Unit 5 Non-verbal Communication
Culture is a Bridge.
? There is language in her eyes, her
cheeks, her li
p, nay, her foot speaks. —Shakespeare
? Turn to talk with another man ? The problem of using the local language ? Being left in the cold ? She is not supposed to be wearing
trousers ? Falling in love with each other ? Gesture issues of some world-famous figures ? An misunderstanding of seating culture ? This is not a love signal
? When a woman's personal space is invaded
by three other people, What will happen?
? a. She will ask them to sit somewhere else ? b. She will stare at the space "invaders" defiantly,
but she will not move ? c. She will leave, saying nothing to the three people who invaded her personal space
? Flight is the most common response
to spatial invasions, and only 2% of the "invaded" people in proxemics空 间 关 系 学 experiments ever say anything to those who invade their personal space. The invasion is stressful for the invaded, making an early departure is almost certain.
In some cultures individuals regard space as person territory and detest the invasion of their turf.
Poem: "Some Thirty Inches from My Nose," by W. H. Auden, from As I Walked Out One Evening (Vintage). 离我鼻子约30英寸的周围 ? Some Thirty Inches from My Nose 是我的身体的边境 The frontier of my Person goes, 期间的所有新鲜空气 And all the untilled air between 都是私有领地。 Is private pagus or demesne. Stranger, unless with bedroom 如果你是陌生人，而非与我共 处一室， eyes 在我向你招手表示友善之前， I beckon you to fraternize, Beware of rudely crossing it: 请不要做出超越这个界限的粗 鲁动作： I have no gun, but I can spit.
? Personal space is the region surrounding a
person which they regard as psychologically theirs. ? Permitting a person to enter personal space and entering somebody else's personal space are indicators of perception of those people's relationship.
case 1. Personal space 1. In the United States Hall reports that psychologists have identified four zones from which U.S. people interact: the intimate zone, the personal zone, the social zone, and the public zone. 2. In India In India, there are elaborate rules about how closely members of each caste may approach other castes. 3. In Arab Arabs of the same sex do stand much closer than North Americans. An Arab entering an elevator may stand right next to another person and be touching even though no one else is in the elevator.
? An intimate zone is reserved for close
friends, lovers, children and close family members. ? the personal zone is used for conversations with friends, to chat with associates, and in group discussions. ? A further zone is reserved for strangers, newly formed groups, and new acquaintances. ? A fourth zone is used for speeches, lectures, and theater; essentially, public distance is that range reserved for larger audiences.
? Cultural expectations about these spaces
vary widely. ? In the United States, for instance, people engaged in conversation will assume a social distance of roughly 120cm-200cm, but in many parts of Europe the expected social distance is roughly half that with the result that Americans traveling overseas often experience the urgent need to back away from a conversation partner who seems to be getting too close.
? What do you think of the reason for
people?s laugh at Frank?s Chinese? ? What advice would you give to Frank?
? How people view time. ? Linear and circle
冬都是如此，男子才穿长裤。因此，他们 又把男子叫“裤子”。据讲，朝鲜女性俗 称男性为“裤子”。童男子们被尊称为“ 新裤子”；离过婚的则被戏称为“旧裤子 ”；再次离婚的就被贬为“破裤子”；离 过三次以上婚的就是“烂裤子”喽！新裤 子是多数朝鲜姑娘的目标。
日本女人到了街上，八成会有一个朝鲜老 太太箭步如飞地跑过来，以迅雷不及掩耳 之势一把拽住，大声训斥道：“同务（在 朝鲜，人们称和自己平级或比自己级位低 的人为同务，比自己级别高的人为同志） ，你作为一个女人能穿裤子吗？”相比较 而言，韩国女性就幸福多了，夏天韩国女 性的超短裤也是街头的一道风景。
? How important is language in
showing love? ? How much do you believe “ I love you”? ? Is behavior more important than saying?
