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必修一


必修①

1. ____________ earthquake n. 地震
2. _______ pipe n. 管;导管 3. _______ event n. 事件;大事

4. _______ canal n. 运河;水道
5. _______ brick n. 砖;砖块

6. ____

______ shelter n. 掩蔽处;避身处

7. __________ outline n. 要点;大纲;轮廓
8. __________ disaster n. 灾难;灾祸 9. __________ vt. 埋葬;掩埋;隐藏 bury

10. _________ burst vi. (burst, burst)爆发

extreme adj. 极度的 11. __________

sincerely adv. 真诚地; 真挚地 12. __________
ruin 13. __________ n. 废墟 vt.毁灭

express vt. 表示; 表达 n.快车 14. __________ judge n. 裁判员; vt.断定 15. __________

二、单词拓展 (A)单词派生

1. ________ n.矿,矿山 mine ________ miner n. 矿工
2. __________ v. 判断, judge __________ judgment n. 判断力

3. ________ injure vt. 损害; 伤害 ________ injury n. 损害; 伤害 ________ injured adj.受伤的 congratulate v. 祝贺; 恭喜 4. _____________ _____________ congratulation n. 祝贺; (复数)贺词

electric 5. ___________ adj. 电的; 导电的 ___________ electricity n. 电; 电流; 电学 ___________ electrical adj.与电有关的
frighten v. (使)惊吓 6. ___________ frightened adj. 受惊的; 受恐吓的 ___________ frightening adj. 令人恐惧的 ___________

三、短语翻译 1. ____________ right away 立刻; 马上 2. __________________ a (great) number of许多; 大量的

3. ____________ at an end 结束; 终结
4. ____________ 严重受损; 成为废墟 in ruins

5. __________ 掘出; 发现 dig out

6. __________ 仿佛; 好像 as if 7. __________ instead of 代替
8. __________ as usual 像往常一样

9. _____________ 被困住, 被套住 be trapped

10. cut ____________ 横切 across
11. ____________ 三分之二 two thirds 12. ______________ disaster-hit areas灾害侵袭的地区

1. Two players are out of the team injury because of _______.(injure) 1. 介词后要接名词

judgement is 2. My personal ___________ that he is to blame. (judge) 2. 形容词后接名词构成名词词组 作主语

五、课文概要 以约30个词概括课文 内容要点。

At 3:42 am, July 28, 1976, the greatest earthquake of the 20th century shook Tangshan, Hebei Province, destroying almost everything. Soon 150, 000 soldiers arrived and made the city breathe again.

1. burst v. 爆裂; 突发

例句: The balloon suddenly burst.气球 突然爆炸了。

运用 填入一个恰当的词。
⑴ The audience burst ____ into cheers. ⑵ When we were chatting in the room, he burst ___. in

⑶ As she was talking, the old man burst ____crying with excitement. out

2. injure vt. 伤害,使受伤,损害

例句 Two-thirds of them died or were injured during the earthquake. 三分之二的人在这次地震中死去或受 伤。

理解 说出下列各句的汉语意思。 ⑴ Three people were killed and five injured in the crash.
撞车事故中三人死亡, 五人受伤。

⑵ He injured his knee yesterday.
他昨天伤了膝盖。

⑶ I hope I didn’t injure her feelings.
我希望我没有伤害她的感情。

⑷ Dishonest injures a business.
欺骗有害生意。

injurious adj.有害的(=harmful) 派生 _______ injured _______adj. 受伤的; 受损害的 injury _______n. 伤害,损害

运用 用injure的适当形式填空。 ⑴ He suffered serious ______ injuriesto the arms and legs. ⑵ Smoking is ________ injurious to health.

请用injure, hurt或wound的适当形式填 空。 ⑴ In that war he was seriously_______ wounded by an enemy bullet.
⑵ You’llinjured/hurt ___________ her feelings if you forget her birthday.

⑶ No one was seriously____________ injured /hurt in the traffic accident.

⑷ The tight shoe_____ hurt my foot. ⑸ The_______________ injured/wounded (伤者) were rushed to hospital.

