辨别下列名词性从句的类别： 1.How the book will sell depends on its author. 主语从句 2.John said that he was leaving for London on Wednesday. 宾语从句 3.The fact is that he has not been seen recently. 表语从句 4.The
fact that he has not been seen recently 同位语从句 disturbs everyone in his office. 5.He will talk to us about what he saw in U.S. 宾语从句 6.It is impossible that I go and attend the 主语从句 meeting.
名词从句又可分别称为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和 同位语从句。 引导名词性从句的连接词可分为三类： 连接词：that, whether, if, as if, as though 连接代词：what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose, which. 连接副词：when, where, how, why
1. that只起连接主句和从句的作用，在从句中不担任任何成分， 本身也没有词义，宾语从句中可省略 2. 不充当介宾 3. 引导主语从句、表语从句和同位语从句,that不可省略。 4. whether/if 均表示从句内容的不确定性，翻译成“是否”。不 充当句子成分。 5. As if/as though均表示“似乎”，“好像”。不充当句子成分。
That/wh-clause + v +…主语从句
S +be/link.v + that/wh-clause表语从句
S + vt + that/wh-clause宾语从句
S + vi + prep + wh-clause宾语从句
主语从句是在复合句中充当主语的从句，通常 放在主句谓语动词之前或由形式主语it代替，而本身 放在句子末尾。 1. It 作形式主语
It 作形式主语代替主语从句，主要是为了平衡句子结构，主 语从句的连接词没有变化。例如： It is a pity that you didn’t go to see the film. It doesn’t interest me whether you succeed or not.
2. what 与that 在引导主语从句时的区别
what 引导主语从句时在句时在从句中充当 句子成分，如主语．宾语．表语，而 that 则 不然。例如：
1) What ______you said yesterday is right.
It is right what you said yesterday.
2) That ______she is still alive is a good thing.
It is a good thing that she is still alive.
宾语从句就是在复合句中作宾语的名词性从句，通常放 在主句谓语动词 (及物动词) 或介词之后。 1. 作动词的宾语 (1) 由that引导的宾语从句(that 通常可以省略), 例如： I heard that he joined the army. (2) 由what, whether (if) 引导的宾语从句，例如： She did not know what had happened. I wonder whether you can change this note for me. (3) 动词＋间接宾语＋宾语从句。例如： She told me that she would accept my invitation. 2. 作介词的宾语，例如： Our success depends upon how well we can cooperate(合作） with one another.
3. 作形容词的宾语，例如： I am afraid (that) I’ve made a mistake. I am sure (that) he will win the game.
4. it 可以作为形式宾语 it 不仅可以作为形式主语，还可以作为形式宾语而真正 的宾语 that 从句则放在句尾，特别是在带复合宾语的句子 中。 例如： We thought it good news that the fog had finally gone.
5. 否定的转移 若 主 句 谓 语 动 词 为 think, consider, suppose, believe, expect, fancy, guess, imagine等，其后的宾语 从句若含有否定意义，一般要把否定词转移到主句 谓语上，从句谓语用肯定式。例如： I________________________________ don’t think the dress fits you well 我认为这件衣 服不适合你穿。
表语从句在复合句中作表语的名词性从句，放在系动 词之后，一般结构是“主语＋系动词＋表语从句”。可以 接表语从句的系动词有be, look, remain, seem等。另外， 常用的还有the reason is that… 和It is because 等结构。例 如： whether/how we can make good 1) The question is _________ preparation in such a short time. 2) This is ____ why we can’t get the support of the people. 3) But the fact remains ___ thatwe are behind the other classes. why he is late for school is ____ that he missed 4) The reason ______ the early bus.
同位语从句就是在复合句中作名词的同位语的名词性从句。 1. 同位语从句的功能 同位语从句对于名词进一步解释，说明名词的具体内容，一般由 that引导，例如： 1) The king’s decision that the prisoner would be set free surprised all the people. 2) The order that all the soldiers should stay still is given by the general. 2. 同位语在句子中的位置 同位语从句有时可以不紧跟在它所说明的名词后面，而是被别 的词隔开。例如： He got the news from Mary that the sports meeting was put off.
