ' s important to wear one now. In the early stages chips will fly in all directions and some of them will be rather large. Before turning on the lathe make sure the wood will not hit the ways or the tool rest. I start at a low speed and use a gouge, taking light cuts at f ust. Don ' t try to decide the exact shape until all the rough spots are gone. Once the bowl is true, stop the lathe and carefully examine the wood. Note any defects which have to be removed , and interesting grain patterns to develop . The shape and the grain can be made to work together to create something more than j ust a bowl. On the lignum vitae bowl, I cut quite a bit off the bottom to ensure an interesting balance and pattern of heartwood and sapwood. I n shaping a bowl, I find the gouge to be the most efficient and enjoyable tool. The wood cuts cleanly and thick, curly shavings usually fly from it. Lignum vitae is an exception , preferring to come off as chips. Some woods, particularly but? ternut, are so soft and stringy when wet that they are hard to cut with anything but a gouge . A scraper j ust pushes the fibers around. To cut the straight foot, I use a 1 14-inch gouge with a slightly pointed nose. When the contour of the bowl is done, flatten the bottom and make a pencil line to help reposition the faceplate. Before remounting the bowl, I drill down to 1 inch from the bottom using a 1 1 2 or I -inch bit. This gauges the depth and makes the gouge work easier. The faceplate can now be mounted on the bottom, using shorter screws because the wood will be running true. If you align two of the screws with the grain direction , the holes will probably remain in line during drying. Jot the screw size on the bowl for remounting later. First I clean up the front, taking light cuts with the gouge . This can be a great help in reducing vibration, particularly if a chain saw was used to cut the log and the front is uneven . Now the bowl can be hollowed out . Because the wood is wet the tools stay cool and large amounts of wood can be removed before resharpening. I usually start at the center and work out toward the rim . I t ' s important t o keep the thickness uniform throughout , s o the bowl will dry evenly with less risk of checking. The thickness is very important in determining drying time, and a bowl turned down to 1 1 4 inch would dry very quickly with little chance of checking. However, it would distort more than a thicker bowl and when dry would be nearly impossible to turn truly round. For most native woods leave the walls and bottom about an inch thick. I gauge the thickness with calipers as the bowl nears completion, and examine it carefully for checks and knots. Checks present when the bowl is wet will get larger as it dries, and knots will often start checks that spread through the wood. If you ' re satisfied with the condition of the wood, start the lathe and coat the bowl with a heavy layer of paste wax . I use johnson' s paste wax because it's cheap and I purchase it by the 1 2 -pound case. Wax the bottom after removing the faceplate. It' s a good idea to rough-turn in an uninterrupted sequence. If you have to stop before the bowl is hollow, wax the wood to keep it from drying . I have had unwaxed pieces start checking in minutes in a heated shop . Generally, the slower the drying the less risk of severe 38

warping and checking ; however, if the drying is too slow the wood may succumb to fungus and decay . And the slower the bowls dry, the more storage space the turner needs. One controlling factor is the coating on the bowl . If left unsealed , the end grain will dry much faster than the rest. This can result in checking. Wax evens the drying rate and slows the whole process . So far I have used only paste wax . I ' m sure any sealer that would adhere to wet wood would work to some extent. If I find that one layer of wax is not preventing checking I ' ll add more. The more layers of wax, the slower the drying and , up to a point, the less the chance of checking. Each species of wood dries differently. In general , the higher the density of the wood, the longer it will take. But even within a single species the densiry can vary greatly. Sapwood will generally dry faster than heartwood and can cause extra distortion in bowls where both are present. Among domestic hardwoods , cherry and apple check easily while elm , walnut and butternut are excellent ; in general , fruitwoods are more susceptible to checking than nutwoods . Ash may check within minutes. This particular variety of lignum vitae proved to be very stable. Although I had to be very careful about checking, hardly any distortions occurred (by using many layers of wax and slow drying conditions I lost only one bowl out of 1 5 completed ones) . These bowls I turned from 1 I 2 -inch to 3 / 4-inch thick. I dry most native wood bowls, turned I -inch thick, for about three months. I dried the lignum vitae bowls from six to twelve months, according to size and thickness. You have great control over the drying environment, and the environment is crucial . Temperature , humidity and air circulation are the important factors . In the winter I never start bowls drying in a heated room. Usually I ' ll dry them in a spare room which stays around 45 or 50 degrees with moderate air circulation . After some weeks - the exact time depending upon the experience with wood of this species and grain formation - I move the bowls to a heated room. A room which has good drying conditions during a period of high humidity can become an oven when the humidity drops sharply and stays down. Often the conditions can be changed j ust by opening a door, for increased circulation and faster drying, or closing it, to retard drying. If you want to be more scientific , you can outfit a room with temperature and humidity controls. Once I found some 1 2 by 6-inch cherry bowls had checked during their f ust few days in my ' ' normal" drying conditions. I dug out the checks with a gouge and rewaxed the bowls. Then I put them in my cellar which has high humidity. The bowls gradually dried without checking. However, they developed an unattractive blue-green stain from a fungus which thrives on high humidity. I completed the drying in a heated room and then finish-turned the bowls. The stain went deep into the end grain and was visible after finishing. I later dried the cherry in conditions that represented a compromise between my spare room and the cellar. It pays to experiment with the facilities you have available ; such experimentation should be a never-ending process . I have arrested checking by placing bowls in paper bags for a few weeks to chpke off air circulation . Once you have an idea of the principles involved there are endless ways to deal with problems. To determine when the bowls are at equilibrium with the

relative humidity and temperature of the surrounding air, weigh them periodically. When they stop losing weight they are dry . Under average conditions, most native woods rough? turned to a thickness of 1 inch will dry in about three months. I should mention an alternative to the dtying procedures I use . The green bowl can be soaked in a heated solution of PEG (polyethylene glycol 1 000) before drying. The chemical replaces the water in the cells and prevents them from shrink? ing . I experimented with PEG a few years ago and was not satisfied with the results. The slight differences in appearance and finishing qualities mentioned by PEG's proponents were real differences to me. Also, I was having success with natural drying and saw no need to continue with PEG. It can be useful, however, because with it you can turn bowls that include the pith of the tree. I know one professional turner who' s satisfied with the results and I ' m sure there are more. For further information, contact the Forest Products Laboratory and Crane Creek Company, both in Madison, Wisconsin. When your bowl is dry it can be finish-turned. First, plane the bottom flat. Before mounting, drill a hole to mark the finished depth. This will prevent turning through to the screws, which penetrate about 3 / 16 inch. I usually am able to use the same screw holes as in the rough turning, and I use the same length screw . Mount the bowl on the lathe and check to see that it clears the rest and the bed . I true the outside first, with the lathe at low speed. I usually use a gouge but I found light cuts with a small round? nose scraper ideal for the lignum vitae, which is vety hard when dry. A larger tool might have taken too big a bite and forced the bowl off the screws. I finished off the outside shape with a skew scraper. At this point I usually sand the outside of the bowl . I turn most bowls relatively thin and when I am done hollowing, the walls vibrate . It's much easier to sand before hollowing, with little vibration. I start with 50 or 80 grit and work my way up to 2 2 0 . I always wear a mask because the fine dust can be quite harmful. Now I clean up the rim of the bowl with a gouge . Next I get the inside rim true and work my way down to the bottom , using a gouge and scraper. I advise against using the scraper on the sides of deep bowls because it can really make a mess of end grain . When I ' m satisfied with the contours and thickness - measuring with calipers - I sand the inside of the bowl using the same grit sequence as on the outside. The bowl can now be hand-sanded, if desired, to remove circular scratches. Finish as you like. The above procedures are only guidelines and can be adapted for almost any wood you ' d care to turn. Exact methods of turning and dtying should be worked out individually in one's own particular situation . I ' ve had some failures and will have more in the future, but I ' ve had a high rate of success. It is very satisfying to make a bowl when you control the whole process from log to finished form .

