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2012届高考英语第二轮阅读理解复习课件1


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阅读理解

专题一 专题二 专题一 专题四 专题五 专题六 专题七 专题八

人物传记型阅读理解 故事记叙型阅读理解 新闻报道型阅读理解 广告应用型阅读理解 文化教育型阅读理解 史地常识型阅读理解 社会生活型阅读理解 科普知识型阅读理解

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第三模块 │考纲解读
考纲解读 阅读理解作为考查考生语言能力的重点, 要求考生读懂 熟悉的有关日常生活话题的简短文字材料。考生应能:理解 主旨要义;理解文中的具体信息;作出简单判断和推理;理 解文章的基本逻辑结构;理解作者的意图和态度。其具体要 求为: (1)能够读懂生词率不超过3%的短文; (2)把握短文的主要线索; (3)能够对短文内容作出简单以及抽象的判断; (4)理解短文的基本结构,了解重点段落、重点词句的含义, 推测作者意图,把握文章脉络; (5)熟悉掌握实用性的文章,如:书刊、影视、产品等方面的 广告、说明、通知、社评、旅游等。

第三模块 │命题分析
命题分析 2011年广东高考的阅读理解题呈现出以下特点: (1)体裁多样,选材新颖,话题广泛。 体裁的多样化是最显著的特点,涉及记叙文、说明文、和 议论文。 (2)语言地道,题型合理。 材料都是选取原汁原味的英语文章,所选的材料均来源于 实际生活,涉及的内容也是实际生活内容,强调语篇选材 的真实性。在题型设计上,包括细节理解题、推理判断题、 主旨大意题和词义猜测题等几大题型。

第三模块 │命题分析

第三模块 │命题分析

第三模块 │应试点睛
应试点睛 一、掌握策略,战无不胜 阅读理解无论从难度还是从分数所占比重都应该受到学生的 重视,但很多同学在做阅读理解时总是感觉时间不够用,其 实只要灵活处理好以下几个方面的关系,这个问题便可迎刃 而解。 1.正确处理好“快”与“准”关系 在准确把握文章整体、细节以及严密推理的基础上,尽 量提高阅读速度,而不是单纯地追求阅读速度。这样对文章 的理解就会非常清晰,哪些题目是自己有把握的,哪些是拿 不准的心里也就有了底。然后对自己拿不准的题目再仔细推 敲,力争有所突破。

第三模块 │应试点睛
2.正确处理好复杂句式、生词和选择答案的关系 高考阅读的长句、难句的数量逐年增多。结构复杂、 修饰语叠缀、信息容量大的句子在新课标的高考试卷中频 频出现,有时一个句子占几行甚至一个自然段。这就造成 了理解的困难,而且也增加了考生的心理压力。为此,建 议大家对这些拦路虎加以正确区分对待:与题目无关,不 影响理解文章大意的,就不必浪费时间和精力;相反,那 些和题目相关的长难句,我们就要首先分析其类型(是带有 较多成分的简单句,还是含有多个简单句的并列句,还是 含有多个从句的复合句,还是含有多个插入成分的句子), 然后理清句子成分,去除干扰成分,抓住句子主干,这样 就能准确把握句子的意义。

第三模块 │应试点睛
对待生词也应该采取同样的方法,首先看看生词是否 与题目、文章的大意有关,如果是题目要求所必需的,我 们就要弄清楚生词所处的语境,以及和下文的联系,推测 生词的含义,否则就忽略它。 3.正确处理好所需信息与剩余信息的关系 我们在做题时,没有必要把每一句都弄得清清楚楚, 只要重点理解与题目有关的信息就可以了。这就要求考生 在答题时,最好先大体浏览一下文后的题目,确定主攻方 向,然后带着问题阅读文章,特别要关注首尾段和首尾句, 把握文章的主题和脉络,摘取有用的材料,舍弃无关的信 息。然后针对测试题的要求,细心阅读与问题有关的段落、 句子或词汇。

第三模块 │应试点睛

4.所选有据,忠实原文,避免主观 做题时,我们必须以作者的思维模式为准绳,以原文 提供的事实、细节和逻辑关系为自己思维活动的基准点, 切忌把自己的观点和看法当作原文或作者的观点。同时, 符合原文的答案是正确答案但不一定就是最佳答案,阅读 题要求选的是最佳答案,有的答案从某个枝节来看是对的, 但从全文来看则不是最佳的,因此,必须通盘考虑,取主 要,舍枝节。

第三模块 │应试点睛
二、明确步骤,战无不胜 第一步,阅读题干,明确问题。在阅读文章之前,可 以通过题干对文章进行初步了解。这样,在下一步阅读时 就可以针对问题直接找答案,减少了盲目性。第二步,快 速掌握大意,不在细节上纠缠。在第一步的基础上迅速阅 读并对文章有大致的了解。这是选出正确答案的前提。 第三步,阅读问题题干及其选项,在文中寻找相关的材料 并预选答案。可在文中相应处做出标记,以便进一步了解 并最终确定答案。第四步,带着问题略读原文,确定答案。 答完所有题目后,再快速阅读一遍文章,检查各题所选答 案是否正确。查看各题答案是否前后照应,与原文有无矛 盾,文中是否有疏漏的重要线索。

第三模块 │应试点睛
三、知己知彼,减少失误 有时候四个选项中总有一个极易误选,很多同学感触颇深, 因此,了解阅读理解题中干扰项的特点,可以大大减少我们不 必要的失误。概括起来,干扰项可分为以下三种类型: 1.与原文矛盾。即选项与文章内容相矛盾。这种选项的 干扰性较小,只要仔细阅读就可排除。 2.无中生有。即选项与文章内容不矛盾,但在文中没有 相关信息支持,没有根据。这类选项的干扰较大。在做此类题 时,切忌把自己或他人观点作为选择依据。 3.答非所问。选题与题目关系不大,选项没有针对题目 来阐述。这类题目干扰性也较大。同学们在做此类题时,不仅 要判断选项内容的正确性,还应注意选项是否针对题目。

第三模块 │ 题型探究
题型探究 探究点一 细节理解题 一、题型特点与命题方式 所谓细节题,是指原文提到了某事物、现象或理论,题干 针对原文具体叙述本身发问。一般包括直接理解题(在原文中 可直接找到答案,常用who, what, when, where, why和how 等提问)、语义转化题(需要将题目信息与原文相关信息进行语 义上的转换,两者存在表达上的差异,有时需要进行加工或整 理后方能得出结论)、数字计算题、排列顺序题、图表图画题 等。抓住文段中的事实和细节是做好该题型的关键,也是做好 其他类型题的基础。这类题型的题干常为: When / Where did the story happen?

