高中英语主要要掌握三大从句。 分别是： 1、定语从句（形容词从句） 2、名词词从句（包括主语从句，宾语从句，表语从句，同位语从句） 3、状语从句（副词性从句，包括时间，地点，结果，目的，原因等） 一、定语从句： 定语从句（Attributive Clauses）在句中做定语，修饰一个名词或代词，被修饰 的名词,词组或代词即先行词。定语从句通常出现在先行词之后，由关系词（关 系代词
或关系副词）引出。 1、关系代词引导的定语从句 关系代词所代替的先行词是人或物的名词或代词， 并在从句中充当主语、 宾语、定语等成分。关系代词在定语从句中作主词保持一致。 （1）, who, whom, that 这些词代替指人，“whom”作宾语指人，“that”既可作主语又可作宾语（作宾 语可以省略），可以指人也可以指物。 （2），Which 用来指人或物 (用作主语、宾语，作宾语时可以省略） （3），whose “whose”表示谁（可以为人也可以为物）的（东西） 2、关系代词引导的定语从句 （1），关系副词 why 主要用于修饰表示原因的名词（主要是 the reason），同 时它在定语从句中用作原因状语。 （2），关系副词 when 主要用于修饰表示时间的名词，同时它在定语从句中用 作时间状语。 （3），关系副词 where 主要用于修饰表示地点的名词，同时它在定语从句中用 作地点状语。 3、非限制性定语从句 它起补充说明作用， 缺少也不会影响全句的理解。在非限制性定语从句的前面往 往有逗号隔开。 二、名词性从句 在句子中起名词作用的句子叫名词性从句 (Noun Clauses）。 名词性 从句的功能相当于名词词组, 它在复合句中能担任主语、宾语、表语、同位语、 介词宾语等， 因此根据它在句中不同的语法功能，名词性从句又可分别称为主语 从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。 引导名词性从句的连接词可分为三类： 1、连词（5 个）：that （宾语从句或表语从句中 that 有时可以省略） whether,if （均表示“是否”表明从句内容的不确定性） as if ,as though （均表示“好像”，“似乎”） 以上在从句中均不充当任何成分
2、连接代词（9 个）：what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whomever, whose, which, whichever 3、 连接副词 个） when, where, how, why, whenever, wherever, however （7 ： 三、状语从句 状语从句 （Adverbial Clause） 状语从句指句子用作状语时，起副词作 用的句子。它可以修饰谓语、非谓语动词、定语、状语或整个句子。根据其作用 可分为时间、地点、原因、条件、目的、结果、让步、方式和比较等从句。状语 从句一般由连词(从属连词)引导，也可以由词组引起。从句位于句首或句中时通 常用逗号与主句隔开，位于句尾时可以不用逗号隔开。 状语从句细分的话，共包括九种： 1.时间状语从句 2.地点状语从句 3.原因状语从句 4.条件状语从句 5.目的状语从句 6.让步状语从句 7.比较状语从句 8.方式状语从句 91. Mary lives in the room, the door _____ opens east. A. of it 2. B. of which C. of that D. whose
The engineer _____ my father is talking has just come from abroad. B. with who C. with which D. that
A. with whom 3.
He lives in a hotel, _____ is only five minutes’ walk from here. B. which C. in which D. where
A. that 4. .
Is there anything _____ I can do for you? A. which B. who C. as D. that
5. The speaker will tell us about some writers and their works _____are known to us. A. which 6. B. that C. as D. who
This is the reason _____ they are all against the plan. B. that C. why D. what
7. It was not until late in the evening _____ the traveler found a hotel. A. which 8. B. that C. as D. where
I didn’t like the way _____ she spoke to me. B. that C. how D. as
A. which 9.
This is _____ I can do for you right now. B. that C. what D. as
A. which 10.
It was at our college library _____ I borrowed the novel. B. in which C. that D. where
A. which 11.
I have seen trees, _____ open at sunrise and close at sunset. B. of which leaves C. whose leaves D. its leaves
A. which the leaves 12.
All _____ is needed is a supply of oil. B. that C. what D. which
A. the thing
13. The foreign guests, _____ were scientists, were warmly welcomed at the airport. A. most of whom 14. A. who 15. B. most of them C. most of which D. most of those
On the train I saw a student _____ I thought was your sister. B. whom C. which D. that
Is the river _____ through the town very long? B. that flows C. which flow D. the one flows
A. flows 16.
Is this college _____ they went to last year? B. which C. the one D. the one what
A. that 17.
Is this the university _____ you visited last time?