Before turning the back o f a bowl cut from a green log (top photo), try to make it as round as possible. With the back turned, the faceplate is then attached to the foot, and the bowl is rough- turned. Then the whole bowl is liberally coated with paste wax (bottom photo) to control drying. When dry, the bowl is remounted and finish- turned.
39

Queen Anne
Styling elements in table designs
by Franklin H. Gottshall

The Queen Anne style is generally the most popular of all the good E nglish styles of the 1 8th centuty and is a good choice for craftsmen wishing to put together their own period design. The style ' s popularity is due to the fact that in the beginning it was distinguished for its clean lines, beautiful curved elements and restraint in the use of ornament. Queen Anne's short reign ( 1 702 - 1 7 14) was not distinguish? ed for any personal influence she gave to the progress of fashion in her day, and so it must be assumed that the crafts? men themselves were largely responsible for the changes and improvements in furniture design during her reign. The happy result was that craftsmen, who understood both the practical possibilities as well as the limitations of their craft , were largely free of the domination by patrons whose wealth and position did not necessarily reflect good taste. Thus, at least in its early stages, the style was relatively free of the excesses in form , embellishment and elaboration so preva? lent immediately preceding this style, and in those which followed. Cupboards, cabinets, chairs and tables became less elabor? ate and fussy, and were designed with a view to their function rather than to ostentation and display. Technical

improvements in both design and construction were made with pleasing results. The changes brought about by these factors, as well as an improvement of the economy in England during this period, made it possible for more people to share in the amenities which had previously been largely reserved for the privileged few. While the Queen Anne style came into being during the very beginning of the 1 8th century, its influence, once it was well established, continued well into the latter part of the century. Artists like William Hogarth greatly influenced design at this time, especially the employment of the reverse curve, both structurally and decoratively. Also sometimes called the cyma curve , it is used consistently and with good effect in Queen Anne style. On a portrait of himself, which now hangs in the National Gallery of London, Hogarth painted a palette on which appears a reverse curve with the caption ' 'The line of beauty and grace. " This aroused so much discussion that an explana? tion was demanded of him . He explained it by saying that " a beautiful curve b y its serpentine, flamelike waving and winding simultaneously in different directions leads the eye in a pleasing manner from one end to the other. " He sought to explain it further by saying that the principles involved were " fitness, variety, uniformity, simplicity, intricacy, and quantity - all of which cooperate in the production of beauty, mutually correcting and restraining each other occasionally. In addition to this , he portrayed Queen Anne furniture in many of his paintings, whi.ch enjoyed wide distribution during the first half of the 1 8 th century. The American colonies not only imported a great deal of furniture, once trade was well established, but they also made reproductions and adapted the styles to their own require? ments. Fortunately, in the majority of cases, their adaptions reflected the simple, clean-cut lines and attributes by which we identify the style in America today.

Some styles o f legs andfeetfound on Queen Annefurniture. Among the most widely used were the tnfid (three- toed) webbed foot (second f rom le ft, also shown in cross section) and the pad foot (third from le ft). The ball- and- claw (second from nght, below) later became a Chippendale hallmark. The Spanish foot is shown at nght (above. ).

40

Some Queen Anne Styling Elements

Shell carvings for knees of legs. Also used for aprons of tables and lowboys.

Queen Anne lowboy.

Sunburst carving on drawer.

Brass drawer pulls (good ones always have carefully beveled outlines).

Molding around top of lowboy.

Square or roughly octagonal hardwood pin.

No offset where leg and rail come together.

Aprons which may be adapted to lowboys, tables, etc.

41

At present, good American Queen Anne furniture is more highly prized by American collectors of antiques than its English counterparts. Among the reasons for this are that skillful cabinetmakers like William Savery and others did notable work in the style, basing their work on the early, simple, clean-cut patterns imported from Europe. They used walnut rather consistently because it was available and plenti? ful in the areas where they worked . Maple, a wood not native to the mother country, was also used ; so was poplar as a secondary wood for drawer sides and like members. About 1 7 20 and thereafter there was a gradual substitution from walnut to mahogany in England, but this change did not take place in America to any great extent until a long time later, because mahogany was more expensive and no great im? provement over the native walnut. One of the most appealing developments of the Queen Anne style was the small dressing table or " lowboy , " so? named to distinguish it from the " highboy , " a similar piece with a chest of drawers on top . Lowboys are about table height, rarely exceeding 30 inches. (An antique purporting to be a lowboy which is much taller, or wider than the example shown, is probably a converted highboy and worth a lot less.) As the Queen Anne sryle metamorphosed into Chippen? dale, ornament became more and more elaborate, often featuring quarter columns and other refinements. But the best (and most highly prized) furniture of the Queen Anne sryle is characterized by the minimal decoration, simple outlines, beautifully formed curves and sound, sturdy construction of the early period. The modern craftsman would do well to adhere to these principles.

Gate-Leg Table
A contemporary version
by Paul Buckley

(taken from actual antiques)

Bad Queen Anne

Repetition of identical elements is monotonous.

Straight lines should not replace flowing curves.

Clumsy club foot .

Long legs drastically curved sacrifice strength or appear to do so.

Gate-leg tables are by no means new. They were popular in colonial America where settlers sometimes ate, slept and lived in one-room homes. Multi-functional furniture which uses space efficiently was highly desirable under such crowded conditions. Our needs today are typically much different, yet many modern interiors lack usable living space. The increase in apartments, condominiums and smaller homes has again caused multi-functional and folding furniture to become very popular. Sensing this need for more efficient furniture, I set out to design a table that would belong esthetically in a contemporary environment and be completely functional, yet conveniently small when not in use. After one year of designing and experimenting, I was satisfied that this table fulfilled all my criteria. In this article I include the methods used to construct the table and solutions to problems inherent in the design. The dimensions are from my table, which was designed specifi? cally for my personal needs and taste. I encourage each craftsman to evaluate this design in the light of his or her own needs, feelings and creative abilities. Changes can be made in any part of the design as long as you realize; the table has two natural limitations. The height of the table determines the length of each drop leaf. And the gate legs, to maintain stability , must be at least six inches wide or apart when closed. Wood selection is no great problem. It is safe to assume that any hardwood is suitable. I used white oak because it is stable and has strong grain pattern, which I felt was desirable in this simple design. Because some shaping is involved, it is also advisable to use a wood you are familiar with. I have found that the most logical sequence of construction is to build the gate-leg frames, then the table frame and finally the leaves. The entire table is made from 7 / 8-inch thick stock . In cutting the leg parts, remember to allow 2 - 1 / 2 inches extra for tenons for the horizontal crosspieces. Next, lay out and cut 1 I 2 - inch mortise joints, and tenons to fit. Care must be taken in assembling the members to ensure a square leg frame. After clamping, measure the diagonals and re-square if necessary . This step will avoid problems later in the table frame assembly . Before shaping the legs, drill and position the dowels the legs will pivot on. Then shape and sand each leg until you get finished surfaces. Frame construction begins with cutting all members to le?gth and width. Lay out the dovetails (which I chose because of their strength and simple beauty) . First cut the pins on the frame side members, where pressure will be