第三模块 │ 题型探究
Which of the following statements is (not) correct? Which of the following statements is (not) mentioned in the passage? Which is the right order of the events given in the passage? All the statements are true except… 该题型几乎都可以在文章中直接找到与答案有关的信息, 或是其变体。所以,搜查信息在阅读中非常重要,它包括理解 作者在叙述某事时使用的具体事实、数据、图表等细节信息。 做这类题一般采用寻读法,即先读题,然后带着问题快速阅读 短文,找出与问题有关的词语或句子,再对相关部分进行分析 对比,找出答案。

第三模块 │ 题型探究
二、解题思路与应试技巧 细节题是针对文中某个细节、某句话或某部分具体内容设 置问题,正确答案的根据一定可以在原文中找到,即原文的改 写往往成为正确选项。 通常细节题的正确选项有以下特征: 1.对原文句子中的关键词进行替换。把原文中的一些词 换成意义相近的词,成为正确选项。 2.词性或者语态的变化。把原文中的一些词变换一下词 性,或者改变原文句子的语态,给考生制造障碍。 3.语言简化。把原文中的复杂语言进行简化,成为正确 答案。 4.正话反说。把原文中的意思反过来表达而成为正确选 项(适用于寻找错误选项的题目)。

第三模块 │ 题型探究
干扰项也是以文章中的某个细节设题,若不仔细辨别,很 容易把它当成正确选项。干扰项有以下特征: 1.将原文内容扩大或缩小。把原文中的限定词去掉或替 换,使该选项看似正确,实际上却是错误选项。 2.把未然当已然。改变文中某句话的时态,如把将来时 变成现在时,把未发生的事情当成已发生的事情。 3.无中生有。即选项内容是根据主观想象或推测得出的 结论,而文中并未涉及。 4.偷换概念。把原来做该事的“张三”换成“李四”, 所述细节确实与原文一致,一不小心就会误选。 5.文不对题。这类题最不容易辨别,选项中的描述与原 文完全一致,确属原文中的一个细节,这时要回到题干,看该 选项是否能回答题干所提的问题。

第三模块 │ 题型探究

下面结合最新高考试题,对细节题的不同类型加以 解读。 1.直接信息题 对此类题型,考生可以首先从问题中找到关键词, 然后以此为线索,运用略读及查阅的技巧在文中迅速寻 找这一细节。找到后再把这一部分内容仔细阅读一遍, 仔细比较所给选项与文中细节的细微区别,在准确理解 细节的前提下,最后确定最佳答案。

第三模块 │ 题型探究

例1 【2011· 全国卷Ⅰ】 Wanted, Someone for a Kiss We?re looking for producers to join us on the sound of London Kiss 100 FM.You?ll work on the station?s music programmes.Music production experience in radio is necessary, along with rich knowledge of modern dance music.Please apply(申请) in writing to Producer Vacancies, Kiss 100. … Who should you get in touch with if you hope to work in a radio station?

第三模块 │ 题型探究

A.Producer Vacancies, Kiss 100. B.Mrs R.Oglivie, Palmlace Limited. C.The Enterprise Shopping Centre. D.Wealden District Council.

【解析】 A 因此A最合适。

直接细节题。这则广告是招聘电台播音员的,

第三模块 │ 题型探究
例2 【 2011· 北京卷】As a young girl growing up in the 1930s, I always wanted to fly a plane, but back then it was almost unheard of for a woman to do that.I got a taste of that dream in 2001, when my husband arranged for me to ride in a hot air balloon for my birthday. ... What happened to the author in 2001? A.She flew an airplane. B.She entered a competition. C.She went on a hot air balloon ride. D.She moved into a retirement community. 【解析】 C 直接细节题。根据I got a taste of that dream in 2011,when my husband arranged for me to ride in a hot air balloon for my birthday.可以选出最佳答案。

第三模块 │ 题型探究
2.间接信息题 做这类题目时,考生需要对原文信息进行加工处理,然后 再进行进一步的推理或鉴别,这是介于事实细节题和推理判断 题之间的一种题型,对考生来说有一定难度。 例3【 2011· 北京卷】 … On occasion, I teach a course called History Matters for a group of higher education managers.My goals for the class include a full discussion of historical themes and ideas.Because I want students to thoroughly study the material and exchange their ideas with each other in the classroom,I have a rule—no laptops, iPads, phones, etc.When students were told my rule in advance of the class, some of them were not happy.