3. destroy vt. 破坏;毁坏;消灭 (damage sth so badly that it cannot be repaired or it no longer exists, works, etc)

例句 Everywhere they looked nearly every thing was destroyed.无论人们朝 哪里看,哪里的一切都几乎被毁了。

运用 用上述词填空,并译成汉语。 ⑴ What he said destroyed ________ our last hope.
他说的话摧毁了我们最后的希望。

⑵ She poured water all over my painting, and_______ ruined it.
她把水全倒在了我的画上,把画毁了。

⑶ Her heart was slightly ________ damaged as a result of her long illness.
由于生病,她的心脏轻微受损。(功能降低)

4. shock v. (使)震惊;震动 n. 休克;打 击;震惊
例句 Sand now filled the wells instead of water. People were shocked. 井里满 是沙子而不是水了,人们惊呆了。

运用 根据汉语意思,完成英文句子。 ⑴ 听到这个消息,我十分震惊。(一 句多译) was shocked to hear the news. a. I ___________ b. I ______________ was shocked at the news. c. ___________me to hear the news. It shocked d. The news _______ gave me a shock.

⑵ 听到这个令人震惊的消息,他感到 震惊。
He was shocked___________________ to hear /at the shocking _______ news .

5. rescue n. & vt. 援救;营救 (save…from harm or danger; set free) 例句 Some of the rescue workers and doctors were trapped under the ruins. 有些医生和救援人员被困在废墟下面。

搭配
rescue…from….从……中抢救或营 救…… go/come to one’s rescue援救或帮助某人 rescue work /workers抢救工作/救援人员

运用 用rescue或save填空,并说明理由。

⑴ 只有社会主义才能救中国。 save China. Only socialism can_____
⑵ 救生艇被派出去救沉船的水手。 rescue The life boat was sent out to ________ the sailors from the sinking ship.

⑶ 消防队员行动及时,该建筑物方免 遭焚毁。
saved The quick action of the firemen_______ the building from being burned down.

6. trap vt. 使陷入困境 n. 陷阱;困境 运用 根据汉语意思完成英文句子。 ⑴ 他们被困在发生火灾的旅馆里。 trapped in the burning hotel. They were _____________ ⑵ 我中计了, 把所知道的一切全都告诉 了警方。 I was ______________ trapped into telling the police all I knew.

⑶ 诱捕鸟是很残忍的。 It’s cruel to___________ . trap birds
⑷ 你恰恰中了我的计。 You fell right into ________. my trap

7. bury v. 埋葬

例句 The dog buried the bone in the ground. 这条狗把骨头埋在 了地下。 搭配 bury oneself in=be buried in埋头于; 专心于

运用 用所给词的正确形式填空。 ⑴ Our government is taking effective measures ________ to rescue (rescue) those ________ buried trapped (trap) and _______(bury) underground. ⑵ Look! They ___________________ are burying themselves/ _________ are buried (bury) in their work.

8. right away立刻, 马上(不与进行时连用)

I’ll find you the address for you right away.我立刻给你找地址。
例句

辨析: right away, right now
right away 语气稍弱于 at once, 强调动作迅速 right now 既可表示“立刻; 马上”, 也可表示“就在现在”

运用 根据中文完成句子。 (1) 他病了, 你应该立即请大夫来。 He is ill;you should _______________ call in the doctor ___________ right away . (2) 医生现在正在给病人做手术, 请不要 打扰他。 The doctor ______________________ is doing an operation on the _________________, patient right now please don’t disturb him.

9. in ruins成为废墟

例句 The whole building was in ruins after a terrible earthquake.整个大楼在 一次可怕的地震后变为废墟。

运用 用所给词的正确形式填空。
⑴ People built shelters among the ruins ___ (ruin) of the city. (表示废墟时多用复数) ⑵ The workers were repairing the destroyed _________(destroy) building. ⑶ All their hopes were __________ damaged (damage) by her letter of refusal.

10. at an end 终了, 结束

例句 The father’s patience was at an end after the baby’s long crying.婴 儿哭了很久后爸爸的耐心终于没有了。

运用 用适当的介词填空。 (1) My friend is waiting for me ___ at the end of the road. (2)___ By the end of last month we had finished Book 4. (3) ___ In the end, they got to their destination.

11. did out 掘出(get sb/sth out by digging); 发现(find sth that has been stored, hidden, or forgotten for a long time)
例句 The army organized teams to dig out those who were trapped and to bury the dead.部队人员组成小分队,将受困的人员 挖出来,将死者掩埋。

运用 根据汉语意思完成英文句子。 我被困在雪下。我唯一能做的就是希 望有人会来把我挖出来。 was trapped under the snow All I I __________________________. could do was hope that someone dig me out would come and __________.