(1) 定语从句中的 that 既代替先行词，同时也在从句中作 某个成分（主语或宾语），而同位语从句中的that是连词， 只起连接主句与从句的作用，不充当句中任何成分。 (2) 定语从句是形容词性的，其功能是修饰先行词，对先 行词加以限定，描述它的性质或特征；同位语从句是名词 性的，其功能是对名词进行具体内容的补充说明。例如： 1) The news that he told me is that Tom would go abroad next year.（他告诉我的消息是汤姆明年将出国。）（第一
2)The news that Tom would go abroad is told by him.（汤 姆将出国的消息是他讲的。）（同位语从句，that在句中不作
whether 与 if 均为 “是否” 的意思。但在下列情况下， whether 不能被 if 所取代： 1. 主语从句 Whether he will come is unknown. 2. 表语从句，如： The question is whether you should accept it. 3. 同位语从句，如： The question whether he’ll attend the meeting is not decided. 4. 从句作介词的宾语，如： I’m not interested in whether they’ll go or not. It depends on whether we have got enough money. 5. 直接跟不定式连用，如： She hasn’t decided whether to go or not.
用if 或whether 填空 whether/if I’ll be free 1. I don’t know __________ tomorrow. whether or not I’ll be free 2. I don’t know _______ tomorrow. 3. The question is whether ______ this book is worth writing. 4. It depends on whether ______ we will have enough money. 5. Whether ______ they can do it matters little to us. If 6._______ you are not free tomorrow , I’ll go without you.
that在同位语从句与定语从句的区别 同位语从句 定语从句 that（连词）只起连接的 that(关系代词) 充当一定的 作用,不充当句子成分 句子成分(主，宾，表） 同位语从句与前面的名 定语从句对先行词起修饰 词是同位关系，表示这 作用，表示“…的”。 个名词的内容
同位语从句的that 一般 而定语从句中的关系代词 不能省 that，当其在从句中做宾 语时，常常可以省略
1.The suggestion that he raised at the meeting is very good.
（that引导定语从句, 作宾语, 可以省略）
2.The suggestion that the students should have plenty of exercise is very good.
（ that 引导同位语从句 , 在从句中不担
1.We heard the news that our team had won.
2.We must face the fact that we had spent all our money. 同位语从句 3. The news that he told me yesterday was false.
4. I have no doubt that he will come soon. 同位语从 5. The fact is that we have spent all our money.
1.What he wants is a book. 主语从句 2.It is so nice that we can learn this grammar point together. 主语从句 3.I’m so glad that I can make friends with you. 宾语从句 4.This is why he did it. 表语从句 5.Do you agree to the suggestion that we (should) have a trip in Tibet? 同位语从句 6.That he wants a book is certain. 主语从句 7.I suggested just now we (should) take part in this activity. 宾语从句 8.Whether you like him or not doesn’t matter too much. 主语从句 9.He doesn’t know whether you can sing it well. 宾语从句 10.The problem is whether you can sing it well. 表语从句 11.The problem whether it is right or wrong has not been decided. 12.Please tell me who your monitor is. 同位语从句 宾语从句
1.what / that What he said at the meeting surprised us. a.____ b._____ That he spoke（发言） at the meeting surprised us. 2. if / whether Whether _______you go or stay at home won’t make any differences. B 3. What a pity _____is _____you didn’t arrive by daylight. A. there, because B. it, that C. he, when D. that, for 4.no matter how/who/what/where/when D the country wants us to do. We are ready to do ______ A. what B. which C. no matter what D. whatever
She also claims that those who think the more intense the exercise the better are wrong. Dr Hardman found that the blood fat levels in those people who had done some low-intensity exercise before eating were 30 percent less than those who had done nothing.
The most likely result is that a trend that is already well established will continue: countries giving preference to workers with skills. The fact that adults find it harder to learn musical instruments than children points to a second type of mental loss with age– a reduction in learning capacity.