第三模块 │ 题型探究
… Some of the students in the history class were unhappy with______. A.the course material B.others? misuse of technology C.discussion topics D.the author?s class regulations 【解析】 D 间接细节题。根据I have a rule—no laptops, iPads,phones,etc....some of them were not happy可知答案。在这里我们需要把“rule”以及后面的 some of them were not happy进行转换。

第三模块 │ 题型探究
3.数字计算题 数字计算题也是近几年高考中常考的内容,此类试题是在文 章中直接表现出来细节事实,有的要经过具体的计算才能够 得出正确的答案。具体的计算题可以是对年代的计算、月份 的计算或比例的计算等。文章中经常会出现许多数字,它们 对解题产生一定的影响。解答此类试题的方法是先来理解文 章的大意,然后经过对比、分析、计算等就能够得出正确的 答案。 例4 【 2011· 辽宁卷】 ... According to the Coalition?s studies, of over two hundred million people living in the United States, up to three million are homeless—and the number is still growing…

第三模块 │ 题型探究

How many people are homeless in the U.S.according to the Coalition?s studies? A.39% of the population. B.200 million people. C.About 3 million people. D.About onefifth of the population. 【解析】 C 细节理解题。根据文中“...up to three million are homeless...”可知选C。

第三模块 │ 题型探究
4.排列顺序题 这种试题要求考生根据事件发生的先后顺序和句子之间的逻辑 关系,找出事件发生的正确顺序。做这种题时可采用“首尾定 位法”,即最先找出第一个事件和最后一个事件,迅速缩小选 择范围,从而快速选出正确答案。 例5 【2011· 山东卷】 … The researchers designed a special cap for the user.This head cover picks up the signals from the scalp (头皮) and sends them to a computer.The computer interprets the signals and commands the motorized wheelchair.The wheelchair also has two cameras that identify objects in its path.They help the computer react to commands from the brain.

第三模块 │ 题型探究
… Which of the following shows the path of the signals described in Paragraph 5? A.scalp→computer→cap→wheelchair B.computer→cap→scalp→wheelchair C.scalp→cap→computer→wheelchair D.cap→computer→scalp→wheelchair 【解析】 C 细节理解题。根据This head cover picks up the signals from the scalp(头皮) and sends them to a computer.The computer interprets the signals and commands the motorized wheelchair.可知 这种特殊的帽子接受来自大脑头皮的指令,然后传达给计算 机,最后把指令传给轮椅。

第三模块 │ 题型探究

5.图表图画题 在有图表图画的阅读理解中,有的图表图画出现在阅读理 解文章中,有的出现在选项中,这些图片的出现增加了试题的 直观性,同时也暗含着和文章内容相关的信息。在解答此类试 题的时候,一定要把握图表图画中所暗含的信息,特别是有些 事实是通过图片来叙述的,我们可以采用按图寻找正确答案的 方法。

第三模块 │ 题型探究

例6 【 2009· 安徽卷】 The chart shows that from 2005 to 2008, ________. A.the percentage of the Spanish families with a computer rose 35 points B.the percentage of the White families with a computer remained unchanged C.the number of the Black families with a computer was on the decrease D.the number of the Asian families with a computer showed the sharpest increase

第三模块 │ 题型探究

【解析】 D

请看原文中的柱形图:

由柱形图可以清楚地看出,拥有电脑的亚洲家庭的数量急剧增 加,其他三项表述都与图表不符,故D项正确。

第三模块 │ 题型探究

探究点二 主旨大意题 主旨大意题主要是测试考生对一篇文章或一段文字的 深层理解程度以及在速读中准确把握文章主旨大意的能力。 一般针对某一语段或某一语篇的主题标题或目的设题。这 类题目考查的范围是:基本论点、文章标题、主题或段落 大意等。它要求考生在理解全文的基础上能较好地运用概 括、归纳、推理、判断等逻辑思维方法,对文章进行高度 概括或总结。

第三模块 │ 题型探究
要准确地抓住文章的主题思想,就要十分留意文章的 开头和结尾,要抓住文中具有概括性的信息,从上下文连 贯的意思来理解全文,看作者主要谈的是什么,透过文字 叙述的过程来归纳主题,再从选择项中找出最符合表达主 题思想的选项。有些干扰项,从局部看也许不算错,但从 全局看却又片面。这类干扰项与正确答案之差,其实是局 部与全局之差。考生在做题时不要为局部现象迷惑,而忽 略了文章的整体思想。 一、题型特点与命题方式 【设题类型】 1.概括文章大意; 2.选出最佳题目(标题); 3.概括人物特点。

第三模块 │ 题型探究
【设问形式】 1.标题类 (1)The best title / headline for this passage might be__________. (2)The text (passage) could be entitled __________. (3)What is the best title for the passage? (4)Which of the following would be suitable as a title for the passage? 2.大意类 (1)This passage chiefly deals with __________. (2)What?s the topic of the article? (3)What is the subject discussed in the text? (4)With what topic is the passage chiefly concerned?

第三模块 │ 题型探究
二、解题思路与应试技巧 做这类题时常用略读法。快速阅读文章找出各个段落的主 题句。把各个段落的主题句联系起来着眼于全文结构安排,了 解文章的重心,就能概括出文章的中心。文章的标题是中心思 想最精炼的表达形式,选择的标题意义范围要能涵盖全文,不 能太大也不能太小。命题者在出这类题时,常常利用生活常识 编造干扰项,把文中的细节当主旨,利用局部信息编造干扰项, 编制超出文章范围的标题或不能涵盖文章中心意义的标题来考 查考生的理解程度,考生要特别留意。 下面结合高考试题,谈谈标题类和大意类试题的解题技巧。

第三模块 │ 题型探究

1.标题类 标题是段落中心思想最精炼的表达形式。在阅读中不仅要 求考生能够通过自己已知的信息概括出段落的中心思想,而且 还要对概括出的中心思想加以提炼,拟定出段落的标题。在测 试中能够迅速而准确地选择标题。 文章标题可以是单词、短语,也可以是句子。标题可帮助 读者迅速推测出整篇文章的主要内容,抓住文章讨论的中心, 把握作者的观点和意图。它的特点是:短小精悍,多为短语; 涵盖性强,一般要求能覆盖全文,其确定的范围要恰当,既不 能太大,也不能太小;精确性强,不能随意改变语言表意的程 度及色彩。