Case 6 Politicians? behavior
Obama with the Japanese Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko
Barack Obama is criticised for 'bowing' to King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia But his overture has been well received in the Arab world.
? Commentator in a Saudi paper,
approved of Mr Obama's gesture, and saw it as a clear bow. "Obama wished to demonstrate his respect and appreciation of the personality of King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz, who has made one of the most important calls in the modern era, namely the call for interfaith and intercultural dialogue to defuse the hatred, conflict and wars".
Bow to Tampa Mayor
坦帕: 美国佛罗里达半岛西岸海港城市，位于 希尔斯伯勒（Hillsborough)河口，临坦帕湾， 外连墨西哥湾。
? What might you say about Obama by
? The mayor of Tampa isn?t a Third
World potentate(统治者）, totalitarian dictator, or terrorist leader so I can't understand why Obama would be in full-bow mode," a post on the conservative blog Red State read.
? Why does Obama feel that he needs
to bow to anyone remotely oriental? ? I think he?s got a chronic greeting problem, which his advisers should really nip in the bud before he makes himself look even more ridiculous than he already looks. ? Obama does the bow as a false humility ? ignorance breeds laughter.
? Can you guess the meaning of this
Japanese gesture? ? a. I'm scared like a bunny b. I've been hearing things about you c. I'm angry
? We speak with our vocal organs, but we
converse with our whole body. (David Abercrombie) ? 我们用发音器官说话，但我们用整个身体 交谈 ? Do not the most moving moments of our lives find us all without words? (Marcel Marceau, the French artist of dumb show) ? 我们在生活中最动人的时刻难道不是都默 默无语吗？
? In human intercourse the tragedy begins
not when there is misunderstanding about words, but when silence is not understood. (Henry David Thoreau) ? 察言观色；眉目传情；眉飞色舞；舞之蹈 之；手忙脚乱 ? 别有忧愁暗恨生，此时无声胜有声。（白 居易《琵琶行》） ? “执手相看泪眼，竟无语凝噎。”（柳永 ）
Do you know?
? In face-to-face communication, less
then 30% of the information is communicated through speaking, and over 70% of the message is sent by nonverbal means. ? 93%（voice tone, facial expression) VS. 7%(words) underestimated status!
? Time language (chronemics) ? Space language(proxemics)
? body language (kinesics)
Time and Space
1. chronemics(时间学) 2. proxemics (空间学)
? Monochronic Time ? Polychronic Time
Students work in group to list the features and representative countries. What?s the implication to intercultural communication?
Chronemics is the study of how people perceive and use time.
The sense of time ? Monochronic and polychronic views of time
? Monochronic Time ? English phrases:
? punctual, on schedule, on time, on the
minute, on the hour, at the appointed time, at the stated time, in time, in good time, timely, well-timed, perfect timing ? Polychronic Time: schedule several activities at the same time
? Monochronic and polychronic views of time
a. Monochronic time
Monochronic time means paying attention to and doing only one thing at a time.
b. Polychronic time
Polychronic time means being involved with many things at once.
The sense of time
a. Time is cyclical
Life on earth evolved in response to the cycles of day and night and the ebb and flow of the tides. Time is linear (线性的) Western cultures think time is linear — a flow from the past to the present to the future.
Anthropologists divided culture into two broad categories: contact culture and the non-contact culture.
? Nontouch culture
Students work in group to list the features and representative countries. What?s the implication to intercultural communication?
Arabs、 Southern Western Europeans、 Jews and Latins
Americans、 Northern Europeans Orientals
Touch children or not?
Chinese people like to touch other people's children to show their favorite .
Whether touch, pat, or kiss their children, the mother of those Western feel awkward.In their own culture, this action would be considered rude, can also cause other strong revulsion and disgust.
Most people in the English-speaking countries in onversation don't like sit too close, always keep a certain distance. Such as North Americans usually think that 1.5 m distance is "comfortable distance" between human relations.