12. a great number of 许多, 大量

例句 I have a large number of letters to answer.我有许多信要回。

运用 用所给词的适当形式填空或完成 句子。
⑴ The number of the people invited to the party _____(be)50 last night, but a was number of them _____ were (be) absent for different reasons.1 ⑵__________________ A number of people (许多人)lost their lives in the terrible disaster.

写作句型仿写

1. It seemed as if… 看上去好像…… ; 似乎…… 原句 It seemed as if the world was at an end!世界似乎到了末日!(B1P26)

说明 其中as if 可用as though替代; 也 可说It seems that...

仿写 根据汉语意思, 完成英文句子。 ⑴ 看上去好像除了我之外别人都知道。 _________________________________ It seems as if everybody knows it except me.

⑵ 听她说话的口气她好像去过美国。 _____________________________ It seemed as if she had been to _________________________. America from her words

⑶ 好像这个问题没有解决的办法。 ___________________ It seems as if there is no solution to this problem.

2. Everywhere... 无论哪里……(引 导状语从句)

原句 Everywhere they looked

nearly everything was destroyed.
人们无论朝哪里看, 那里的一切都 几乎被毁了。(B1P26)

例句 Everywhere she goes, she will receive warm welcome.无论 她走到哪, 她都会受到热烈欢迎。
说明 everywhere引导一个状语 从句时, 相当于wherever。

仿写 根据汉语意思, 完成英语句子。

⑴ 无论他走到哪儿, 我都会找到他。 ___________________, Everywhere he goes I will find him.

⑵ 他们不论出现在哪儿, 都会遇到强烈的抗 议。 Everywhere they appeared they __________________________, would meet with strong protests.

3. all... not=not all...并非都……
原句 All hope was not lost. 不是所有 的希望都破灭了。(B1P26)

说明 all, both, each, always, every 及every的合成词与not 连用时表部 分否定。
仿写 根据汉语意思完成英文句子。 ⑴不是所有的学生都通过了考试。 Not all the students have passed the __________________ exam.

⑵ 并不是每个人都像你那么自私。 ______________ Not everyone is as selfish as you.
⑶ 不是你们两个都有机会去美国。 __________________have the Both of you can’t opportunity to go to America.

4. too+ adj/ adv. +(for sb.) to do sth.
太……以至于不…… 原句 The chickens and even the pigs were too nervous to eat.鸡甚至猪也太紧张 了以至于不吃东西了。

说明 在以下三种情况下, 此结构是肯 定意义:
(1) 当形容词是表心情的ready, glad, happy, eager, willing等时, 表肯定; (2) 和never, not 连用时, 意为“非常, 怎么 做也不过分”。 (3) 在too前加上only, but, all, simply 或just 时,表肯定, 且带有一定的感情色彩。

仿写 根据汉语意思完成英文句子。

(1) 过马路时再小心都不为过。 You can not be _________ too careful when crossing the road. (2) 这个箱子太重了, 我搬不动。 The box is _________ to carry it. too heavy for me _______ (3) 我十分渴望见到你。 I’ m _________ ____ you. too eager to see

5. think little of 不重视;没把……当成 回事 例句 But the one million people of the city, who thought little of these events, were asleep as usual that night. 但是, 唐山市的一百万居民几乎都没有把这 些情况当一回事,当天晚上照常睡着了。

仿写 根据汉语意思完成英文句子。 ⑴ 他不重视我的建议。 He thought little of my suggestion. ⑵ 她没把每天走30里路当回事。 She thinks nothing of walking30 miles a day

原句 Your speech was heard by a group of five judges,all of whom agreed that it was the best one this year.评委会的五位评委听了你的演讲, 都认为你的演讲是今年最好的。(P30 B1)

分析 这是一个含有两个从句的复合句,all 非限制性定语 从句, of whom引导一个_____________ whom其中指代___________ five judges ,该从句也可改 为and all of them agreed that…这样一个并 宾语 列句;而agreed后面的that引导了一个____ 从句。顺便说说,“all, most, some, few, none, three等+of whom /which”引导的定语 从句,在写作中非常有用。如:

There are fifty students in our class, most of whom are interested in English. 我们班有50个学生,其中大 多数人都对英语感兴趣。

语言知识运用

1. 战争立刻就要结束了。 The war would be at an end right away.