42

exerted if wracking of the frame occurs . Then cut the tails on the top and bottom members. After the jointing is completed, dry-clamp the frame into position. This step will help avoid confusion while laying out the side handles, bottom frame cutouts and the 1 I 2 -inch diameter holes for the gate legs. Also, the hinges have to be routed into position before the frame is assembled . (I found these special drop-leaf hinges, shown in the photograph above right, in the Minnesota Woodworkers Supply and the Craftsman Wood Service catalogs . ) It i s easier t o sand the interior surfaces before assembly because the legs will interfere with any later attempts . Assembling the frame is simple if your dovetails fit well and the gate legs are square. The legs must be in position before final assembly . The tops are simple laminations with tongue and groove breadboard ends . A few tips may be helpful. To ensure that the wood of each leaf matches up , laminate one large top and then crosscut into two pieces. Remember that wood expands. The width of the leaves is determined by the season of the year that you fit the top to the frame . Leave a larger gap if you build the table in the winter. You may still have to adjust the leaves for summer humidity. A slight friction fit holds the leaf closed against the bottom of the frame when the table is folded . This fit is accomplished by planing the breadboard end and moving the adjustable hinges until the desired pressure is attained. To allow the leaves to expand and contract, I secured each breadboard with three 2 -inch # 1 2 roundhead wood screws set into I I 2 -inch diameter counterbored holes that were later plugged. When drilling the shank clearance holes, I elongated the outer two holes, creating a slot in which the fixing screws could slide. The pilot holes for all screws were drilled normally. By using this method you can securely fix the tabletop to the breadboard ends, but also allow the outer edges to move freely. Because I used only one breadboard on each leaf, an additional method to minimize warpage on the hinge end was needed. The method I chose was to alternate the heart? wood-sapwood sides of the top ' s laminations. This created a slight washboard effect, but avoided the large distortions that would have occurred without some hold-down method . Other possible solutions to this warpage problem are using two breadboard ends on each leaf, or using oak plywood for the top, thus avoiding the movement problem. You can experiment with the finish. I used Watco oil , which is easy to care for , but you may prefer a more durable finish for everyday use .

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43

Turning Conference
Notes and information on a recent gathering
by John Kelsey

hole ; one old book specifies . 0 1 inch larger than half for every . 1 inch of diameter. Then he grinds a small, sloping step across the half-round end, with the high side of the step at the diameter. Finally, he rolls the rod against the emery wheel from where the half-round stops to the far end . A standard drill of the appropriate size starts the hole , then the rod is eased in and out of the revolving work by hand, through a steady made from a pipe tee mounted on the lathe ways. Max Brody, a retired patternmaker, turns wood as a hobby. He agrees that a turner should learn to use the skew and gouge , but insists that really accurate work can be done only with a scraper. Max's current specialty is a set of three gavels : one is built up of 1 3 blocks of alternating light and dark wood to represent the 1 3 colonies, one is of 5 0 blocks to represent the states, and the third has 2 00 blocks for the bicentennial . To turn a piece to the exact profile of a template, Max coats the edge of the template with colored crayon. When he holds the template up to the revolving work, the crayon rubs off on the high spots. Paul Eshelman, at 69, is half-blind from diabetes. He is also among the best woodturners in America. His bowls were shown at the 1 9 5 8 World ' s Fair in Belgium . He uses a half-inch round? nose scraper, with a sharp burr, to make shapely vases, bowls and plates, mostly of green wood. Eshelman is a courtly gentleman , once a music scholar, who recently re? tired from the industrial arts depart? ment at Millersville (Pa . ) State College. He takes off his tie, aims his tool at the whirling wood , and attacks it . He grins as shavings fly off in great curls. The bowl is roughed, inside and out , in less time than it takes to tell. Eshelman turns mostly green wood , which vastly increases the amount of stock available to him and keeps the cost minimal or zero. To avoid check? ing , the wood must be kept damp until it is turned to rough shape. Eshelman stores disks and planks in an old , very damp pump room under his house . He periodically douses his stash with a bucket of water. One can also wrap the wood in plastic. Once the bowl is roughed to shape,

Fifty woodturners from around the Northeastern states rolled into the George School in Newtown, Pa. , on the last weekend in March to share lore, reduce squares to mounds of chips, and watch artists like Paul Eshelman do their stuff. They included students, teachers, full-time woodworkers, and hobbyists. Their abilities ranged from novice to master. Some notes : Albert LeCoff conceived of the con? ference and was the force that made it happen . His twin brother Alan , a sociologist by trade, volunteered to take on the bureaucratic details. He proved that if 50 woodturners pay $ 2 5 each and find their own accommodations with each other and friends in the area, they can enjoy a three-day conference m superb facilities, with lunch , morning doughnuts and a thick portfolio of printed reference material , plus a tour of the Mercer Museum thrown in - and show enough profit to pay the instructors a small honorarium. Palmer Sharpless rules the woodshop at George School. He offered its facilities to the conference, arranged with friends to bring in more lathes, for a total of 1 0 , and commandeered the time and energy of some of his family to make the weekend a huge success . An artful and ingenious turner, Sharpless enjoys demonstrating the finer points on an ancient colonial treadle lathe that is driven by the turner' s strong right leg . He points out that the lathe, one of the oldest machines used by men , was for a long time the only power tool the wood? worker had. " How much colonial woodworkers leaned on the lathe ! " he says. " They used turnings for almost everything . " Wearing his tricorn hat, Sharpless can pump the treadle and sweetly pare 44

out a baby' s rattle he calls a three-ring circus, keeping an instructive patter going the whole while.
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70

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Michael Hornpiper, of West Phila? delphia, makes flutes, fifes and bag? pipes. " What makes music in a wood? wind instrument, " he explains, " is a column of air with holes and tapers. The lathe is ideal for doing that to a column of air. " Hornpiper finds that a piece of drill rod, properly ground, can be made into a shell auger for boring straight holes along the axis of a spindle. First , he grinds the rod to a half-round for a distance of two or three inches from one end . He leaves slightly more than half of the rod so it can ' t wobble in the

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with the walls an inch or more thick, he lets it sit around his unheated shop for six months to dry. Some workers coat the end grain with shellac to retard drying ; Eshelman doesn 't. He wants the wood to dry. He has turned 90 bowls from a single tree without losing one to checking. If he gets a small log , he simply splits it into quarters or thirds, with a sledge and a wedge, and cuts blocks for turning deep cups and vases in the end grain . If he gets a large log , he has a saw? mill square it and cut it this way :

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The best planks for bandsawing into bowl blanks are the two adjacent to the center plank. The one from the center of the log must be divided so that the pith - the heart of the annual rings, from whence most checking begins is entirely removed. The outer planks will cup and warp the most . E?helman turns so the bowl follows the tree 's rings, rim toward the heart of the tree. If woods that check easily, like apple, are stored under water for a few months before turn ing, they will be less liable to check. Eshelman 's ebony finish , which stains the wood a rich black and leaves the figure white , is most suitable for open-grained woods such as ash and oak . Mix together a level teaspoon ( 1 00 grams) of potassium chlorate, 1 1 2 teaspoon (50 grams) of copper sulfate, and 1 1 2 cup (6 1 5 grams) of distilled water. Separately mix 1 teaspoon ( 1 00 grams) of aniline hydrochloride, 1 1 2 teaspoon (40 grams) of ammonium chloride , and 1 / 2 cup (6 1 5 grams) of distilled water. Combine the two solutions and coat the wood. Repeat twice on two successive days. (The solution spoils after three to five days .) Then paint with white enamel , and rub off so the white remains in the pores of the wood . Fin ish with varnish or oil in the usual way . Eshelman likes to try different finishes on different woods, but he relies on Waterlox.

The author, a woodworker In Rochester, N . Y . , views the lathe as a tool for making parts of almost any shape by cutting and recom bining. Here are the steps in making a basket with a handle out of a bowl with a post left in the middle.

can make this section not only round, but any shape he likes . Similarly, a spindle can be thought of as a solid of revolution . Its cross section can be almost any curve ' that does not cross itself. The cross section can be obtained from the spindle by sawing it apart. These ideas originate with Stephen Hogbin , a designer and turner working in Toronto . Manny Erez , 63 , learned to turn in Palestine at age 21 in the shop of his father-in -law. He became an extra? ordinarily swift spindle turner, who during World War II didn ' t balk at hand-turning an order of 140,000 handles for shaving btushes for the British air force. Albert LeCoff, who apprenticed under him , swears that Manny can bang out 20 newel posts in a day, by eye . Manny doesn 't scrape at all . He uses the gouge and skew . He was old and ill , recently out of the hospital , when he arrived at the conference Friday morning. His hands shook and he hadn 't turned in a year. Perhaps it was the infectious en? thusiasm of so many woodturners . By the end of the day, Manny said his hands had steadied and he felt better than he had in ages. That evening he called LeCoff to say, " Alben , bring my tools tomorrow. I ' m going t o turn . " And h e did. With such grace and ease that one could only marvel . 45

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Stroke Sander
Building a machine to smooth flat panels
by M. C. Rekoff, Jr.