A. that one 18.
C. the one
D. the one what
I’d like to tell you _____ I saw in the exhibition. B. that C. what D. /
A. which 19. use.
I hope that the little _____ I have been able to do has been of some
D. for which
20. Who _______ has common sense will do such a thing? A. which B. that C .whose D. whom
21 The bike and its rider _____ had knocked down the boy were taken to the police. A. who B .that C. which D. whom
22. Put the letter ______ he can find it easily. A. in which B. at which C. where D. which
23. This is the very letter _____ I am looking for . A. which B. that C. as D. what
24. Tom didn’t attend the meeting, ________ we expected. A. where B. that C. as D. what
25. I will give you such information _______ will help you. A. which B. that C. as D. what
26. This is the best hotel in the city ____ I know. A. which B. that C. where D. it
27. The lady ____ is a woman scientist. A. whom you spoke B. with which you spoke C. whom you said to D.
you spoke to 28. This is the third week _____ the dustmen haven’t come for the rubbish. A. that B. when C. which D. on which
29. He is the only one of the students _________ the truth. A. who know B. who knows C. that know D. who are knowing
30. Did they find they went back________ ? A. where had they been D. where they were B. where were they C. where they had been
31. To get the job started, ______ I need is your permission. A. only what B. all what C. all that D. only that
32. My father bought me several books, but _____ was interesting. A. most of them which B. none of them C. none of which D. neither of
33. “Thirty-nine Steps” is one of the most exciting films ____ directed by Alfred Hotchcock. A. which was B. that was C. that were D. which were
34. All of the plants now raised on farms have been developed from the plants _____ wild. A. once they grew B. they grew once C. that once grew D. once grew
35. Those _____ were not fit for their work could not see the beautiful clothes. A. who B. that C. which D. whose
36. The children themselves were calm enough; _____ the parents that got into a panic. however A. in spite of B. those were C. it was D.
37. It is many years _____ we met last in London. A. since B. when C. that D. which
38. She’ll be on the same train _____ I am on today. A. as B. like C. with D. that
39. When people talk about the cities of US, the first _____ comes into mind is New York. A. city B. of them C. one D. that
40. Is there anyone in your class _____ family is in the city? A. which B. whose C. what D. who
41. He hasn’t got enough money with _____ he can buy the computer. A. that B. which C. it D. whom
42. Winter is the time of year _____ the days are short and nights are long. A. that B. which C. when D. whose
43. Football, _____ is a very interesting game, is played all over the world. A. that B. which C. it D. who
BABDB CBBCD CBAAB CBCBB 1-5 BABDB 6-10 CBBCD 21-25 BACCC 41-45 CABBB 61-65 BCBAB 81-85 ADDAA 26-30 BBBBC 46-50 DBDAD 66-70 ACBDC 86-90 CCCAA
BCBCC BDABC 11-15 CBADA 31-35 CBBBB 51-55 DAABC 71-75 DABCC 91-95 BCADB
CBCCA CADDB 16-20 BCBCA 36-40 CBDCD 56-60 CBCBC 76-80 ACCDA 96-100 CBCDB
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------发表日期：2009 年 1 月 9 日 作者：Zola Stone 【编辑录入：admin】
◆英语谚语欣赏 1. He who knows nothing but pretends to know everything is indeed a good-for –nothing. 不懂装懂，一事无成. 2. It’s the first step that costs.千里之行，始于足下 3. He that makes himself a sheep shall be eaten by the wolf. 甘当小绵羊，迟早要喂狼. Ⅰ. 概念： (1) 定语从句：在主从复合句中用作定语的从句叫定语从句。定语从句一般紧接在先行词 (antecedent)后面。 (2) 先行词：被定语从句修饰的成份。先行词可以为一个词，短语，或整个主句。 (3) 引导定语从句的词叫关系词，分为关系代词和关系副词。 关系词的作用： 1) 引导定语从句，连接主句和从句，相当于一个连词； 2) 必在从句中作某个句子成份（可以做主语，宾语，表语，定语，状语） 常用的关系代词: that、 which、 who、whom、whose、as 、but (文语, 置于否定词之后 =that/who?not?, "没有??不??", 在从句中作主语，宾语) 常用的关系副词（在从句中只作状语）: when、why、 where The student who answered the question was John. I know the reason why he was so angry. The boy (whom) you are talking to is my brother. I'd like a room whose window looks out over the sea. 定语从句三步： 第一找出先行词； 第二看先行词在定语从句中的语法功能（做主语、宾语或状语） ； 第三选择合适的关系词。 Ⅱ. 几个关系代词的基本用法： ●that: 可指人或物；在定语从句中作主语，宾语，表语。(指人时，相当于 who 或 whom； 指物时，相当于 which)(一般不用于非限制性定语从句; 不可置于介词后作宾语) 如： 1. A letter that/which is written in pencil is difficult to read. (主语) 2. Do you know the gentleman that/who spoke just now? 3. You can take anything ( that) you like. （宾语） 4. What is the question (that/which) they are talking about?