Chinese people prefer sitting huddled together. While English people would rather take turns dining do not squeeze to sit together
Proxemics refers to the study of spatial relations. The study of proxemics includes three aspects of space: (a) fixed features of space. (b) semifixed features of space, and (c) personal space
a. Fixed features of space b. Semifixed features of space c. Personal space个人空间
a. Fixed features of space
Architecture and spacing of buildings belong to this aspect of space. For example, a person in the United States can drive on a highway for miles and never see a sign of people or dwellings. Therefore, he may be amazed at the closeness of people in China. Intercultural communicators need to realize that cultures have alternative approaches to space and ways of using it.
b. Semifixed features of space
Semifixed features of space refer to spatial arrangements of movable objects within a room, such as furniture arrangement and seating.
? In North American corporate offices, for
instance, the boss is usually physically isolated in a very separate private room. This tends to minimize his or her personal contact with ordinary workers.
Japanese offices commonly are set up with the boss's desk at the end of a row of pushed together desks used by subordinate employees. This maximizes his interaction with them.
Chinese geomancy (泥土占卜 ), feng shui, is the art of arranging the physical environment to establish harmony with the natural environment to achieve happiness, prosperity, and health.
In the United States, they tend to talk with those opposite them rather than those seated or stand beside them. The Chinese often experience uneasiness when they face someone directly or sit on opposite side of a desk or table from someone.
Proxemics, touch culture, nontouch culture
? Body bubbles ? four distances:
? personal distance (45-80centimetres)
? social distance (1.3-3 meters)
? public distance (2-3 meters) ? personality (introverts, extroverts)
Edward T. Hall's personal reaction bubbles, showing radius in feet and meters
Hall's definition of personal space
? Intimate space—the closest "bubble" of space
surrounding a person. Entry into this space is acceptable only for the closest friends and intimates. ? Social and consultative spaces—the spaces in which people feel comfortable conducting routine social interactions with acquaintances as well as strangers. 社交 ? Public space—the area of space beyond which people will perceive interactions as impersonal（非 人际交往） and relatively anonymous.公众场所
The formal term for the amount of space around us or between us and others is proxemic. It is also called private territory. This, too, can be a form of non-verbal communication.
How closely people position themselves to one another during a discussion or talk can communicate what type of relationship exists between them.
Personal distance is about 45-80 centimeters and is most common when friends, acquaintances and relatives converse.
Social distance may be anywhere from about 1.3 meters to 3 meters; people who work together, or people doing business, as well as most of those in conversation at social gathering tend to keep a distance of about 1.30-2 meters
往时的距离。此时，我们只能依靠我们的 视觉和听觉。在这个范围中，当距离超过 8英尺时眼睛能够看到整张脸。这时可以 不理睬别人的存在，也很容易从谈话中退 出来。
Public distance is rather than any of the above and is generally for speaking, most Americans (and other English – speaking people) do not like to be too close.
，是人际交往距离中约束感最弱的距离。 除了在公共汽车、电梯等特定场合外，一 般都在3米以外，如在公园散步、路上行 走，还有演讲者与听众、授课教师与听课 学生的距离等等。
范围内，你再也不可能觉察到面部以及语 调的细微变化。眼睛可以扫视整体身体。 在礼堂、群众性集会以及跟大人物交流时 都保持这种距离，除非他们命令你走近些 。
Being too far apart, of course, may be awkward, but being too close makes people uncomfortable, if there is not a reason.
Asian and Arabic cultures are minimalist when it comes to proxemics. In their cultures, there is little regard for personal space, and judging the warmth or type of relationship by the amount of space allocated to you by individuals would lead to false conclusions.