A hand-stroke belt sander is a wood? working power tool used to smooth large , flat surfaces. Both soft and hard woods can be sanded without gouging, a frequent danger when using portable belt sanders. The author was motivated to design and build the stroke sander when faced with making 38 cabinet doors of 3 / 4-inch birch plywood edged with solid birch . The stroke sander was

a convenient way to sand the edging flush with the ply. When using the stroke sander, the work is placed on the table and posi? tioned under the moving sanding belt. A sanding block is brought to bear on the sanding belt and is moved back and forth along it while the table is simul? taneously moved in and out at right angles to the direction of belt travel .

The area that can be sanded without re? positioning the work is limited only by the table length and the range of its travel . This stroke sander can accom? modate a 30 by 7 3 -inch workpiece without repositioning. The design can be altered, within reason, to accom? modate work of other dimensions. The distance between the sanding belt and the sliding table is adjustable to accom-

Sander has three drums for g reater working room, but middle one could be eliminated. Sanding belt moves clockwise.

46

modate work of different thickness . The least expensive commercially available stroke sander costs about $ 1 5 00 without the drive motor. The stroke sander described here can be built for under $400 using all new material and including a new motor. The costliest items are the sanding belt drums and the motor ; the cost can be further reduced if a used motor can be obtained. A three-drum version was constructed because at the outset it was not clear that two drums would provide enough space for the operator' s hand. Since the project has been completed, it appears that a two-drum version could be satisfactory , if used with some care and a low-profile sanding block. The two-drum versIOn would, of course, further reduce the cost of con? struction . The drums are made b y Mooradian Manufacturing Company ( 1 7 5 2 E. 2 3rd St. , Los Angeles, Calif. 900 5 8 . Telephone 2 1 3 -747-6 348) . They are 7 inches in diameter and 7 inches long, to accommodate a standard 6-inch sanding belt. The two drums mounted

Standard dn·ve drum (le ft) and reversed (ng ht) . Idler drum not shown.

on the pedestals are stock items ; one is a drive drum and one is an idler which has mechanisms for adjusting tension and tracking. If a three-drum sander is to be built , the drum on the beam is a drive drum reversed in its stand, and this reversal must be specified when the order is placed. There is hardly anything more frus? trating than an underpowered wood? working tool , particularly a sander. The drum manufacturer recommends a minimum I -horsepower motor. The

stroke sander described here is powered by a 1 - 1 / 2 horsepower, 1 7 50 rpm , single-phase, 2 20-volt induction mo? tor. The author has not been able to stall the machine using a 1 00-grit belt. To reach sanding belt design speeds, a motor pulley of 3 - 1 /4-inch diameter and a drum drive pulley of 2 - 1 / 2 - inch diameter is recommended. The drive vee belt is 1 / 2 by 60 inches. The powered pulley is on the left, and the sanding belt travels over the work table from right to left . This con-

Pedestals are 18 inches square, 48 hzgh overall. Top shelf is 9-1 /2 inches deep. Two front columns are 39- 1 12 inches hzgh. Upper, middle and lower cross members go from front to back to support shelves. Angle irons in insets f asten to floor.

47

figuration is dictated by the design of the adjustable idler drum . The machine has seven major parts : two pedestals, a beam , a table, a table support, and two support arms. These are fabricated from standard-dimension lumber and all joints are screwed and glued. The machine should be built and assembled according to the sequence of the instructions that follow .
Pedestals

One pedestal supports the drive drum and one the idler drum. The dif? ference between the two, apart from provisions for mounting the motor, IS

that the drive pedestal has a slot in its shelf for the vee belt. The pedestals are made from stud-grade fir 2 by 4 ' s jointed and planed down to 1 - 3 / 8 by 3 - 1 / 4 inches to ensure sharp corners and square sides. The shelves are made from a harder wood such as yellow pine or oak to provide a firm surface to which the drum stands can be bolted. The pedestal columns, crossmembers and shelves are fastened together with screws (#1 0 flat heads used through? out) . The inside surface of the back side of each pedestal is covered with 3 / 8 or 1 I 2 -inch plywood from the drum shelf to the floor , to stiffen the structure against side loads. The shelves were attached to the

underside of the middle crossmembers of the pedestal so that the inboard middle crossmember would act as a dust shield, partially blocking the sanding dust as it comes off the workpiece. The sanding belt clears the upper edge of the middle crossmember by less than one inch . The motor mount pad is an 1 8-inch long piece of 2 by 10 fastened to the front and middle columns of the pedestal with four lag screws, with 1 / 4-inch plywood placed above it to act as a dust shield. The pedestal supporting the idler drum has a solid shelf and is enclosed with 1 / 4 -inch plywood to provide space to srore sanding belts. To ensure proper belt tension and tracking, each pedestal must be bolted to the floor. Three brackets are used, one on each outboard corner and one centered inboard . The brackets are made from 3-inch lengths of 3 / 1 6 by 2 - 1 I 2 -inch square angle iron , drilled with 7 / 16-inch holes. Each is bolted to the pedestal with both a lag screw and a carnage bolt .
Beam

Pedestal (above) holds motor and drive drum. Table support (below) allows table to move at nght angles to belt. Longitudinal me mbers are 73 inches long, 22 inches apart. Razis are about 18 inches in from ends.

The beam supports the third drum and rigidly fixes the top edges of both pedestals with respect to each other. The box construction ensures stiffness for proper belt tension. The beam was made from No. 1 yellow pine to ensure that it would be knot-free. The vertical members are 2 by 4 ' s , and the horizontal members are 2 by 1 0 ' s . The horizontal members are screwed and glued to the verticals. In the original design the beam extended over the entire top surface of each pedestal , but lumber of the requisite quality and length was un? available . The beam on the author's machine is 8 feet long and this provides enough overlap to ensure rigidity.
Table Support

The table support permits the table to move at right angles to the belt. The wooden members are knot-free No. 1 yellow pine 2 by 4 ' s ; the wheel rails are 1 1 8 by 1 - 1 I 4-inch square angle iron 48 inches long . The crossmembers are cut to length, vee-grooved and fastened to the longi? tudinal members with lag screws. The framework is further stabilized with 48

l i S by 1 - 1 1 4- inch square angle iron brackets 3 - 1 1 4 inches long. This arrangement keeps the bolts from fouling the lag screws and each other. After the frame is assembled , the longi? tudinal members must be notched with ' a handsaw to extend the vee-groove all the way across the table support. The wheel rails are fastened to the framework with screws, (countersunk to clear the wheels) . A 1 I 4-inch machine bolt is installed in drilled and tapped holes at each end of one rail to prevent the table from inadvertently rolling off. Wooden blocks 2 - 1 1 2 inches square by 4 inches are screwed and glued to the underside of each end of each longitudinal mem ber to prevent motion in the direction of belt travel . To ensure a close fit , these blocks are best attached after the pedestal is bolted to the floor, the support arms are attached, and the table support is in place.
Support Arms

is finally assembled together. Table The stroke-sander table is made from 5 / 4 by 3 - 1 I 2 - inch lumber (2x4 stud? grade fir planed down) . The cleats are made from 3 / 4 by 2 - 1 I 2 - inch plywood scraps screwed and glued ro the top . The wheel brackets are made from 24- inch lengths of 3 / 1 6 by 2-inch square angle iron, and the four wheels are 5 I S by 2-inch composition roller skate wheels. Any suitable caster wheels would do . The axles are 1 I 4-inch machine bolts inserted into threaded holes 3 I S- inch from the bottom edge of the angle iron and locked into place with a lockwasher and nut tightened against the angle iron. The wheel brackets are fitted by first cee-clamping them to the table and then placing the table on the table support. The wheel brackets are then adjusted so the table moves freely back and forth on the tracks. When the desired performance has been achieved, the table top and brackets are drilled for carriage bolts, and the heads are countersunk. A door or window lift handle fastened to the underside of the table is convenient.
Assembly