2. 无论走到哪里, 我们都能看见许多城市 已经沦为废墟。 Wherever __________we went, we could see a great number of cities had been ________________________________. in ruins

3. 不是所有的东西都被毁了。 3. Not everything was destroyed. 4. 许多人并没有失去信心。 4. A large number of people didn’t lose heart.

5. 一天, 一位农民在一片废墟中挖掘出了 一个完好的茶杯。 5. One day, a farmer dug out a cup in good condition in a ruin.

6. 看起来这个杯子好像没被埋多久。 ______________ It looked as if the cup had not been buried for long.

7. 他决定用这个杯子喝茶代替他现在 的杯子。 7. He made up his mind to use this cup to drink instead of his present one. 8. 他觉得这个杯子可以留作纪念。 8. He thought the cup could be used as a memory.

合并: The war would be at an end right away. Wherever we went, we could see a great number of cities had been in ruins. However not everything was destroyed, because one day a farmer dug out a cup in good condition in a ruin.

It looked as if the cup had not been buried for long, so at last he made up his mind to use this cup instead of his present one. He thought the cup could be used as a memory.

一、语法填空

A mom in Beichuan, Sichuan Province, gave up her life to protect her own baby. The body of a woman1________ was found (find) trapped under the rubbles of a building in Beichuan. Her knees were on the ground and her hands pushed up her body.
由主语可知用被动语态, 且是叙述过去的事情。

A 2 rescuer ______ (rescue) checked her pulse through a crack and confirmed she was dead. He hit the rubbles(瓦砾) and called out a few times and got no reply. 3 _____ When he was just about to move on, he suddenly realized something.
2. 根据句意应是指人的名词作主语, 故填 rescuer。 3. 根据前后句的时间关系可知, when引导 时间从句。

He quickly came back to the woman, checked again under her body and touched a baby. After much effort, rescuers found a 3-to-4-month-old baby 4 wrapped ________ (wrap) in a red blanket, lying unharmed 5 ______ under its mom’s dead body.
4. 过去分词作定语。 5. 根据语境应填under。

It 6 ____________ was sleeping (sleep) quietly when it was found. A doctor immediately checked up the boy. He then found 7 __ cell a phone stuck inside the baby’s blanket.

6. 由上下文可知用过去进行时。 7. 不定冠词的基本用法。

There was a short message 8 ___ on the screen: “Dear baby, 9 ___ if you could live on, you must remember that 10 __ I loved you.”

8. 介词on的基本用法, 由后面的the screen可知。 9. 根据前后句的条件关系可知, if引导条件从句。 10. 指这位伟大的母亲。

二、完形填空 技巧点拨 解答完形的三项原则
解答完形填空应遵循以下三项基本原则。 1. 上下求索—寻信息。 这是因为有的空格的答案信息点在空格 前,有的在空格后,有的在前文和后文都 有出现,需要综合起来考虑或起相互印证 的效果。如:

The school decided that when the driver opened both the front and back doors, 27 who were getting off the bus should get off first, and students who were getting on should get on later. (2010广东) 27. A. parents B. students C. teachers D. drivers 解析: 由下文与之并列的and students who were getting on should get on ...可知, 只能选 B (students)。

2. 左顾右盼——找搭配。 答题时, 眼睛不能只盯在空格 上, 或盯在一个句子上, 一定要“左 顾右盼”, 弄清前后的习惯搭配或 句式结构。如:

On April 12, 1888, Alfred’s brother Ludwig died of heart attack. A major French newspaper 21 his brother for him and ...(2009广东) 21. A. found B. misunderstood C. mistook D. judged

解析: 四个选项中, 能与后面for搭配的,只 有mistook; 即mistake A for B (将A误以为B)。

3. 思前想后——通全文。 有时, 若单独看空格处或空格所在句, 其中两个、三个甚至四个选项填入格中都 没有语法错误, 句子也通顺, 但结合全文内 容来理解, 就只有一个是最佳答案了。因 此, 选择答案时, 一定要考虑到此选项不但 在本句中合符语境, 而且要在全文中也讲 得通, 即贯通全文。如:

Nobel arranged in his will to ...give the largest part of his money to establish the Nobel Prizes, which would be awarded to people ...who made great 29 to the causes of peace, literature, and the sciences. 29. A. additions B. sacrifices C. changes D. contributions