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例1 【 2011· 课标全国卷】Which of the following might be the best title for the text? A.Family Food Planning B.Banking on Gardening C.A Belttightening Move D.Gardening as a Hobby 【解析】 B 主旨大意题。全文讲述了在物价飞速上涨 的美国,人们为了节省开支自己种植蔬菜的事情。

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2.大意类 解答该题型最关键的是找出主题句,把握文章大意。 概括大意的方法是:先看首尾或各段开头再看全文找主题句, 若无明显主题句,就通过关键词句来概括(如议论文中寻找表 达作者观点态度的词句,记叙文寻找概括情节和中心的动词或 反映人物特点的形容词)。文中出现两种或两种以上的不同观 点时,务必牢记作者的观点才是体现全文中心的。此时,要注 意一些转折词,如but, yet, however, although, in spite of, by contrast, on the contrary等。当文章中表示相反的观点时, 往往用到这些词。答题时要弄清哪个是作者的观点,排除迷惑 性信息,准确归纳主旨大意。

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例2【 2011· 安徽卷】The main idea of the text is that ________. A.two heads are better than one B.friendship is precious in life C.the disabled should never give up D.a man can be destroyed but cannot be defeated 【解析】 B 主旨大意题。全文围绕友情、生命讲述 了两位朋友一起攀岩的故事,强调了“友情很珍贵”,故 答案为B。

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探究点三 语义推测题 猜词悟义是应用英语的重要能力,也是高考阅读理解中必 考的题型。它不但需要准确无误地理解上下文,而且要有较大 的泛读量,掌握或认识较多的课外词汇。考生应学会通过构词、 定义、同位、对比、因果、常识、同义、反义及上下文线索等 确定词义。 一、题型特点与命题方式 此类题型有逐渐增加的趋势,尤其是猜测词组、句义题。 因为猜测词组、句义题涉及题材背景、句子结构、文章主旨、 作者的观点态度等。联系主旨、整合上下文信息是解答这类题 的关键。近几年阅读理解的生词率略有上升,加大了猜测力度。 命题者着重考查考生利用同义或反义关系、构词法、语法和语 篇文脉等理解生词的能力。

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【题型特点】 1.要求根据阅读材料所提供的信息,结合中学生应有的 常识和经验,正确判断生词词组的含义或熟词在特定语境中表 达的具体含义以及一些句子的意思。 2.要求猜测词义的词一般为实词,可通过构词法、定义、 对比、因果、联想、上下文等线索确定词义。 3.代词复指理解题也是猜测词义的常考类型。用“逻辑 关系梳理法”、“逆向寻踪法”理清人物及事物之间的逻辑关 系是关键所在。 【设问形式】 1.The underlined word“...” in the second(third...) paragraph refers to(means) ________.

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2.By saying “...” in the first(second...) paragraph, the author means that ________. 3.In paragraph...,“...” can be replaced by “________”. 4.The meaning of “...” in paragraph...is related to ________. 5.Which of the following has the closest meaning to...(paragraph...)? 6.The underlined sentence in the first (second...)paragraph probably means that ________.

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二、解题思路与应试技巧 做这种类型的题,要根据词、词组、句子所在的语境来判 断其意义。因此熟练掌握一些猜词技巧是做好这类题的关键。 命题者在出这类题时惯用常规词义来麻痹考生,我们要特别注 意熟词生义,切不可脱离语境主观臆断。 下面结合近几年高考试题,对猜词悟义的技巧加以解读。 1.根据定义或上下文解释进行猜测 有时短文中出现一个需要猜测其意义的词或短语,下面接 着出现其定义或解释,这就是判断该词或短语意义的主要依据。 例如:

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It will be very hard but also very brittle — that is, it will break easily. 从后面that is(也就是说)的解释中我们可以了解到brittle 是“脆”的意思。 The herdsman,_who looks after sheep, earns about 650 yuan a year. 定语从句中 looks after sheep 就表明了herdsman的词 义为“牧羊人”。

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例1 【2009· 福建卷】…In his book, he had challenged readers to make deep cuts in personal emissions to keep the world from reaching extremely important tipping_points,_such as the melting(融化)of the ice sheets in Greenland or West Antarctica. … The underlined words “tipping points” most probably refer to “______”. A.freezing points B.burning points C.melting points D.boiling points
【解析】 C 根据后一句的such as the melting(融化)of the ice sheets in Greenland or West Antarctica.可知tipping points的意思是“融点”。

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2.根据同位关系进行猜测 阅读中出现的难词有时后面紧跟一个同位语,对前面的 词进行解释,这时可利用同位关系对前面或后面的词义或句 意进行猜测。例如: They traveled a long way, at last got to a_castle,_a large building in old times. 同位语部分a large building in old times 给出了castle 的确切词义,即古时候的“城堡”。 We are on the_night_shift—from midnight to 8 a.m.— this week. 两个破折号之间的短语很清楚地表明night shift 是“夜 班”的意思。

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The “Chunnel”, a tunnel(隧道) connecting England and France, is now complete. 此句中a tunnel connecting England and France是 Chunnel的同位语。由此可知,The “Chunnel”就是英法之 间的海底隧道。

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例 2 The Coalition for the Homeless is an organization that seeks to address the needs of the homeless population in the United States.It is a network of offices, some of which provide food and houses for the homeless population, and some of which fight for the passing of laws that would give every American the right to a place to call home. … The word “address” in the first sentence probably means ________ . A.talk about B.deal with C.fight for D.write to

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【解析】 B 猜测词义题。根据文中第二句“It is a network of offices, some of which provide food and houses for the homeless population...”,可知,该组织通 过两种方式解决美国无家可归的人的住房问题,故可知B项 正确。