Two support arms are required ; one is the mirror image of the other. Each is made from a 3D-inch piece of o. 1 yellow pine 2 by 4 . A 1 - 1 1 2 by 7-inch strip of 3 / 4-inch plywood is screwed and glued to the front end of the arm . A block 1 - 1 / 2 by 2 by 5 inches is screwed and glued ro the arm ' s upper surface, flush with the rear end of the arm . Two 6- inch pieces of l i S- inch angle iron 1 - 1 / 4-inch square are carriage bolted to each arm 1 - 1 1 2 inches away from the front plywood strip and from the rear block. The spaces are to receive the ends of the table support . The support arm is attached to the pierced angle iron on the pedestal with carriage bolts, but the drilling of these holes is best delayed until the machine

facing the machine from the operator' s posltlon . The pedestals are separated by the length of the longitudinal member of the table support, measured both at the bottom and at the shelf levels of the pedestals. If the floor is not perfectly flat , these distances will differ. Position the pedestals so that the shorter of the twO distances is the length of the table support plus l i S-inch . This permits easy removal of the table support when changing table height. Then mark the floor through the bolt-down brackets and fasten the pedestals to the floor, but use slightly oversize holes in the brackets to allow for adjustments. For subsequent alignment work it is prudent to level both pedestals in the front to back direction (at right angles to the sanding belt) , using the drum shelves as the reference. Attach Beam . The beam is positioned atop the pedestals and centered so that it overlaps each by the same amount. A 3 / S-inch hole is drilled thtough the center of the beam in line with the center of the in board upper crossmember of each pedestal . The hole in the top element of the beam is enlarged to pass a socket wrench . A 3 I S by 6- inch lag screw , with washer, is passed through the holes, driven into the crossmember, and tightened down . Two 3 / S-inch holes

When the various components of the stroke sander are constructed to the extent described above, the machine is ready for assembly. Bolt Pedestals to Floor. A relatively flat and level surface should be chosen for erecring the stroke sander, consider? ing nearby obstacles that might inter? fere with table travel . A chalk line is placed on the floor to align the front edges of the pedestals. The drive pedestal should be on the left when

Right-hand razl support is shown at nght. Pierced angle irons allow ad justment 0/ razl support height. Table (below) is 25 by 72 inches, n"des on razls.

49

Stick and two strings de fine vertical plane used in aligning drums.

are drilled in each end of the lower flange , and matching holes are drilled in the pedestal top members. Two carriage bolts (3 1 8 by 3 - 1 1 2 inches) then bolt the beam to the pedestal . Attach the Pierced Angle Iron. The pierced angle iron is 1 - 5 1 8 inches square. It comes with 3 1 8-inch holes drilled on i - inch centers, and every other hole is oblong (roughly 3 1 8 by 3 1 4 inch) . Saw through the center of the round holes to cut four 36-inch lengths. The pierced angle iron is at? tached to the front and the back inboard columns of the pedestals with four equally spaced 3 / 8 by 1 - 3 /4-inch carriage bolts in each piece. It is best to bolt through the 3 / 8- inch round holes. Position the pierced angle iron flush with the inboard edge of the pedestal , with its top edge 5 / 1 6 inch below the top edge of the front inboard column. The pierced angle is located on the rear inboard column by using a level to extend a line from the top of the front pierced angle iron across the pedestal ' s i n board face . It is prudent to locate the bolts attaching the pierced angle iron to the pedestal in exactly the same place on each piece. This facilitates adjustment of table height because these bolts can be used as references.
Determine Support Ann Spacing .

Center each pedestal drum on its respective shelf, with 1 1 2 to 3 1 4 inch between the back face of the drum and the front edge of the beam. Align the front edge of each drum parallel with 50

the front edge o f its pedestal, and cee? clamp each to its shelf. Be certain that the idler drum , with the adjustable base, has been centered in its adjust? able range. Loop a string around the drums and tie off tautly. The string marks the future location of the sanding belt . Set the table support directly on the floor and position the table on it. Measure die distance from the floor to the top of the table, and call this distance D. The distance D depends on wheel diameter, wheel thickness, and location of holes drilled in the wheel bracket for the axles. These will vary from machine to machine. If the sanding belt is 1 - 3 1 4 inches above the table surface, one can readily sand both 3 / 4 and 1 - 1 / 2 -inch stock without adjusting the height of the table because the belt is flexible. Attach Support Anns. Cee-clamp each support arm to its corresponding pierced angle iron to satisfy the follow? ing conditions : a) the support arm is level , b) the support arm is located D + 1 - 3 1 4 inches below the lower string tied around the drums, and c) the rear longitudinal member of the table sup? port butts against the rear inboard column of each pedestal. Then mark through the 3 / 8- inch round hole on each pierced angle iron that is nearest to the center line of the support arm , drill 3 / 8- inch holes and attach each support arm with two 3 / 8 by 2 - inch carriage bolts. This position for the support arm is

likely to be the one most frequently used. By permanently marking these holes in the pierced angle iron , the table can quickly be restored to the normal position after being moved. The marked holes also will facilitate other setups. For example, if one wishes to sand the top and bottom of a box 1 8 inches high , one need only count down 1 8 holes (or measure down 1 8 inches) from the marked hole and put the carriage bolt through. With the support arms bolted in place, the string can be removed from the drums. Install the Table Support. Lift the table support onto the support arms and place the longitudinal members into the slots provided for them. Screw and glue the 1 - 1 1 2 by 1 - 1 1 2 by 4-inch blocks to the underedge of the longitudinal members. Place the blocks against the support arms to ensure a close fit. Mount Beam Drum. Locate the beam drum in the center of the beam between the pedestals. The beam width has been specified so that the bolt holes for the drum support will be in the flanges of the beam . With the axis of the drum at right angles to the beam axis, mark the mounting holes. Drill for 5 / 1 6 by 3 - 1 1 2 -inch carriage bolts and bolt the drum stand to the beam. Before aligning the drums, it is necessary to determine the horizontal distance between the edge of the beam and the front edge of the beam drum. Hang a plumb bob over the front side of the beam drum. Measure the dis? tance between the front edge of the lower beam flange and the plumb bob string , and call this distance S . Align Drums. Thus far , the two pedestal-mounted drums have been clamped close to their correct positions, and the beam drum has been bolted in place. The procedure for aligning and attaching the pedestal drums is rela? tively simple ; unfortunately, the description is quite involved. The basic task is to establish a vertical reference plane and to locate the drums with respect to this plane. This vertical plane will be described by two strings. Two horizontal sticks are temporarily attached to the outer edge of each pedestal , with their top edges in line with the drum axles. Stretch and fasten a string over the top of the horizontal sticks a distance S + 1 inches away from the beam. Clamp a vertical stick

to the outer edge of one of the pedestals. Stretch another string from the opposite horizontal stick to the top of the vertical stick so that the string passes in front of the beam drum axle. The slanting string is tied off at the same point as the horizontal string. The plane formed by the two strings can be made vertical by adjusting the vertical stick . A level can be used to locate the slant string directly over the horizontal string. Or the slant string can be located S + 1 inches away from the beam . At this point it is prudent to make sure that the rim of the beam drum is one inch away from the slant string at both points on the rim directly opposite the string. If not , loosen the beam drum mounting bolts, twist the drum stand into place and retighten . With the vertical reference plane established, position each pedestal drum so that each side of its rim is one inch away from the string. Locate and mark the mounting bolt holes. Only the front two holes for each drum can be drilled because the beam and pedestal top are in the way. The two rear holes can be drilled from the underside of the pedestal shelf by using a sheet metal or Masonite template which matches the drum stand base holes. Attach each pedestal drum with 5 / 1 6 by 3 - 1 I 2 -inch carriage bolts. Recheck the location of the drums with respect to the string before tightening the bolts.
Determining Sanding Belt Size.