5. Here is the man ( who/whom/that ) you want to see. 6. She's no longer the girl ( that) she used to be before.（表语） 7. Our hometown is no longer the one (that) it used to be. = Our hometown is not the same as it used to be. = Our hometown is different from what it used to be。 = Our hometown is not what it used to be. ●which: 指物；在定语从句中作主语，宾语，表语，定语。如： 1. The book which/that was on the desk was bought by my father.（主语） 2. The book (which/that) I bought yesterday is very interesting.（宾语） 3. The factory in which his father works is far from here. 4. He was proud, which his brother never was. （表语） 5. Tom spent four years in college, during which time he learned French.（定语） 6. He may be late, in which case we ought to wait for him. ●who, whom, whose: who: 主格, 在从句中作主语，在口语或非正式用法中作宾语; 只可指人 whom: 宾格，在从句中作宾语; 只可指人 whose: 属格，在从句中作定语，可指人也可指物。 I like the students who/that work hard. （主语） All who heard the story were amazed. (代词如 he, they, any, those, all, one 等后多用 who.) Chaplin, for whom life had once been very hard, was a success as an actor. （宾语） He's a man from whom we should learn. = He's a man (whom/who/that) we should learn from. 比较：He is the student whom you think to be worthy of your praise. He is the student who you think is worth praising. A child whose parents are dead is called an orphan.（指人） I'd like a room whose window faces south. （指物） =I'd like a room of which the window faces south. =I'd like a room the window of which faces south. There is a teapot shaped like a Chinese duck, out of whose mouth tea is supposed to come 关系代词作介词宾语: 关系代词在定语从句中用作介词宾语时, 介词可放于从句之首, 也可放于从句之末. 但以放 于句首较为正式.（介词前置，必须注意不影响动词词组的含义。关系代词 who 和 that 用 作介词宾语时, 介词必须放在句末.） This is the book for which you asked. =This is the book (that/which) you asked for. Do you know the person with whom I shook hands？= Do you know the person (whom/who/that) I shook hands with? The beginning of agriculture was a big step in human progress with which nothing could compare until our information age. In the dark street, there wasn't a single person to whom she could turn for help. Is this the factory to which you paid a visit last week? Is this factory the one to which you paid a visit last week?