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3.根据构词法(合成、派生、转化等)进行猜测 在英语中,有很多词可以在前面加前缀,或在后面加后缀, 从而构成一个词,乍看起来,这个词可能是新词,但掌握了 一定的构词知识,就不难猜出它的词义。例如: “Our parties are aimed for children 2 to 10,” Anaclerio said, “and they?re very interactive_and creative in that they built a sense of drama based on a subject.” 文中interactive是由前缀inter(相互的)和active(活动的,活 跃的)而构成的,同时根据上下文的意思可以判断,该词的含 义应是“互动的”。

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例 3 …The new type of pineapple was selling fast, and the Del Monte Gold pineapple rapidly became a fixture in the shopping basket of the healthy eater... The underlined word “fixture” probably refers to something ______. A.that people enjoy eating B.that is always present C.that is difficult to get D.that people use as a gift 【解析】 B 从文章意思可知,这种新型菠萝很畅销, 当然成为了健康饮食人士购物筐中的常客。另外根据构词知 识可知,该词的词根是fix,含有“固定”之意。

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4.根据因果关系进行猜测 在一篇阅读文章中,根据原因可以预测结果,根据结果也可 以找出原因。例如: The lack of movement caused the muscles to weaken.Sometimes the weakness was permanent.So the player could never play the sport again. 从后面的结果“永远不能再运动”,可以推测 permanent 的意思是“永远的,永久的”。 The low test score, they think, will make it impossible for them to get into a good college.And without a degree from a prestigious_university,_they fear that many of life?s doors will remain forever closed.

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学生认为考试分数低就不可能进入一所好大学,而没有“名 校”的毕业文凭,将来生活中的很多大门可能就会对他们永 远关闭。由此推知a prestigious university应是指名校,即 a famous university。

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例 4 【2011· 福建卷】...The problem is that if we invest little time in a person, our engagement_with that person will decline(减弱)until eventually it dies into “someone I once knew”. ... The underlined word “engagement” in the second paragraph probably means “________”. A.appointment B.connection C.interview D.agreement 【解析】 B 词义猜测题。根据文中人们投入时间的多 少将决定其关系的时长,可知投入时间少,我们和那个人的 关系将被削弱,所以engagement是“关系”的含义,与B 项一致。

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5.根据上下文的指代关系进行猜测 文章中的代词it, that, this, he, him 或them可以指上文 提到的人或物,其中it和that还可以指一件事。有时代词指代 的对象相隔较远,要认真查找;有时需要对前面提到的内容 进行总结,才能得出代词所指代的事。例如: However, the question that “moon people” asked is still an interesting one.A growing number of scientists are seriously thinking about it. it指的是月球人(moon people)所问的问题(the question)。

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例 5 【2011· 福建卷】...To get rid of alcohol from the body is a very slow process and it is not possible to speed it up with any measures like taking a shower or having a cup of tea or coffee. ... The underlined word “it” in the second paragraph refers to “________”. A.alcohol B.absorption C.blood D.process

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【解析】 D 代词指代题。根据“To get rid of alcohol from the body is a very slow process and it is not possible to speed it up with any measures like taking a shower or having a cup of tea or coffee.”可知排 除身体内的酒精是一个非常缓慢的过程,所以也不可能通过 任何手段如洗澡或者喝一杯茶或咖啡加速这个排除过程,这 样可以猜测出it指代排除身体内的酒精这一个过程,故选择D。

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6.根据同义关系进行猜测 当词或短语之间有并列连词and 或or时,其连接的两项内容 在含义上是接近的或递进的,由此确定同等关系中的某个生词所 属的义域,由此可推知其大致意思。 Although he often had the opportunity, Mr.Tritt was never able to steal money from a customer.This would have endangered his position at the bank, and he did not want to jeopardize his future. 作者为避免重复使用endanger一词,用其同义词jeopardize来 替代它,由此推知其词义为“使……陷入危险,危及,危害”。 Doctors believe that smoking cigarettes is detrimental to your health.They also regard drinking as harmful. 句中detrimental是个生词,但判断出harmful替代detrimental 后,不难推断出其词义为“不利的,有害的”。

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例 6【2009· 重庆卷】... When things are getting hard, a voice inside my head tells me that I can?t achieve something.Then, there are other distractions,_such as family or hobbies. ... What does the underlined word “distractions” probably refer to? A.Ways that help one to focus. B.Words that help one to feel less tense. C.Activities that turn one?s attention away. D.Habits that make it hard for one to relax.

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【解析】 C 由前面的other可知distractions与第一句 意思基本相同,第一句话表达的是让人注意力分散的事情, 结合上下文可知答案为C。

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7.根据转折或对比关系进行猜测 根据上下句的连接词,如but, however, otherwise等就可 以看到前后句在意义上的差别,从而依据某一句的含义来确定 另一句的含义。另外,分号也可以表示转折、对比或不相干的 意义。例如: She is usually prompt for all her class, but today she arrived in the middle of her first class. but一词表转折,因此but 前后的意思正好相反。后半句的意思 是她今天“第一节上了一半才来”,因此反向推理,可得出她 平时一向“准时”的结论。 8.通过上下文理解猜测词义 通过上下文的具体信息猜测词义是目前高考阅读理解题中 最常见的一种命题形式。

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例 8 【2011· 课标全国卷】...The family?s old farm house has become a chicken house, its residents arriving next month. ... What does the word “residents” in paragraph 1 probably refer to? A.chickens B.tomatoes C.gardens D.people

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【解析】 A 词义理解题。联系句子The family?s old farm house has become a chicken house,its residents arriving next month.我们知道,这里所说的“房子的居住者” 就是这些小鸡。

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探究点四 推理判断题 一、题型特点与命题方式 既要求考生透过文章表面文字信息推测文章隐含的意思, 又要求考生对作者的态度、意图及文章细节的发展作出正确 的推理判断,力求从作者的角度去考虑,不要固守自己的看 法或观点。 这类试题常以如下句式发问: 1.What can you conclude from this passage? 2.What?s the author?s attitude towards...? 3.We can infer from the passage that... 4.Which statement is (not) true?