? Short distances: Latins,
Mediterranean Arabs, Mediterranean Europeans ? Medium distances: Americans, Northern Europeans ? Long distance: Japanese
Touch &Non-touch culture
? Touch culture: Arabs envelop each
other in their breath. ? Non-touch culture: cold climate ? seating arrangements
Haptics or touch refers to communicating through the use of bodily contact. In Thailand and Laos, it is rude for a stranger or acquaintance (熟人) to touch a child on the top of the head because the head is regarded as the home of the spirit or soul. It is believed that a child?s spirit or soul is not strong enough to be touched and has tendency to become ill if patted. Even placing a hand on the back of an Asian worker?s chair is considered inappropriate. White Muslims hug another person around the shoulders, Korea young people do not touch the shoulders of their elders.
Kinesics is the term used for communicating through various types of body movements including facial expressions, gestures, posture(体位） and stance （站立姿势）, and other mannerisms that may accompany or replace oral messages.
? The body language vocabulary:
700,000 items ? Posture: Bao Qingtian ? Gestures: the sign for beckoning招手 ? facial expressions: smile , when to smile ? eye contact ? smell
? While the meaning of some gestures,
such as a smile, may be the same throughout the world, the meaning of others may be completely different. For example, spitting on another person is a sign of utmost contempt in Europe and North America but can be an affectionate blessing if done in a certain way among the Masai of Kenya肯尼亚(东非国家).
? Can you list
some taboos of body language in Chinese culture?
Posture Posture, the way someone stands, sits, or walks, can send positive or negative nonverbal messages. Posture can signal agreement or disagreement. Appropriate posture is related to a person’s status in society. For example, the manager may stand erect when talking to subordinates, but the subordinates may drop their shoulders when talking to the manager.
中 国 文 化 坐 姿
在中国传统礼仪中 , 怎么坐是很重要 的一个内容。最早 的时候, 没有椅子 , 人们会客的时候 都是跪坐在席子上 , 或者是一张叫榻 的大床上,身体坐在 脚后跟上, 这叫跽 坐。虽然不太舒服 , 可是在正式场合 下, 必须这样坐 , 否则就是失礼。
“ In the United States, where being casual and friendly is valued, people often fall into chairs or slouch when they stand; and it is also common to see an 女子就座时，双腿并拢，以斜放一侧为宜，双脚可稍有前后之差，即若两腿斜向左 American woman sit with her legs crossed even during public meeting.” 方，则右脚放在左脚之后；若两腿斜向右方，则左脚放置右脚之后。这样人正面看来 Whereas in China, the lifestyle tends to be more formal, such posture are 双脚交成一点，可延长腿的长度，也显得颇为娴雅。女士分腿而坐显得不够雅观，腿 offensive and are often considered signs of rudeness or poor manners. 部倒V字式也是不提倡的，女士若穿裙装应有抚裙的动作。一般来说，在正式社交场合 ，要求女性两腿并拢无空隙。两腿自然弯曲。两脚平落地面，不宜前伸。在日常交往 场合，女性大腿并拢，小腿交叉，但不宜向前伸直。
欧美国家的男士叠腿而坐时，是把小腿部分放在另一条腿的膝盖上，大 腿之间是有缝隙的，但注意脚不要跷得太高，以免鞋底正对旁边的客人 。
?A motion of the hands, head or body to emphasize an idea or emotion. How can a Gestures distort the message………………..
How can the same Gestures be treated differently in different cultures
Gestures – Around the World
Western Brazil USA
- “Do you have a telephone ?” - “Cuckold (Your wife is cheating to you)” - “Sign for the Texas Long Horns”
Texas Longhorns athletics programs include the extramural and intramural sports
Other Categories of Nonverbal Communication
1. ocuelsics (目光语) 2. olfactics (嗅觉) 3. haptics (触觉行为) 4. kinesics (身势语行为) 5. chromatics (色彩学) 6. attire (服饰）
eye contact oculesics目光语
The study of communications sent by the eyes is termed oculesics. A prolonged gaze or stare in the United States is considered rude. In other cultures such as Japan, Korea, and Thailand, staring is also considered rude. In most cultures, men do not stare at women. In France and Italy, however, men can stare at women in public. In the United States, staring at a person is considered a sign of interest and may even be interpreted as sexually suggestive.