This is the girl whom they are looking after. (介词 after 与 look 构成固定词组， 不可前置。 look at, look for, look after, take care of 等) ●as 的用法:(as 引导定语从句, 在定语从句中作主语、宾语、表语) ①如为限制性的，多用于 the same ?as ; the same as；such ?as ?; as many/much as；so ? as 等结构中。如： ※I have the same book as you (have). 我有一本和你的一样的书。 Her attitude to him was quite the same as it had always been. (关系代词 as 和指示代词 same 连 用, 在从句中用作表语, 先行词是 same.) ※.---Why didn't you mention that in face of the police just now? --- I thought it was such a minor detail as was hardly worth mentioning. We will only discuss such problems as have something to do with our own interests. Don't do such things as you are not sure about. There is no such place as you dream of in all this world. 比较：I live in the same house that he used to live in. I'm wearing the same shirt as you wore yesterday. 比较：Here is so big a stone as no one can lift. （定语从句） Here is so big a stone that no one can lift it.（结果状语从句） ②如为非限制性的，多单独引导一个定语从句，这种定语从句可置于句首，句中或句尾，译 为"正如，这一点"。 （动词常为 know, see, expect, point out, etc.） ※As we all know, smoking is harmful to one's health . (as 作宾语) =As is known to all, smoking is harmful to one's health . （as 作主语） =It's known to all that smoking is harmful to one's health . =Smoking is harmful to one's health , as we all know .（as 作宾语） =Smoking, as we all know, is harmful to one' health. ※He was a foreigner, as I knew from his accent. (宾语, 先行词是前面整个句子) Ⅲ. 关系副词引导的定语从句: ●When 指时间， 在定语从句中作时间状语。 其先行词是表时间的名词 （如： time, day, week, tear, month, etc.） He came last night when I was out. We will put off the picnic until next week, when the weather would be better. 注意：先行词为"时间名词"，可用 when 引导定语从句，when 在定语从句中作状语；还可以 用 which 或 that 引导，which 或 that 在从句中作主语或宾语。 比较: I still remember the day when /on which my brother joined the army.（作状语） Next month, when you will be in your hometown, is just around the corner. I still remember the days which/that we spent together. （作宾语） Next winter which/that you'll spend in Harbin, I'm sure, will be exciting. I shall never forget the day when Shen Zhou Ⅴ was launched, which has a great effect on my life. There are occasions when joking is not permissible. ●Where 指地点， 在定语从句中作地点状语。 其先行词是表示地点的名词， place, school, 如： factory, room, etc.
This is the place where I was born. I live in the room where /in which he used to live. 注意： 先行词是"地点名词"， 定语从句可用 where 引导， 还可用 which 或 that 引导， which/that 在从句中作主语或宾语。 比较: ※This is the factory where /in which he worked last year. （作状语） The treatment will continue until the patient reaches the point where he can walk correctly and safely. I think you have got to the point where a change is needed, or you would fail. Government reports, legal papers and most business letters are the main situations where English is used. He's got himself into a dangerous situation where he's likely to lose control of the plane. The small mountain village where we spent our holiday last month lies in what /the place which is now part of Hubei. ※This is the park which/that they visited last year. （作宾语） Not having been there before, he simply had no idea about the place, which everyone says is worth visiting. ●Why 指原因，在定语从句中作原因状语。先行词为 reason 时，可用 for which 指代；当 关系词在从句中作主语或宾语时，则用 which 或 that 引导。如： The reason why / for which / (that) he didn't attend the meeting was that he was ill. I don't believe the reason (that/which) he gave me. （作宾语） Have you asked him the reason that may explain his success? （作主语） Ex.) He was late .That's because he got up late. .He got up late. That's why he was late.(表语从句) (the reason) why/for which he was late. (定语从句) 当先行词为 way 时，定语从句常用 that, in which,或 how 引导，that 常可以省略。 way 后的定语从句 的引导词不用时较多。但如果关系词在句中作主语或宾语 时，则用 which 或 that 引导。如: This is the way (that) /in which I do such things. 比较: Please do the experiment in the way （that/which）I have shown you. Ⅳ. 限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别： 1. 形式上，非限制性定语从句往往用逗号隔开。 2. 语法上，非限制性定语从句一般不用 that. 3. 语义上，限制性定语从句与先行词关系紧密，起限定作用，如果去掉了这个定语从句， 整个句子就不完整或者会改变意思； 而非限制性定语从句与先行词关系不是很紧密， 对先行 词起补充说明或描述的作用。 This is the book I like best. 这就是我最喜欢的那本书。 Beijing, which has been China's capital for more than 800 years , is rich in cultural and historic relics. 北京是中国八百年之久的古都，它有着丰富的文化和历史遗产。 4. 翻译时，限制性定语从句可译为一句（较短的一般译为"的"字结构） ；而非限制性定语从 句可译为两句。 （见上句翻译） 比较: He has a sister, who is a musician. He has a sister who is a musician.