f working room. The author 's son at work. Third drum gives plenty o

Position the idler drum at the center of its adjustable range. With a steel measuring tape, measure the distance around the outside of the drums. The sanding belt for the author's machine is 2 1 0 inches in circumference. Do not order sanding belts until after making this measurement. Belts are made to order by most woodworking supply houses. Install Drive Motor. Bolt the drive motor to the pad . Wire the motor so that the drive drum rotates clockwise when viewed from the operating side of the stroke sander. Adjust Belt Tracking. When the sanding belt is received, install it on the drums so the motor will drive it in the direction specified by its fabricator, but don ' t start the motor yet . Tighten the tension adjustment on the idler drum . Move the sanding belt by hand and observe how it tracks . The drums are 7

inches long and the sanding belt is 6 inches wide ; thus there can be some leeway in the tracking adjustment. The sanding belt should be more or less centered on the drums. Adjust tracking to the best extent possible while moving the sanding belt by hand. Belt tracking is further checked by " bumping" the motor, that is, switching it on and quickly off before it reaches full speed . If the sanding belt tracks satisfactorily, turn on the motor for a full-speed test. If not , more ad? justment is indicated. It is important to establish proper tracking by working up from low to high speeds because it does not take long to ruin a sanding belt when it rubs against a drum stand. If the drum is misaligned so that the belt comes off toward the operator' s side at near full speed, one will have a room full of writhing belt . The tracking adjustment range pro? vided in the idler drum design may be insufficient, making it necessary to twist the drive drum stand slightly. This is done by loosening three of the bolts, twisting the base in the proper direction , and retightening.
Sanding Block

screwed and glued to the base. For a two-drum machine, a smaller, 2 by 2 -inch block screwed and glued to the base would be a more appropriate handle.
Operational Suggestions

The 6 by 1 2 -inch sanding block, or trowel , is made from glued-up 3 / 4-inch oak stock. The oak handle is

Nothing should be stored on the beam while the machine is running. Anything vibrating off the beam onto the belt can be propelled in a random direction with considerable velocity. When sanding, be sure to hold the sanding block flat . The workpiece will be badly gouged by pressure on the belt . with the front or back edge of the sanding block . There is a great temptation to do this to remove a localized blemish , but it will lead to nothing but grief. The lower part of the idler drum pedestal can be finished off as a storage cabinet for extra sanding belts by adding two shelves and a door. The selection of sanding belt grit depends upon the intended use of the stroke sander. The author has found that 1 00 grit (the finest grit available) is the best for most purposes . Since belt sanders in general remove material at a great rate, it is wise to use the finer grits. But for heavier work, such as smoothing edge-glued planks, 60 grit is satisfactory. 51

to $ 1 6 . 00 ; catalog available. intermediate to advanced .

For

Period Furniture Plans
A listing of what ' s available in book and sheet form

Storage bench, rush rocker, rush chair, captain 's chair, dry sink, blanket chest , scallop-top chest , small chests, school master's desk, dressing mirror , bookcase, candle stand, four-poster bed with tester, cannonball bed, spindle bed. oc? casional tables, step table, dough box , drop-leaf table, trestle tables, nesting tables, hutch , flax spinning wheel, tea cart, desks, Connecticut lowboy, fireside settle, dining table, corner or roundabout chair, Philadelphia knee-hole desk, mirrors, accessories.
* * *

Editor 's Note.' Because of the interest
in measured drawings of traditional and colonial furniture, and because of the difficulty in locating sources of plans for a particular piece, Fine Woodworking has compiled this listing of what we believe are books and in? dividual plans of interest to our readers. Only furniture plans are included, and only those currently available . The degrees of difficulty we ' ve applied are naturally generalizations. Individual pieces in a book may be easier or more difficult than indicated. The following companies carry plans for individual furniture pieces which range in scope from small accessories with simple butt joints to complex designs for the most skilled craftsman . They are mostly traditional American design . Some of these plans are offered by mail-order houses also.
* * *

ning wheel , colonial spinning wheel, juvenile roll? top desk and swivel chair.
* * *

Designs, 1425 Sherman Avenue, Evanston , IL 6020 1 . Full-size plans ranging in price from $4.00 to $8 . 00. Catalog available for $ l .00, credited to first purchase . For the in? termediate. Furniture
Trestle cocktail table, pedestal cocktail table, trestle desk , rush seat side chair, tripod lamp table, cradle end table, side chair, drop-leaf table, bookcase cabinet , early American bed, buffet? cupboard, buffet-hutch , turned trestle table, hanging cabinet , revolving book table, settee, curio cabinet, Chippendale-style mirror, collec? tor's table, rush seat corner chair, hutch top , slant-top desk, dry sink, corner cupboard , what? not cabinet, sawbuck bench , sawbuck dining table, china hutch , Welsh hutch , buffet, cradle, mirror, home bar , swivel stool, chest on chest, chest of drawers, night table, spindle bed, roll-top unit, double pedestal desk , fireside rocker, cap' tain's chair, step-table, tea cart , Boston rocker, Hitchcock-type chair , canopy bed, trestle bench , trestle dining table , wall units, blanket chests, trundle bed, swinging cradle, captain's desk , small roll-top desk , pedestal extension table, bach? elor's chest, American colonial-style living room set , accessories, occasional tables, cocktail tables, end table, mirror , tripod table, nest of tables, headboard, night stand, dressing mirror, English stools, chest of drawers, gun cabinets, baby furniture, modern living room , dining room, and bedroom furniture.
* * *

3 1 3 Montvale Ave . , Woburn, Mass. 0 1 80 1 . Carlyle Lynch 's measured drawings in · blue? print form ; bill of materials, construc? tion notes ; for the intermediate to advanced. Some described in Wood? craft catalog. Plan catalog available.
Woodcraft Supply Corp . ,
Queene Anne corner table, Chippendale table, Hepplewhite dining table, Hepplewhite dining end table, Chippendale side chair, huntboard, four-poster bed, Queen Anne table, Windsor chair, tavern table, chest of drawers , small Chip? pendale mirror, Queen Anne lowboy, Queen Anne side chair, tilt-top table, John Marshall's desk , six-board chest, lamp table, inlaid chest of drawers, Queen Anne dining table, side chair, cellaret , small Queen Anne table, Hepplewhite chest , side chair, spool bed, sugar chest , corner cupboard, Eli Terry clock, Eli Terry tall clock, Pembroke table, sideboard table (all $6.00). Wind? sor kitchen stool ($4.00), Queen Ann highboy , General Lee 's clock ($8 .00) and Chippendale folding chair ( $ 1 0 .00).
* * *

Colonial Workshop, P . O . Box 1 0 3 , Angwin, C A 94 508 (new address) . 1 8 series of 1 0 o r more plans, $ l . 2 5 per series, five series for $ 5 . 00 . Simple plans, mostly small pieces for pine . Construction mostly butt and rabbet JOInts, nails, screws, dowels. For beginner, intermediate.
Series 1 . Colonial ; 2 . Early American ; 3 . Gun cabinet ; 4. Spice cabinet ; 5. Wall shelf; 6. Grab ba? ; 7. Cape Cod ; 8. Modern ; 9. Outdoor ; 1 0 . Wall accessories ; 1 1 . Custom wall furniture ; 1 2. Miniature chest ; 1 3 . clock ; 1 4 . Contemporary ; 1 5 . Old Salem ; 1 6. Garden project ; 1 7 . Shaker ; 1 8 . Country kitchen.
* * *