﹠Direct Eye Contact
There are different habits in different nations and areas ? Generally, in Western cultures, it is necessary to maintain eye contact. As a matter of fact ,a Westerner might consider a lack of eye contact as a lack of interest. ? However ,in many Asian cultures, people avoid eye contact to show respect. They do so when they are talking with someone in senior positions or with someone older than themselves
? Americans think the people who don’t
dare to communicate by eyes lack sincerity or dishonesty.
?Arabs like gazing at the people they are talking to enthusiastically and directly. In their minds, eyes are keys of communication.
? The Middle East women believing in
Islamic will be very angry if men look at their eyes. In their daily life, their faces are always covered with a black veil.
? Frenchmen think gazing at ladies as
norm of culture.
? Japanese children are taught in
school to direct their gaze at the region of their teacher's Adam's apple or tie knot. As adults, Japanese lower their eyes when speaking to a superior as a gesture of respect.
Japanese avoiding eye contact in a crowd
? Chinese people feel uncomfortable
and uneasy about the partner?s too much eye contact, because this make them feel as if they make some mistake. ? Chinese people might close his or her eyes or look down while they are listening to a speaker to show interest. However, A Western speaker might think the person is not interested.
What do you think the chief petty officer (in khaki) is communicating nonverbally to the enlisted men in this group? Do you think his message would be understood if the sailors saw but did not hear him?
? If you thought that the chief petty
officer was aggressively correcting the behavior of the sailor, you are right. His body language is sufficient to communicate his strong disapproval without using any words.
The study of communication via smell is called Olfactics. A person?s smell can have a positive or negative effect on the oral message. Activity: Discussion
People in all cultures use clothing and other forms of bodily adornment to communicate status, intentions, and other messages. The vocabulary of dress that we learn includes not only items of clothing but also hair styles, jewelry, makeup, and other body decoration such as tattoos. When visiting Saudi Arabia, for example, the Saudi might wear the traditional Arabic white flowing robe and headcloth.
? Putting on certain types of clothing can change
your behavior and the behavior of others towards you. This can be the case with a military uniform, doctor's white lab coat, or a clown's costume. For instance, it is likely that the Spanish policemen in the photo are more assertive and aggressive when they wear their uniforms. Likewise, others are more likely to follow their directions.
? In most cultures, however, the same
style of dress communicates different messages depending on the age, gender, and physical appearance of the individual wearing it.
? What do the clothing, hair
style, makeup, and body language of the young woman in the photo communicate to you? Now think of a middle-aged businessman with the same clothing, hair style, makeup, and body language...
Do you have a different reaction?
Paralanguage and Silence
1. paralanguage(副语言) 2. silence (沉默 )
? The word, "Yes", for example, can mean
completely different things (even in the exact same sentence), depending on HOW it is said. ? The "how" something is said is referred to as paralanguage, which includes intonation, emphasis, word and syllable stress, and so on.
2. Vocal qualifiers语音
a. voice set the context in which the speaker is speaking:
the situation mood person’s culture gender age
b. voice qualities 音质
volume tempo articulation nasality characterizers 语音韵律特征 segregates语音分隔符
pitch音高 rhythm resonance洪亮，嘹亮 accent qualifiers修饰特征
c. vocalization: speech production, how to speak
Andrews University: Nonverbal Communication Modes http://www2.andrews.edu/~tidwell/bsad560/NonVerbal.html
? 1. Vocal characterizers include things like yawning,
laughing, breaking, crying and moaning, which convey meanings to an audience, where breaking refers to speaking in a broken or halting manner. Clearly a phrase uttered by a crying person will mean something different than once said by a laughing person.