引导非限制性定语从句的关系代词，指人时用 who, whom, whose , 指物时用 which , whose; 关系副词 when，where, why, etc. 1. He studied hard at school when he was young, which leads to his success in his later life. 2. Tom's father, who arrived just now, is a famous scientist. 3. They set up a separate state of their own, where they would be free to keep Negroes as slaves. 4. He was proud, which his brother never was. Ⅴ. 几个易混淆的关系代词的比较: ●that & which: 在定语从句中，which 和 that 在指代事物时，一般可以互换使用，但并非在任何情况下都 是这样，这里介绍宜用 that, 而不宜用 which 的情况. ①先行词为不定代词,all,much,something,everything,anything,nothing,none,the one 等, 1.We should do all that is useful to the people . 2.There's nothing that can be said about it . 3.Do you mean the one that was bought yesterday? ②先行词被 only, any, few, little, no, just, very, one of 等词修饰时。 1.The only thing that we could do was to wait. 2.That's the very word that is wrongly used. The last place (that) we visited was the chemical works. You can take any (=whichever) seat that is free. I hope the little that I can will be of some help to them. 比较 *This is one of the best novels that were published last year. *This is the only one of the best novels that was published last year. ③先行词是序数词时或被序数词修饰时。 1.When we talk about Wuxi, the first that comes into mind is Tai Lake. 2.This is the third film that has been shown in our school this term. ④先行词是最高级或被最高级修饰时。 1.This is the best that can be done now. 2.The most important thing that should be done right now is how to stop him from going on. ⑤先行词既有人又有物，用 which 和 who 都不适合，这时宜用 that. 如： 1.The writer and his novel that you have just talked about is really well known . 2.The rider and his bike that had run over an old woman were held up by the police. ⑥被修饰词为数词时. 1.Yesterday I caught two fish and put them in a basin of water .Now you can see the two that are still alive . ⑦如果有两个从句，其中一个关系代词已用 which ,另一个关系代词宜用 that， 以避免语言的 单调或重复。 Edison built up a factory which produced things that had never been seen before. ⑧疑问词是 who 或 which，关系代词宜用 that，以避免重复。 1. Which is the book that you like best? 2. Who is the man that is standing at the gate? ⑨主句是 There be 结构，修饰其主句的定语从句宜用 that 作关系代词. 如： 1. There is still a seat in the corner that is still free. ⑩被修饰成分为表语时，或者关系代词本身是定语从句的表语时,该关系代词宜用 that .
1. That's a good book that will help you a lot. 2. My home village is no longer the place ( that ) it used to be . 定语从句中宜用 which 而不宜用 that 的情况: ①当关系代词的前面有介词时. 1.A zoo is a park in which many kinds of animals are kept for exhibition. 2.Is this the room in which Mr. White lives? ②在非限制性定语从句中. 1.Crusoe's dog, which was are now very old, became ill and died . 2.More and more people are beginning to learn English, which is becoming very popular in our country. (which 指代主句) ③在一个句子中有两个定语从句，其中一个定语从句的关系代词用了 that, 另一个宜用 which . 1. Let me show you the novel，that I borrowed from the library which was newly open to us. 2. At the station I bought some magazines that might help me to pass the time on the train and which I could pass on to others when I finished them. ④当关系代词后面带有插入语时. 1. Here's the English grammar which, as I have told you, will help improve your English. ⑤先行词本身是 that, 宜用 which . What's that which she is looking at? ⑥先行词是 those+复数名词. A shop should keep a stock of those goods which sell best. (B) who & that: who 和 that 指代人时，有些情况宜用 who, 而不宜用 that ①先行词为 anyone, anybody, those, all, one, ones, they, he, people 时. 如： 1.The person I want to learn from is the one who studies hard and works well. 2.Anyone who (=Whoever) failed to come to the meeting yesterday must give his reason . 3.Those who are not fit for their work should leave office at once 4.I don't like the ones (= those ) who talk big. 5.Persons who are quarrelsome are despised. ②在 There be 结构中，修饰主语的定语从句宜用关系代词 who 指代人. 如： 1.There is a gentleman who wants to see you . 2.There are several students in our class who are still not sure about the use of attributive clauses. ③当先行词有较长的后置定语时. 如： 1. I met a foreigner in the park yesterday afternoon who could speak Chinese very well. ④一个句子中带有两个定语从句，其中一个定语从句的关系代词是 that ,另一个则宜用 who, 以免重复. 如： 1. The student that was praised at yesterday's meeting is the monitor who is very modest and works very hard . ●as & which: as & which 引导非限制性定语从句的区别： ①位置的不同： which 引导的定语从句只置于所限制的 句子后；as 位置较灵活，也就是说 as 可置于所限