39 Bloom Avenue, Osterville , MA 0 26 5 5 . Clock plans with scaled drawings, bill of materials, assembly instruction. Plans $ 1 .00 each, with molding parts, lumber and clock movements also available . Traditional styling ; for the intermediate.
Mason & Sullivan,
Grandfather case, Aaron Willard grandfather, classic-style grandfather ; early American grand? mother, grandmother cases ; Eli Terry clock, Willard banjo clock, octagonal school clock.
* * *

Joseph W. Daniele, Building Early American Furniture. An Early Ameri? can Society Book, Stackpole Books, Cameron and Kelker Streets, Harris? burg, Pa. 1 7 105 , 1974, 2 5 5 pp . , hard? cover, $ 1 2 . 9 5 . Fifty colonial furnishings with shorr background information, pictures, ex? ploded-view drawings , bill of ma? terials ; for beginning craftsmen ; easy construction using simple )OlOtS, screws, nails, pre-made turnings and legs.
New England : stool, chair-table, cradle, bellows, pipe box , tavern wall rack, spoon rack, wall clock, end table, hutch table, hooded cradle, desk , mirror, barometer, wash stand, tilt-top end table, commode, tall clock, gate-leg table, captain 's desk , apothecary chest. Pennsylvania Dutch : pipe box , bride's box, recipe box , peasant's chair, candle box , wall shelf, hi-lo Jack stand, hi-lo Jack stand lamp and floor lamp, Lancaster rocker, sawbuck table, child ' s chair, salt box , shelf clock, wagon-seat storage bench , wall cupboard, double cupboard, printer's desk , corner cup? board, rocking horse, Pennsylvania Dutch designs and barn (hex) signs. Shakers : wall shelf, child's bench , candle stand, retiring room stand, sewing table, drawerless chest , storage chest , work stand, blanket chest-desk , shop table, wash stand, chest of drawers, storage desk , tall clock.

Company , Rogers, Minn . 5 5 3 7 4 . Full-size plans from $ 1 . 70 to $ 2 . 20 each. Catalog available for $ . 2 5 . (Also in Minn. Woodworkers Supply catalog . ) For beginner, intermediate . Craftplan
Eli Terry clock, grandfather clock, 1 5th c. wooden wheel clock, Pennsylvania Dutch wool spinning wheel, loom for weaving, vertical spin-

P . O . Box 1 1 1 4 3 , Charlotte, N . C : 28209 . Full? size shop drawings of early American and colonial designs ; price range $ 1 . 00
Old South Pattern Company,

52

Others : wagon seat bench , pine settee, dry sink with top cupboard, trestle table, spinning wheel , hutch cupboard, desk on frame.
* * *

Franklin H . Gottshal l , How to Make Colonial Furniture, The Bruce Publish? ing Co . , 8 5 0 3 rd Ave . , New York, N . Y . 1 00 2 2 , 1 97 1 , 1 8 3 pp . , hardcover, $9.9 5 . Forty-five projects with full drawings, bill of materials and pictures of colonial- type furniture for the inter? mediate woodworker.
Ladder-back chairs, dressing table, splay-legged dressing table with mirror and bench, paneled cedar chest , blanket chest with drawers & till, bed with paneled headboard and footboard, low-post four-poster bed, cottage bed, Pilgrim four-poster bed with spindle headboard, occasional table, bridge lamp, low chest of drawers, tal1 chest of drawers, knee-hole desk, bedroom dresser, sideboard, sawbuck trestle table, sawbuck tavern table, large knee-hole desk, high-backed settle, small dresser, gun cabinet , corner gun cabinet , small tilt-top table, candlestand, adjustable night? stand, splay-legged card table, tier table, mirror and bracket shelf, drop-leaf trestle table, sawbuck table, splay-legged card table, splay-legged end table, ladder-back armchair, splay-legged side table, floor lamp, large trestle table with drop-leaf ends, long and short benches, drop-leaf table, footstool, suitcase rack or bench , cedar chest , tabouret with octagonal legs, smal1 trestle table.
* * *

Forty projects with detailed scale draw? ings, bill of materials , construction directions, photographs, chapters on fundamentals of cabinetmaking and finishing. Many carved elements and precise turnings make the book a pleasure as a reference book, but only suitable for the advanced cabinetmaker.
Queen Anne : tea table, Pembroke table, hand? kerchief table, lowboy, chest on frame, corner cupboard, side chair ; Sheraton : small table, bench, drop-leaf dining table, coffee table, dress? ing table and mirror, four-poster bed ; Duncan Phyfe : library table, dining table ; Chippendale : partner's desk, fretwork mirror frame, ladder? back side chair and armchair, splat-back chair, upholstered wing chair ; Hepplewhite: four? poster bed, upholstered armchai r ; also : nested tables, sets of four and two, tilt-top table, grand? father clock, early American dresser, Dutch cup? board, blockfront chest-on-chest, shel1-top corner cupboard, silver chest , spice cabinet, bachelor 's chest , Salem chest of drawers, Windsor side chair.
* * *

bridge, Mass. 0 1 26 2 , 1 97 3 , 6" x 9 " , paper, in two volumes, each $ 3 . 50 . Simple measured drawings of authentic Shaker pieces for the beginner? intermediate .
Volume 1 . (1973) Pine cupboard, bed, sewing desk, trestle tables, work tables, drop-leaf tables, stands, towel racks, mirrors, table desks, knobs, pulls and wal1 pegs, benches, foot stools, stools, chairs, chair catalog, Mt. Lebanon chairs, chair finials, oval boxes, carriers, trays, clamp-on cushions, spool holder, woodenware, candle scon? ces, candlestand, coat hangers. Volume 2. (1975) Wall clocks, desks, sewing desks, sewing table, tables, stands, wash stands, blanket chest , wood box , utility chest , benches, loom stool , step Stool , revolving stool , stools, chairs, drawer pulls, bed casters, hanging shelf, wal1 cupboard, boxes, model blanket chest , tray , scoop , mortar and pestle, sewing accessories, Shaker stove, dividers.
* * *

Richard N . Johnson, Tricks of the
Trade : Furniture Finishing for the

Franklin H . Gottshall , Simple Colonial Furniture. Bonanza Books (Crown Publishers, Inc . ) , 4 1 9 Park Avenue South , New York, N . Y . 1 00 1 6 , re? print of 1 9 3 1 book, 1 24 pp . , hardcover, $ 2 . 90 . Thirty-nine pieces, mostly smal l , of colonial design for the beginner to intermediate.
Small wall bookshelves, round-top card table, splay-legged footstool, smoking stand, hanging wall bookshelves, joint stool, fireplace bench , six? board pine chest , paneled chest , smal1 two-door cabinet , small boxes, magazine rack, bracket? footed radio cabinet, ball-footed radio cabinet, turned book ends, photograph frame, two colonial mirror frames, lectern, bul1etin board, bookcase table, wing chair, banister-back side chair , walnut library table, ladder-back side chair, high-post? four poster bed, low-post twin bed, small turned trestle table, tilt-top table, tavern table, lowboy table, sewing table, four-gate gate-leg table, chest of drawers, slant-top secretary , early American desk , small chest-on-frame, small mantel clock , colonial mantel clock, china cabinet.
* * *