? vocal characterizers: laugh, cry, yell, moan,
whine呜咽, belch嗳气, yawn. ? These send different messages in different cultures (Japan — giggling indicates embarrassment; India – belch嗳气indicates satisfaction)
? vocal qualifiers (volume音量, pitch音高,
rhythm, tempo, and tone). Loudness indicates strength in Arabic cultures and softness indicates weakness; indicates confidence and authority to the Germans,; indicates impoliteness to the Thais; indicates loss of control to the Japanese. (Generally, one learns not to ―shout‖ in Asia for nearly any reason!). Gender based as well: women tend to speak higher and more softly than men. Speaking rapidly and in a high pitch indicates excitement in many cultures.
? Vocal Qualifiers
The non-technical term, tone of voice, means the same thing as vocal qualifiers. There are various things that can vary, and that affect our perception of tone of voice; increasing loudness or softness (of a syllable, word phrase or sentence) is one obvious one. A second set of vocal qualifiers involves raised or lowered pitch, which can convey things like fear, anxiety or tenseness, or designate a question. Third, there?s spread register and squeezed register which refers to the spreading or compressing of the time interval between the pitches when one speaks. 音高的持续时间 Another is rasp, or openness, which has to due to with the muscular tensions in the larynx 喉when someone speaks. A tenseness will result in a more raspy type of utterance for example, a kind of choked sound, while openness is the opposite.摩擦音 Then there?s drawling or clipping which is associated somewhat with accent, and whether the speaker is drawing out individual syllables（拖长单 个音节） or clipping them（省略个别音节）. This is most noticeable if you compare a native English speaker to someone who has learned French, or German first. Finally, tempo can be increased or decreased. Speaking quickly tends to communicate urgency or a high emotional state. Slow tempos give the impression of uncertainty. It's worth nothing that interpreting all of these vocal qualifiers requires knowing the speaker's baseline communication. http://work911.com/communication/nonverbparalanguage.htm
? vocal segregates or separators停顿、感叹 (un-huh, shh, uh, ooh, mmmh, humm, eh, mah, lah). ? Segregates convey messages about internal feelings, such as dissent or pleasure, uncertainty.
? All of these non-verbal (but tied to the
voice) characteristics strongly affect how something is extracted by the other person, and how we interpret the words. They provide an additional context, and a very important one. The key here is that we need to understand that how we say things can be more important than what we say. When looking to diagnose conflict, always look at these to determine if the how is the cause, rather than the what.
? Instructions: "Paralanguage" is made of
sounds that sometimes do not have a written form (e.g., uh-huh means Yes or I'm listening to you). Listen to each sound and choose the best sentence that would follow the sound . ? 1. ? A. This soup tastes terrible. ? B. The baby is sleeping. ? C. You really think that? ?B
? A. Don't you like this suit?
? B. I put glue on the teacher's chair.
? C. Merry Christmas!
? A. I didn't know that. ? B. I don't think so. ? C. Let me think about it.
? A. You shouldn't smoke.
? B. Pass me the salt, please.
? C. This pie tastes good.
? A. This bathroom is dirty. ? B. You broke mom's glasses. ? C. Be quiet!
? A. This bed is really soft.
? B. Don't say those things.
? C. This food is delicious.
? A. Look over here. ? B. That wasn't funny. ? C. What do you mean?
? A. I didn't know that.
? B. They lost the game.
? C. That was interesting.
? A. That hurt! ? B. That's strange. ? C. That's not mine.
Silence is a form of nonverbal communication that may be interpreted in various ways depending upon the situation, the duration of the silence, and the culture. The use of silence in communication is also important. Silence can communicate agreement, apathy (冷漠), awe (敬畏), confusion, contemplation (沉思), disagreement, embarrassment, obligation, regret, repressed hostility, respect, sadness, thoughtfulness, or any number of meanings.
⑴ Give interpretations to the following nonverbal behaviors . l An adult pats a child’s head l A customer in a restaurant waves his hand over his head l Two women walk hand in hand on the street ⑵ In what situations might you need to interpret the nonverbal behavior of someone from another culture? What problems could arise from not understanding differences in nonverbal behaviors?