制的句子前面；插在句子中或放在句子后。如： 1. He was late again, which made his teacher very angry. 2. Jack, as you know, is an honest man. 或 Jack is an honest man , as you know. 或 As you know, Jack is an honest man. ②先行词的不同： as 引导非限制性定语从句时，其先行词多为一个句子； which 引导非限制性定语从句时，其先行词可以是一个词，一个短语或一个句子。 ※He was proud, which his brother never was. （先行词是一个词） She was very patient towards the children, which her husband seldom was. He was proud, which I dislike very much.（先行词是一个句子） ※He is an honest man, as is known to all. He was a foreigner, as I know from his accent. ③as 一般译为"正如""就像"，"这一点" as we all know；as you know; as is known to all; as you see; as we can see; as has been expected; as we have imagined. 训练题汇总 ◆EX1. 用定语从句完成下列句子。 1．This is the most beautiful forest _ __(我所见过的). 2．Dou Po Tang(陡坡塘) Waterfall, ___(位于贵州省的), is 105 meters wide and 21 meters high. ◆EX2 用适当的关系词填空. Have a try! ! ! 1. I will never forget the day __________ I first went to school. I will never forget the day __________ we spent in Beijing. 2. The house __________ we visited is being repaired now. The house ______ Luxun once lived is being repaired now. ◆Ex3 选择适当的代词填空，注意非限制性定语从句和单句的比较。 1.I am reading Harry Porter, _____is an interesting book. 2.He failed in the exam._______ made his parents angry. 3.He failed in the exam, _______made his parents angry. 4.He has two sons. Both of ________ are teachers. 5.He has two sons, both of ________ are teachers. ◆EX4 思考:用五种方式（定语从句）翻译句子 这是他工作的工厂。 1. This is the factory he works. 2. This is the factory 3. This is the factory he works in. 4. This is the factory 5. This is the factory he works in. ◆EX5 思考: 介词+关系代词的情况 介词+关系代词的情况 （1） The man whom you spoke was a scientist. The city she lives in is far away.
he works. he works in.
介词+关系代词的情况（2） Are these two sentences right? The man who/whom you spoke to was a scientist. The city that/which she lives in is far away. 介词+关系代词的情况（3） Are these two sentences right? The man to who/whom you spoke was a scientist. The city in that/which she lives is far away. 结论： 介词+关系代词的情况 ( 4) 下面两句中的介词能提前吗? Is this the watch that you are looking for? The old man whom I am looking after is better . 结论： Sum up:介词+关系代词 介词﹢关系代词引导的定语从句, 关键是判断介词的选择. 方法一:根据从句中动词与先行词习惯搭配 方法二:根据从句中动词与先行词的逻辑关系 注意：关系代词在定语从句中作介词宾语时，从句常常由“介词+关系代词”引出。此时关 系代词只能用 which 或 whom; 不可用 that 或 who 代替。 ◆Ex6: 介词+关系代词的使用 1. Do you like the book she spent $10? 2. Do you like the book she paid $10? 3. Do you like the book she learned a lot? 4. Do you like the book she often talks? 5. He dug a hole he could got water from the lake. 6. There is a tall tree outside, stands our teacher. 7. China has a lot of rivers, the second longest ___________is the Yellow River. 8. The man ____________ I spoke on the phone last night is very good at swimming. 9. He paid the boy $10 for washing ten windows, most __________ hadn’t been cleaned for at least a year. ◆EX 7 Practice A letter to Tom 我收到了你上周的来信.谢谢你寄的照片.我常常想起我们一起度过的时光.你还记得那个湖 吗?我们在那还照过一张相呢.和我们一起玩的那些朋友还好吗?我昨晚做了梦，在梦里我们 在上次去的那家电影院呢．另外,我买到了你要的那本英语书.周末有时间我将把书寄给你． Dear Tom, I have received the letter you posted last week. Thanks for the photos you sent. I often think of the time we spent together. Do you still remember the lake where we had a picture taken? How are the children who played with us? I had a dream in which / where we were staying in the cinema which/that we went to last time. Besides, I have bought the book (that/which) you need . On the weekend when I am free, I will post it to you. Best wishes,