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二、解题思路与应试技巧 考生做题时一定要从整体上把握语篇内容,在语篇的表 面意义与隐含意义、已知信息与未知信息间架起桥梁,透过 字里行间,去体会作者的“弦外之音”。 首先,考生在阅读时,要抓住文章的主题和细节,分析 文章结构,根据上下文的内在联系,挖掘文章的深层含义。 在进行推理时,考生一定要仔细阅读短文,千万不可脱离原 文而仅凭个人的看法主观臆断。 其次,对于暗含在文章中的人物的行为动机、事件的因 果关系及作者未言明的倾向、意图、态度、观点等要进行合 乎逻辑的判断、推理、分析,进一步增强理解能力,抓住材 料实质性的东西。

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再次,在解答推理性问题时,应清楚所要解答的问题是 针对某个细节进行推断,还是针对主题思想、作者的意图进 行推断。针对细节的推断可运用浏览的方法,迅速在阅读材 料中确定推理依据的位置或范围,然后再进行推理判断。针 对主题思想作推断时,其解题的主要依据是文章的主题思想, 然后再分析句子之间的逻辑关系,区分观点与例证、原因与 结果、主观点与次观点。 下面结合最新高考试题,对推理判断题的不同类型加以 解读。 1.抓住特定信息进行逆向或正向推理 做此类试题要善于抓住某一段话中的关键信息,即某些 关键词或短语去分析、推理、判断,利用逆向思维或正面推 理,从而推断出所隐含的深层含义。

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例 1 【2011· 课标全国卷】... There existed a close relationship between families and their milkmen.Mr.Basille even had a key to our house, for those times when it was so cold outside that we put the box indoors, so that the milk wouldn?t freeze.And I remember Mr.Basille from time to time taking a break at our kitchen table, having a cup of tea and telling stories about his delivery. ... What can be inferred from the fact that the milkman had the key to the boy?s house?

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A.He wanted to have tea there. B.He was a respectable person. C.He was treated as a family member. D.He was fully trusted by the family. 【解析】 D 推理判断题。联系文章我们知道,甚至有 的住户把钥匙留给送奶员,让他把牛奶放到屋内,这充分说 明了人们对他的信任。

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2.整合全文(段)信息进行推断 做推理题时,有时需要在弄懂全文意思的基础上,整合 与题目相关的有用信息,综合起来去推理判断,最后确定最 佳结论。 例2 【2011· 北京卷】... In the essay, I wrote about my desire to skydive, stating George Bush Sr. did it at age 80.Why not me? I was just 84 and in pretty good health.A year went by and I heard nothing.But then at a community party in late April 2009, they announced that I was one of the winners.I just couldn?t believe it.Inspired by this.I decided to realize my dream, even though some of my family members and my doctor were against it.

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… The author mentioned George Bush Sr.in her essay to ________. A.build up her own reputation B.show her admiration for him C.compare their health condition D.make her argument persuasive 【解析】 D 推理判断题。根据In the essay,...stating George Bush Sr.did it at age 80.Why not me? I was just 84 and in pretty good health可以推断出选择:make her argument persuasive“让自己的辩论更富说服力”。

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3.利用语境的褒贬性进行信息推断 很多文章的语境都有一定褒贬性,这种褒贬性反映了主人 公的特定心理和情绪状态及作者的写作意图,因此利用好文章 的语境褒贬性就能在把握主旨大意的基础上对文章进行准确的 逻辑判断。认真阅读原文并找出反映语境褒贬性及变化的标志 性词汇或句子,对我们掌握文章主旨大意、了解主人公的心理 特点及发展变化,从而正确地进行逻辑推断很有好处。 例3 【2011· 课标全国卷】... Recently, an old milk box in the countryside I saw brought back my childhood memories.I took it home and planted it on the back porch (门廊).Every so often my son?s friends will ask what it is.So I start telling stories of my boyhood, and of the milkman who brought us friendship along with his milk.

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... Why did the author bring back home an old milk box? A.He missed the good old days. B.He wanted to tell interesting stories. C.He missed it for his milk bottles. D.He planted flowers in it. 【解析】 A 推理判断题。从本段所给材料我们可以知道, 作者向别人讲述过去的关于送奶员的故事,表明他非常怀念那 段时光。

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4.根据文章的结论推断作者的态度 作者的态度、倾向是指作者对陈述的观点是赞同、反对还 是犹豫不定,对记叙或描写的人、物或事件等是赞颂、同情、 冷漠还是厌恶、憎恨等。作者的这种思想倾向和感情色彩往往 隐含在文章的字里行间,或流露于修饰的词语之中。因此,在 推断过程中,应特别注意文中作者的措辞,尤其是表达感情色 彩的形容词。 例4 【2011· 北京卷】... The lasting effects of these tradeoffs are another matter.The 21st century development of the American West as an ideal place for alternative energy is going to throw off a lot of power and money in the region.There are chances for that power and money to do a lot of good.But it is just as likely that they will be spent

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wastefully and will leave new problems behind, just like the railroads and the highways. ... What is the author?s attitude towards building solar plants? A.Cautious. B.Approving. C.Doubtful. D.Disapproving. 【解析】 A 推理判断题。根据There are chances for that power and money to do a lot of good...they will be spent wastefully and will leave new problems behind...可 以推测出最佳答案选A,意为“谨慎的”。

专题一

人物传记型阅读理解

专题一

人物传记型阅读理解

专题一 │专题导读
专题导读

人物传记是记叙文体的一种,主要描写某人的生平事迹、 趣闻轶事、生活背景、个性特征、成长和奋斗历程等,包含 记叙文的时间、地点、人物、事件等要素。其特点是以时间 的先后或事件的发展为主线,空间或逻辑线索贯穿文章始终, 脉络清楚,可读性较强。这类文章常采用倒叙的写作方法, 即首先用几句话来简单介绍这个人,接着介绍这个人的出生、 成长过程,然后再记述他(她)一两件主要的事情或业绩,来 反映他(她)的思想、品德和情操,最后作者会对他(她)进行 评论,从而表达作者对他(她)的情感。

