在复合句中充当定语的从句叫定语从句。定语 从句的作用相当于形容词，用来修饰主句中的 某一名词、代词或整个主句。被定语修饰的词 叫先行词，定语从句一般紧跟在它所修饰的先 行词之后。在先行词和定语从句之间起连接作 用的词叫关系词。关系词有关系代词和关系副 词两种。
? ? ? ? ? ?
who指人：在定语从句中作主语或宾语。 whom指人：在定语从句中作宾语。 whose可指人也可指物，在定语从句中作定语。 that 可指人或物,在从句中作主语或宾语. which指物,在从句中作主语或宾语. which引导的非限制性定语从句可修饰整个主 句。 ? as可指物,在从句中作主语或宾语.也可引导非 限制性定语从句,修饰整个主句。
Thank you for the record that you gave it to me.(×) Thank you for the record that you gave me.(√) 无论是关系代词还是关系副词，都在定语从句中 取代了先行词，因此，先行词在定语从句中不复 出现。
和先行词的关系密切（删去 和先行词关系不密切（是一种补 后影响整个句子意义的表达）充说明，删掉后不影响整个意思 的表达。） 不用逗号分开 一般使用逗号分开 可用关系代词that引导 不可以用关系代词that引导
可以省略（that, who, which 在从句中担当宾语时可以省 不可以省略 略） 可以替代（whom作宾语时， 不能替代 可用who或that替代）
只可以修饰先行词，不可以 修饰整个文句或文句的一部分， 修饰主句或主句的一部分 此时定语从句前有逗号分开，只 能由which或as引导
In their classes there are 15 students who can 不止１５个学生 speak English well. In their classes there are 15 students, who can 只有１５个学生 speak English well. She has two sons who are P.L.A. men.
She has two sons, who are P.L.A. men.
１．先行词是one, anyone, those, he时宜用 who. Anyone who breaks the law shall be punished. Those who are against the plan put up your hands please. ２．在非限制性定语从句中 His mother, who loves him very much, is strict with him.
３．当先行词与定语从句被其他词所分隔时 I met a foreigner in the street yesterday who could ask me questions in Chinese. ４．在there be开头的句子中 There is an old man who wants to see you. ５．一句中有两个定语从句，前一个定语从句 的关系词是that，另一个只用who． The boy that you met last night is the group leader who studies very hard.
１．当先行词是everything, anything, nothing, all, none, few, little，或当先行词被every, any, some, no, little, few, much等词修饰时． Is there any question that troubles you much? ２．当先行词被序数词或形容词最高级, the only, the very, the last等词修饰时．
Is this the first time that you have come to our city?
Li ming is the only one that got full marks in our class.
３．当先行词是由人和物构成的名词词组时． Do you know the things and persons that they are talking about? ４．主句是以who, which开头的疑问句或先行词是疑 问代词who时: Which is the dictionary that he used yesterday? 5. 当先行词在定语从句中作be表语時 Shanghai is no longer the city that it used to be. 6．注意：that只能用在限制性定语从句中，非限制性
? whose通常指人，也可指物，在定语从句 中作定语，后面要紧跟被修饰的名词． ? There are some people whose faces you can never forget. the faces of whom ? I saw some trees whose leaves were black because of the polluted air. the leaves of which
１．非限制性定语从句中只用which，不用 that． Beijing, which is the capital of China, is a very beautiful city. ２．关系代词紧跟在介词或介词短语之后，只 能用which或 whom，不能用that． This is the hotel in which you will stay. This is the hotel which/ that you will stay in.
1. 关系代词在从句中作宾语时,关系代词可省略. which/that/不用 eg. This is the house ____________ I visited. 2. what不能引导定语从句;且what = all that I will do all that I can to help you. = I will do what I can to help you.
3. one of + pl.n. +关系代词 +动词复数 the (only) one of +pl.n. +关系代词 +单数动词 The Great Wall is one of the world-famous buildings ____ _____ (draw) lots of visitors. that draw Titanic is the only one of the most wonderful movies ____ has been(have be) produced in that _______ Hollywood.
1. I can still remember the sitting room in which my mother and I used to sit in the _____ evening. whose 2. A child _____ parents are dead is called an orphan. 3. Finally the thief handed everything ____ that he had stolen to the police. that/which 4. We visited a factory __________ makes toys for children. 5. The man __________ you just talked to who(m)/that was a friend of mine. 作…的宾语
? 6. Please pass me the dictionary _____ whose cover is black. ? 7. Mr. White is one of the foreign experts who/that _________ are working in China. ? 8. Is this the museum __________ you that/ which visited the other day? ? 9. This is the worker with ____ my father whom worked. that ? 10. To get the job started, all ____ I need is your permission.
