How to Be Successful in Graduate School
Postgraduate education (or gradua
te education in North America) involves learning and studying for degrees or other qualifications for which a first or Bachelor ’s degree generally is required, and is normally considered to be part of higher education. In North America, this level is generally referred to as graduate school. The organization and structure of postgraduate education varies in different countries, and also in different institutions within countries.
Major Language Points
1. insight: n. (褒) 洞察力；深刻的了解 (~into sth.) ? Examples: a person of insight 有洞察力的人 He had courage, insight and determination. 他有勇气、有见识、有魄力。 His speech gave us an insight into the problems of education. 他的演讲使我们对教育问题有了深入的了解。 2. immerse: v. 使自己沉浸（於某事物） ；使自己深陷於或专心於 (~ oneself in sth.) ? Examples: be immersed in thought, one’s business, a book 沉思﹑埋首事务﹑专心读书 He immersed himself totally in his work. 他埋首於工作。 3. tackle: v. 应付，对付，处理（棘手的问题﹑困难的工作等） ? Examples: It’s time to tackle my homework. 现在该对付我的家庭作业了。 By the fall, the students were ready to have robots tackle a real-world problem. 到第二学期，学生们已经准备用机器人解决实际应用问题了。 4. finite: adj. 有限的；有限制的；有限度的 ? Examples: We must accept finite disappointment, but we must never lose infinite hope. 我们必须接受有限的失望，但是一定不能失去无限的希望。 5. coordinate: v. 使（各部分﹑肢体等）协调，协同动作 (~ sth. with sth.) ? Examples: coordinate one’s movements when swimming 游泳时协调动作 We must coordinate our efforts to help the flood victims. 我们应该同心协力以援助遭水灾的灾民。 6. guidance: n. 引导；领导；指导 ? Examples: be under sb’s guidance 在某人的指导下 parental guidance 受父母指教
We can already offer some guidance based on past experience. 根据以往经验，我们可以归纳出一些指导原则。 7. packet: n. (美式英语通常作 package) 包装商品的）小包，小盒，小袋 ? Examples: a packet of biscuits, cigarettes, tea, etc 一小包饼干﹑ 香烟﹑ 茶叶等 They made no effort to hide their amusement whenever I produced a packet of sweets from my pocket. 每当我从口袋里掏出一包糖果时，他们都毫不掩饰地表现出他们对此感到非常好笑。 8. option: n. 选择权；选择自由；选择；可供选择的事物 ? Examples: I haven’t much option in the matter. 在这件事情上我无可选择。 I have little option but to go. 我别无选择只好走。 There weren’t many options open to him. 他没有什么选择余地。 9. isolation: n. 隔离；脱离；分离；孤立 ? Examples: This is a strong sign of Iran’s growing international isolation. 这是伊朗在国际上逐渐变的孤立的一个明显标志。 10. interaction: n. 相互作用；相互影响 ? Examples: Although nods are important, they are but a small part of human social interaction. 点点头虽然很重要，但它们仅仅是人类社交互动行为中的一小部分。 11. presentation: n. 展示；表述 ? Examples: There is no job interview, no scary presentation, no terrifying after dinner speech, no bruising negative feedback that can do such lasting psychic damage. 任何求职面试、可怕的呈述汇报、恐怖的餐后演说和令人崩溃的负面反馈，都不会对 人的心理造成如此持久的伤害。 12. supplement: v. 增加或补充某事物 (~ sth. with sth.) ? Examples: I supplement my grant by working in the evenings. 我除享受助学金外还打夜工以增加收入。 She supplements her diet with vitamin tablets. 她服用维生素片剂以补充规定食谱中的营养。 13. embrace: v. (fml) 欣然接受或采取（某意见等） ? Examples: embrace an offer, opportunity 欣然接受提议﹑把握机会。 However, not all people embrace the new plan. 然而也不是所有人都支持新计划。 14. faculty: n. 1)（大学的）系, 科, 院 ? Examples: the Faculty of Law, Science, etc 法律学院﹑理学院 2)（大学的某系﹑科﹑院的）全体教员: ? Examples: a faculty meeting （大学的某系﹑科﹑院的）全体教员会议 3) (US) 大学等的全体教员 ? Examples: The whole faculty finally passes a decision to cancel the model test. 全体教员最终通过一项决议，取消模拟考试。 15. clarify: v.（使某事物）清楚易懂；澄清