专题一 │专题导读

人物传记类文章一般较长,而且该类命题的题量也较多。 文章中往往会出现关于该人物的大量细节信息,有些细节很 直接,只需理解字面意思即可;有些则很间接,需要综合、 归纳、推理才能得出。因此,该类命题既注重考查对特定细 节理解的准确性,又注重考查推理判断能力。 另外,虽然人物传记类文章的时间、空间或逻辑线索较清晰, 但是为了提高难度,命题者往往使用倒叙、插叙或补叙等手 段故意打乱故事的陈述次序,使行文的跳跃性增强,情节也 更复杂化。

专题一 │真题典例
真题典例 【2011· 山东卷】Arthur Miller(1915-2005)is universally recognized as one of the greatest dramatists of the 20th century.Miller?s father had moved to the USA from AustriaHungary,drawn like so many others by the “Great American Dream”.However, he experienced severe financial hardship when his family business was ruined in the Great Depression of the early 1930s. Miller?s most famous play, Death of a Salesman, is a powerful attack on the American system,with its aggressive way of doing business and its insistence on money and social status as indicators of worth.In Willy Loman, the hero of the play, we see a man who has got

专题一 │真题典例
into trouble with this system.Willy is “burnt out” and in the cruel world of business there is no room for sentiment: if he can?t do the work, then he is no good to his employer, the Wagner Company, and he must go.Willy is painfully aware of this, and at a loss as to what to do with his lack of success.He refuses to face the fact that he has failed and kills himself in the end. When it was first staged in 1949,the play was greeted with enthusiastic reviews,and it won the Tony Award for Best Play,the New York Drama Critics? Circle Award,and the Pulitzer Prize for Drama.It was the first play to win all three of these major awards.

专题一 │真题典例
Miller died of heart failure at his home in Roxbury, Connecticut,on the evening of February 10,2005,the 56th anniversary of the first performance of Death of a Salesman on Broadway. ( )1.Why did Arthur Miller?s father move to the USA? A.He suffered from severe hunger in his home country. B.He was attracted by the “Great American Dream”. C.He hoped to make his son a dramatist. D.His family business failed. ( )2.The play Death of a Salesman________. A.exposes the cruelty of the American business world B.discusses the ways to get promoted in a company C.talks about the business career of Arthur Miller D.focuses on the skills in doing business

专题一 │真题典例
( )3.What can we learn about Willy Loman? A.He treats his employer badly. B.He runs the Wagner Company. C.He is a victim of the American system. D.He is regarded as a hero by his colleagues. ( )4.After it was first staged,Death of a Salesman ________. A.achieved huge success B.won the first Tony Award C.was warmly welcomed by salesmen D.was severely attacked by dramatists

专题一 │真题典例

( )5.What is the text mainly about? A.Arthur Miller and his family. B.The awards Arthur Miller won. C.The hardship Arthur Miller experienced. D.Arthur Miller and his bestknown play.

专题一 │真题典例

【解析】亚瑟· 米勒是二十世纪最伟大的剧作家之一。 《推销员之死》是他最有名的一部作品,曾获得年度最佳百 老汇戏剧托尼奖、普利策戏剧奖和纽约戏剧评论奖。这是第 一部获得所有三项大奖的作品。 1.B 细节理解题。由第一段“...drawn like so many others by the ?Great American Dream?.”可知应 选B。 2.A 细节理解题。根据第二段第一句话可知,《推 销员之死》是对美国制度的有力的抨击,后面又告诉我们在 这金钱至上的制度中,主人公因迷茫、失败最终自杀,即暴 露了美国商业世界的残酷。故正确答案是A。

专题一 │真题典例

3.C 推理判断题。根据第二段对剧中主角Willy的介绍, 尤其是“got into trouble”、“burnt out”、“painfully”、 “at a loss”以及“kills himself”等关键词可以告诉我们 Willy是美国制度的牺牲品,故选C。 4.A 细节理解题。根据第三段第一句话“When it was first staged in 1949,the play was greeted with enthusiastic reviews...”可知答案为A。 5.D 主旨大意题。从全文判断,文章主要介绍了亚 瑟· 米勒的家庭背景和他最有名的作品《推销员之死》,因此 D为正确答案。

专题一 │ 新题预测
新题预测 (一) There has been an outpouring of love for, a 23yearold disabled woman whose dog was killed in front of her while a groomer (美容师) tried to trim (修剪) its claws. Calls and emails came from as far away as the Upper Peninsula and Arizona as well as Oakland and Macomb counties, offering Laurie Crouch, who uses a wheelchair because of multiple sclerosis (硬化症), everything from dogs to money, such as that from Jason Daly of Roseville who said, “I would like to buy her a new dog.” A story about the death of Crouch?s pet, Gooch, was

专题一 │ 新题预测
printed on the front page of Macomb Daily.Crouch said a groomer tied Gooch up with a collar, and then she and a man sat on the dog to trim its nails.Gooch died after one claw was trimmed. Crouch yelled at the groomer to stop when she saw Gooch was struggling to breathe, but she said she was ignored.“If I could have walked, I would have put my hands on her and pulled her off my dog and physically stopped her, but I can?t do that.” Gooch was not a trained service animal, but naturally helped Crouch by picking up things for her. “This case is absolute animal abuse (虐待),” Larry Obrecht, division manager of the Oakland County Animal Shelter in Auburn Hills, said.