A 1. Is this the factory ___ you have been to last
year? A. which B. in which C. where D. the one 2. Is this factory ___ you have been to last D year? A. which B. in which C. where D. the one 3. Is Mr. Smith the person __ you know this? C A. that B. whom C. from whom D. by whom B 4. I attended the meeting the importance __ I did not realize at that time. A. who B. of which C. which D. its
A B B
5. What’s that ___ flashed in the sky just now? A. which B. that C. who D. as 6. This book is ____ I’m looking for. A. that B. what C. which D. one 7. This is the most interesting one ___ I have ever read. A. which B. that C. of which D. in that 8. All of the flowers now raised here have developed from those ___ in the forest. A. once they grew B. they grew once C. that once grew D. once grew
关系副词 先行词 功能 使用范围
when (= 限制性和非 表示时间的 during/in/o 作时间状语 限制性定语 名词 n which) 从句 where(= 限制性和非 表示地点的 作地点状语 限制性定语 in/ at 名词 从句 which) why(=for 限制性定语 which) 从句 reason 作原因状语
Do you remember the days when we first spent together? ( ×) Do you remember the days which/ that we first spent together? (√ )
析：先行词是表示时间的名词，定语从句的引导词是用 关系代词”that/which”还是关系副词”when”，取决 于该先行词在从句中充当主语、宾语还是时间状语。在 这句中先行词the day在定语从句中作spent的宾语，因 此要用that/which
I’ll never forget the school where we visited last Sunday. (×) I’ll never forget the school (that/ which) we visited last Sunday. ( ) √
析：先行词是表示地点的名词，定语从句的引导 词是用关系代词”that/which”还是关系副词”where”， 取决于该先行词在从句中充当主语、宾语还是地点 状语。在这句中先行词the school在定语从句中作 visited的宾语，因此要用that/which.
why Tell me the reason ____ you are late . that Is this the reason _____ he told you?
先行词是reason时，定语从句的引导词是关系 代词that／which还是关系副词why，取决于该 先行词在从句中的成分。句１中reason在从句 中作原因状语，句２中reason在从句中作tell的 宾语。
１．介词的选择： 一般介词与定语从句中的动词是一种习惯性搭 配．
The person to whom I spoke just now is the manage that I told you about.
２．含有介词的短语动词一般不拆开，介词仍放在 动词的后面．因此不能使用“介词+关系代词”结 如：look for, look after, take care of. Is this the watch which he was looking for? Is this the watch for which he was looking? (×)
C 1. Do you still remember the day __ we first
came to Tibet? A. which B. that C. when D. where D 2. Is this the company __ all employees are treated well? A. that B. which C. in that D. where B 3. This summer I’ll return to the small village __ I grew up. A. which B. where C. that D. when 4. Is that the reason ___ you had a few days A off? A. why B. when C. what D. where
to help those __ were infected with SARS. A. which; which B. that; why C. that; who D. what; who A 6. Is there a restaurant around __ we can have something to eat? A. where B. that C. what D. why B 7. We came to the place __ they had never paid a visit before. A. to where B. to which C. that D. when C 8. He often helps the students __ he thinks are not quick at their studies. A. whom B. when C. who D. where
C 5. The doctors and nurses did all __ they could
as which 例句
引导的定语从 句既可以放在 主句前，也可 以放在主句后
引导的定语 从句，只能 放在主句之 后
He turned out to be very successful, which was more than we could expect.
意为“正 As is known to all, 如……”后面 Edison invented the 的谓语动词多 意为“这一 telephone. 是see, know, 点” =Edison invented the expect say, telephone, as is known mention, to all. report等
(1) such + 名词/so + 形容词 + 名词 + as… “像……一样的”、“像……之类” the same + 名词 + as… “和……同样的”
Such people as you describe are thought to be fools nowadays. (as作宾语) He is not the same man as he was. (as作表语)
as This is such an interesting book ____ we all like. This is so interesting a book _____ we all like. as 这是大家都喜欢的如此有趣的一本书。(定语从句)
that This is such an interesting book ____we all like it. This is so interesting a book ____we all like it. that 这本书如此有趣，大家都喜欢。(结果状语从句) This is the same pen as I lost. 这本书和我丢的那本一模一样。 This is the same pen that I lost.
5. I , who (am / is) your teacher , will try my best
to help you. 6. To own a color TV set in each family , which we thought (was / mere) impossible twenty years ago , now becomes true. 7. Have you heard of the persons and things that (is / are) being talked about?