解析: 若单独看空格处, 选项B、C、D都可以填, 从文章 内容或常识来看, 诺贝尔奖金应当是奖给那些为世界和平、 文学和科学等领域“作出过巨大贡献”的人, 故只能选D。

即时练习 I used to live selfishly, I should admit. But one moment changed me. I was on my lunch break and had 1 the office to get something to eat. On the way, I 2 a busker(街头艺人), with a hat in front of him.
1. A. left 2. A. led B. cleaned C. prepared D. searched B. chose C. saw D. fooled
1. A 后面的to get something to eat是作者离开(left)办 公室的目的, 因此选A。 2. C 由前面的On the way可以推出。

I had some coins in my 3 , but I would not give them to him, thinking to myself he would only use the 4 to feed his addiction to drugs or alcohol. He 5 like that type— young and ragged.
3. A. shoe 4. A. time 5. A. acted B. drawer B. money B. smelt C. office C. chance C. sounded D. pocket D. tin D. looked
3. D 根据常识及上下文语境可知。 4. B 由于money与前面的coins构成上下义复现。

5. D 破折号后面的内容是看(look)出来的。 looked跟 后面的young and ragged也属于上下义复现。

But what was I going to spend the money on? Only to feed my 6 to Coca-Cola or chocolate! I then 7 I had no right to place myself above him just because he was busking.
6. A. habit B. hobby C. addiction D. introduction 6. C 与上文的addiction是原词复现。 7. A. realized B. declared C. expected D. guessed 7. A 根据后面的从句内容可知, 句意是:后来我意识到 我不能因为他在街头卖艺就把我置于他之上。

I stopped and dropped all the coins into his 8 , and he smiled at me, I watched for a while. As 9 as it sounds, I expected something more to come from that moment—a feeling of 10 or satisfaction, for example. 8. A. rag B. hat C. pocket D. counter
B 由上文的with a hat in front of him可知, 与其中的hat是原词复 现。

9. A. selfish B. awkward C. innocent D. special
A 从后面的I expected something more可知,作者自认为是“贪 心的,自私的” 。

10. A. love B. sadness

C. happiness D. hatred

C 所填词与satisfaction并列, 意思应该相近, 故选C。happiness与 satisfaction属词语同现。

…I expected something more to …But nothing happened. 11 , I walked off. On my way home at the end of the 12 , I saw the busker again and he was packing up. I watched him 13 up the hat and walk to a cafe counter.
A 根据前面的I expected something…以及But nothing happened 可知此处选A。

11. A. Disappointedly C. Constantly 12. A. moment 13. A. tear

B. Unfortunately D. Comfortably D. event

B. day B. set

C. break

B 根据前面的On the way 和on my way home可知是指这一天结 束的时候。

C. pick

D. put

C 由上文的packing up(收拾行李)可知, pick up与pack up是上下 义复现。

There he poured the total contents into a 14 collecting for an earthquake fundraising (募捐) event. He was busking for charity! Now I donate any 15 I have to charity boxes and enjoy the feeling of giving.
14. A. counter 15. A. work B. hole C. dustbin D. box
14. D 因box与最后一句中的boxes是原词复现。

B. time C. chocolate D. change

15. D 根据第2段的I stopped and dropped all the coins into his 8 ,可知, change(零钱)与coin是词语同现。

addiction嗜好 busk 卖艺
enjoy the feeling of giving 享受给予的快乐

三、话题写作

读写任务
This passage shows many figures about the natural disasters, which happened these years and did great harm to human beings. Thus the author is concerned that it will increase in the future. As the economy develops, people overuse natural resources and some of our activities cause huge damage to nature, like air pollution, water pollution and so on.

When we break the law of nature, we will be punished. That is why so many natural disasters break out at home and abroad these years. In May, 2008, an earthquake worst ever struck Sichuan Province, killing up to 1 00, 000 people and leaving millions homeless. It seemed as if the doom of the earth befell the people in Wenchuan.

Despite these facts, I quite disagree with the view that they will grow rapidly in the future. In my opinion, natural diaasters will be reduced in the future. With the development of science and technology, people will have more advanced methods to predict and prevent natural disasters.

Citizens in the future will also have a better understanding of environmental protection and draw lessons from history, which will help to lower the risks of natural disasters, What’s more, governments all over the world are making joint efforts. As a result, environment has taken on a brand new look.


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