Worcester Artisans, Inc . , Box 366 , Back Bay Annex, Boston , Mass. , 02 1 1 7 , 1 9 5 8 , 48 pp. paperback, $ 1 . 2 5 . A slim book on finishing which includes a group of New England pine reproductions, with scale drawings, stock lists, instructions for the beginner-intermediate .
Home Craftsman.
Plymouth colony hutch cabinet , Sturbridge cob? bler bench , Sturbridge hanging shelf, Bradford harvest table, Stockbridge fiddle-top table, Lan? caster commode table.
* * *

Franklin

H . Gottshall , Heirloom Furniture. Bonanza Books (Crown Publishers, Inc . ) 4 1 9 Park Avenue South , New York, N . Y . 1 00 1 6 , 1 95 7 , 1 54 pp. , hardcover, $ 5 . 00 . Thirty-five pieces of heirloom furniture for the advanced cabinetworker, with photographs, drawings, bills of material , carving details ; hardware, seat weaving, upholstery instructions.
Hepplewhite: armchair, child 's rocker, dining room suite including side and arm chairs, sideboard, table, dining table with end section ; also, two corner cupboards, Welsh dresser, Chip? pendale lowboy, colonial ladder-back chairs, turned trestle table and hanging wal1 shelf, butter? fly table, Sheraton side chair, colonial mirror, Georgian slant-top desk, Winthrop secretary, Duncan Phyfe rol1-top desk, spinet desk, early American flat-top office desk, Chippendale wing chair, piecrust table, Sheraton -type grandfather's clock, William and Mary dressing table, mirror , and stool, four-poster beds, Queen Anne high? boy, Jacobean chest of drawers, paneled cedar chests.
* * *

Russell

Hawes

Kettell,

The

Pine

Francis W . Hagerty, Make Your Own Little, Brown and Company, 34 Beacon Street, Boston , Mass. 02 106, 197 5 , 1 1 3 pp. , paper, $ 5 . 9 5 . Seventy-two pages of ' ' how-to" for the beginner, twenty-eight pages of plans of colonial design.
Antiques .
Shaker shelf, block stools, doll 's cradle, candle stand, water bench , footstool , settle table, tavern table, joined stool , drop-leaf table, Salem cradle, schoolmaster's desk, six-board chest , New Hamp? shire cupboard.
* * *

Dover Publications, Inc . , 1 80 Varick Street, New York, N . Y . 1 00 1 4 , 1949 republi? cation of 1 92 9 edition , 477 pp . , $ 1 2 . 50 . Good background book for the beginner through intermediate. Over 200 examples of pine furniture of early New England with pictures and descriptions for the collector. Forty drawings for reproduction .
Furniture of Early New England.
Wall boxes, pipe boxes, hat box, small six-board chest , blanket chest, chest on frame, simple foot? stools, joined footstools , settle chair and table, child's chair, candle stand, trestle tables, gate-leg tables, tavern table, half-round table, butterfly table, desk box, school desk, spoon rack, corner shelves, shelves with drawers, water benches, scal10ped dressers , corner cupboards, mirror frames, candle holders, rocking cradle, swing cradle.
* * *

Franklin H. Gottshall, Reproducing Antique Furniture. Crown Publishers, Inc . , 4 1 9 Park Avenue South , New York, N . Y . 1 00 1 6 , 1 97 1 , 240 pp . , hardcover, $ 1 0 . 9 5 .

Ejner Handberg, Shop Drawings of
Shaker Furniture and Woodenware.

The Berkshire Traveller Press, Stock-

Lester Margon, A . I . D . , Masterpieces of American Furniture. Architectural Book Publishing Co . , Inc . , 10 East 40th 53

Street, New York, N . Y . 1 00 16 , 1 96 5 , 2 5 6 pp . , hardcover, $ 1 2 . 50 . Excellent reference book with descrip? tive background and pictures of 1 50 museum pieces from 1 640- 1 840, with 50 measured drawings for the intermediate to advanced woodworker.
Chippendale armchair, tambour desk, chest of drawers with mirror, pole screen , Philadelphia highboy, chest with drawers, curly maple high? boy, kitchen dresser, tri-part bookcase, four? poster bed, slant-top desk, press cupboard, wain? scot chair, occasional table, Bible boxes, chest of drawers , tulip chest of drawers, banister-back armchairs, Queen Anne side chair, highboy, wing chair, Pennsylvania cradle, Windsor arm? chair, Southern cellarette, double-back rounda? bout corner chair, tip-top table, card table, tall clock, console and mirror, kitchen dresser , trestle table, painted chest , bread box, Shaker settee, storage bench , chest of drawers with cupboard, dining table, Duncan Phyfe sofa , "Burro" table, chest of drawers , Sheraton-style sofa , corner cup? board, New Jersey sideboard, Pembroke table, Sheraton side chair, mantel clock, Duncan Phyfe· type side chair, wash stand, miniature tall clock, Sheraton -type side chair.
* * *

Thirty-eight museum pieces with short background material , full construction details, photographs, scaled drawings, detail drawings. Some repeat of pieces included in his other two books, but more detailed construction guide for the intermediate-advanced .
Pennsylvania provincial dower chest , colonial cor? ner cupboard, drop-front desk, sawbuck dining table, empire arm chair, mantel clock, Dolly Madison table, canopy bed, colonial music stand, Duncan Phyfe drop-leaf table, chest of drawers , Duncan Phyfe lyre-back chair, cradle , George Washingto n ' s desk , butterfly table, early American highboy, Duncan Phyfe sofa, gate-leg table, knee-hole desk, wing chair, tip-top table, Pendleton lowboy, Pennsylvania pine table, high? back chair, trumpet-legged highboy, Pen? nsylvania Dutch bench, cupboard, colonial sewing table, 1 8th c. breakfront, New England rocker, Hepplewhite sideboard, inlaid chest of drawers, mahogany cellarette, spinning wheel, American whatnot shelves, Pembroke table, fire screen, room paneling.
* * *

Riverside, N .) . 0807 5 , 1 97 3 reprint of 1 9 5 2 book, paperback, $4 . 9 5 . Classic book o n traditional furniture pieces. Includes construction informa? tion, scale drawi!1gs for the inter? mediate to advanced.
Chairs : Queen Anne, Philadelphia drake-foot , Chippendale four-ladder, three ladder, Hep? plewhite shield-back, Sheraton lattice-back , wing chair frame, Sheraton Windsor side chair, fan? back Windsor, double·comb back Windsor, slot? back , Hitchcock ; stools : joint, Queen Anne, Chippendale, early American fireside bench ; tables : Queen Anne coffee table, Chinese Chip? pendale, Sheraton bedside table, Hepplewhite bedside table, 24- and 30-inch butterfly , small Queen Anne drop-leaf, six-leg drop-leaf, small Hepplewhite drop-leaf, six-leg cabriole drop-leaf, Chinese Chippendale sewing table, Hepplewhite serving tray and table, Hepplewhite card table, Hepplewhite three-part set of tables, Queen Anne tilt-and-turn, oval tilt-top, tavern, candle? stand, butler ; beds : Chippendale, Hepplewhite, spool, trundle ; cupboards : pine corner, ma? hogany corner, Welsh dresser ; chests : pine lift? lid chest , mahogany lift-lid chest , Queen Anne lowboy, highboy, Philadelphia lowboy, high? boy, quarter-column chest , serpentine-front , block-front ; desks : straight-front, oxbow front ; mirrors : Queen Anne Chippendale, wide-frame, Queen Anne dressing glass, Hepplewhite ; clock cases : flat-top grandfather, arched-top grand? father , scroll-top grandfat h e r , grandmother clock, banjo clock , Massachusetts shelf clock, Eli Terry pillar and scroll clock, New Hampshire mirror clock.
* * *

Lester Margon, A . 1 . D . , More American Archi? tectural Book Publishing Co . , 10 East 40th Street, New York, N . Y . 1 00 16 , 197 1 , 2 5 6 pp . , hardcover, $ 1 5 . 00 . More measured drawings of museum pieces with short background informa? tion and photo

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