专题一 │ 新题预测
People who read the story contacted Oakland Press to offer help.A message, from Rebecca Amett of Giggles N Wiggles PuppyRescue, in Roseville, said, “We have puppies to donate and want to help the young woman who lost her service dog.” “When Gooch was with me, I was happy,” Crouch said.“I think I can be happy again but no animal can replace Gooch.There?s never going to be another Gooch out there but I think I will find a dog that can bring me joy again.” ( )1.What does the passage mainly tell us? A.A disabled woman?s service dog. B.A cruel groomer killed a disabled woman?sdog. C.People?s love for a disabled woman who lost her dog. D.A disabled woman loves to have the dog as company.

专题一 │ 新题预测

( )2.People called and emailed to ________. A.give their angry voice to the groomer B.offer help and care to Laurie Crouch C.tell Crouch how to punish the groomer D.offer a cure for Crouch?s disease ( )3.Gooch died mainly because ________. A.the groomer was careless B.the groomer didn?t know how to trim the dog?s nails C.the groomer sat on the dog with another man D.the dog was wearing a collar

专题一 │ 新题预测

( )4.What do we know about Crouch?s dog? A.It was a specially trained service dog. B.It was trained to do many things for people. C.It was Crouch?s only friend. D.It could offer some help to Crouch. ( )5.We can infer from the passage that ________. A.Crouch must be sad after losing her dog B.Crouch refused to take another dog C.Crouch has accepted another dog from a stranger D.Crouch can live well without a dog?s company

专题一 │ 新题预测

【解析】 一位23岁的残疾女士,她的狗被宠物美容师 压死以后,人们纷纷打电话或者发电子邮件安慰她,并表示 愿意为她提供帮助。 1.C 主旨大意题。综合文章内容可知,文章主要叙述 了人们对这位失去爱狗的残疾女士的关爱。 2.B 细节理解题。从文章第二段everything from dogs to money, such as that from Jason Daly of Roseville who said, “I would like to buy her a new dog.” 和倒数第二段可知B为正确选项。

专题一 │ 新题预测

3.C 细节理解题。从文章第三段可知,宠物美容师和 另外一个人坐在狗身上最终导致狗窒息而死。 4.D 细节理解题。从文章第四段可知,Gooch虽然没 有经过特殊训练,但能够为Crouch捡东西,给她提供一些帮 助。 5.A 推理判断题。从文章最后一段可知,Crouch认为 没有狗会替代她原来的狗,因此推断狗死了以后,她很伤心。

专题一 │ 新题预测
(二) Grace Kane hangs onto an Olympic dream of clinging to a granite (花岗岩) wall by her fingertips 70 feet from the ground.The fearless girl is only 10, but already has scaled great heights in the sport of rock climbing. Last week, Kane won a bronze in the 11andyounger sport class at the USA Climbing Youth National Championships in Atlanta.She was the only competitor of the 31 there with no climbing coach or topflight facilities in which to train.Climbing will become an exhibition at the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympics in Brazil.The hope of enthusiasts is that the sport will gain full status in 2020.“I?m already training for that,” said

专题一 │ 新题预测
Kane.“Climbing is my passion, my love, and I want to make something of it.” Her dad took her to climb rocks on her fourth birthday for the first time and today he can?t keep up with her.“It?s the freedom to let loose,” she said.“When I?m up there, I?m so focused and don?t hear anything.I always feel comforted knowing people are supporting me.” The bronze in Atlanta qualified Kane for the USA team and November?s International Championships in Ecuador.That?s a trip she might have to miss because it?s too expensive. Kane held a backyard music concert—she played the guitar and the piano and wrote inspirational songs—and raised $600 for her $1,500 trip to Atlanta.She?s also been

专题一 │ 新题预测
sponsored by a shoe company, but must rely heavily on donations from family and friends for travel expenses. Her mom Heather Kane said the family has chosen “to do whatever we need to help her achieve her goals”.One of Grace?s biggest challenges is finding balance in her life.There?s school, her music and church to fit around climbing. “Climbing is going to mean sacrificing things other kids might pursue,” Grace said.“But it doesn?t bother me.It?s like playing the piano; you can?t take a break or you?ll lose your touch.”

专题一 │ 新题预测

( )1.What would be the best title of the passage? A.Rock climbing gains popularity B.Grace Kane likes challenges C.A young climber follows her dream D.An amazing victory for a young rock climber ( )2.We can learn from the second paragraph that rock climbing ________. A.is not an exhibition at the Olympics now B.is an official event at the Olympics now C.is not open to children D.will gain full status in 2020

专题一 │ 新题预测
( )3.Which of the following is TRUE about Grace Kane? A.She is only interested in rock climbing. B.She is a girl with many talents. C.Rock climbing has affected her study. D.She has won gold medals in several matches. ( )4.One of Grace?s biggest challenges is to ________. A.find a capable coach for her B.get qualified for the USA team C.raise enough money for International competitions D.keep balance between rock climbing and other activities

专题一 │ 新题预测

( )5.What do we know about Grace Kane?s parents? A.They are quite concerned about her studies. B.They regretted allowing her to try rock climbing. C.They will fully support their daughter?s pursuit. D.They can fully afford her expenses in her competitions.

专题一 │ 新题预测
【解析】1.C 主旨大意题。本文主要介绍了一个十岁 的攀岩女孩,为了自己的爱好和梦想在奋斗。故选C。 2.A 细节理解题。从文章第二段可知,到2016年巴 西里约热内卢奥运会上攀岩才会成为表演项目,所以它现在 还不是一个正式项目。 3.B 推理判断题。从文章倒数第三段可知,Grace Kane多才多艺。 4.D 细节理解题。从文章倒数第二段可知,Grace Kane面临的最大挑战之一是如何在攀岩和学习以及其他爱 好之间寻找平衡。 5.C 细节理解题。从文章倒数第二段Her mom Heather Kane said the family has chosen “to do whatever we need to help her achieve her goals”.可知 应选C项。

www.aaaxk.com


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