clarify a remark, statement 澄清一项意见﹑ 声明 I hope that what I say will clarify the situation. 我希望我说的话能澄清这一情况。 You should clarify the facts relative to this problem. 你应当澄清与此问题有关的事实。 16. surmount: v. 克服（困难等） ；战胜 ? Examples: We had many problems to surmount before we could start the project. ? Examples: 我们得克服许多困难才能着手做这项工作。 We are fully confident that we can surmount these difficulties. 我们完全相信我们能够克服这些困难。 17. fit in: 1) 安排（地方） ；放进；为某物腾出空间 ? Examples: There was so much furniture in the room that it became impossible to fit any more in． 这个房间放了那么多家俱，不能再放进什么东西了。 Somehow she managed to fit everything in the suitcase. 她设法把全部东西都装入箱子。 Can you manage to fit this small table in somewhere? 你能设法找个地方放这张小桌子吗？ 2) 为某人腾出时间 ? Examples: Although I’m very busy, I’ll try to fit in a game of tennis at the weekend． 尽管我很忙，本周末我打算安排打一场网球。 I hope the hairdresser can fit me in today. 我希望理发师今天能给我安排个时间（理发） 。 There are still two patients to be fitted in this afternoon. 今天下午还有两位病人需要安排治疗。 Our director can’t fit in any more visits this week. 本周我们主任已再没时间接待来访者了。 18. back up: 支持 ? Examples: I hope you will back me up in this argument. 我希望在这场争论中你能支持我。 Nobody backed her up when she protested against the decision. 当她反对这项决定时，没人支持她。 19. frown upon: 不喜欢；不赞成；谴责 ? Examples: The manager frowned on your proposal. 经理不喜欢你的提议。 Certain grammatical constructions and idioms that are accepted in America are frowned upon in British English. 在美国得到公认的某些语法结构和习语在英国英语中未得到赞许。 He frowns upon things like that. 他对那样的事情是皱眉头的。 Doesn’t she frown upon that kind of behavior? 她对那种行为不谴责吗？
1. Fill in the blanks with the words or phrases given below. Change the form where necessary.
back up frown upon
1. We are fully confident that we can ________ these difficulties. 2. Many also experience frustration, anger, disappointment, sadness and ________. 3. They made no effort to hide their amusement whenever I produced a ________ of sweets from my pocket. 4. She _________ her diet with vitamin tablets. 5. Nobody ________ her ________ when she protested against the decision． 6. Certain grammatical constructions and idioms that are accepted in America are ________ in British English. 7. We can already offer some ________ based on past experience. 8. We must ________ our efforts to help the flood victims. 9. However, not all people ________ the new plan. 10. The whole ________ finally passes a decision to cancel the model test.
2. Complete the following sentences with phrases or expressions from the passage. Change the form where necessary.
1. The first reason to __________ these problems is to save children’s lives. 2. He was a man of forceful character, with considerable __________ and diplomatic skills. 3. Their commitments do not permit them to __________ themselves in current affairs as fully as they might wish. 4. There are signs that distance learning, once merely one __________ among many, is becoming some students’ first choice. 5. Somehow she managed to __________ everything __________ the suitcase.
3. There are 30 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Choose the ONE answer that best completes the sentence.
1. The changing image of the family on television provides ________ into changing attitudes toward the family in society. A) insights B) presentations C) revelations D) specifications 2. They were ________ in their scientific research, not knowing what happened just outside their lab. A) submerged B) drowned C) immersed D) dipped 3. That local government leaders are making every effort to ________ the problem of poverty. A) abolish B) tackle C) remove D) encounter 4. Since our knowledge is ________ none of us can exclude the possibility of being wrong. A) controlled B) restrained C) finite D) delicate 5. The newcomers found it impossible to ________ themselves to the climate sufficiently to make permanent homes in the new country. A) suit B) adapt C) regulate D) coordinate 6. Being ignorant of the law is not accepted as an ________ for breaking the law. A) excuse B) intention C) option D) approval 7. Researchers at the University of Illinois determined that the ________ of a father can help improve a child’s grades. A) involvement B) interaction C) association D) communication 8. Clark felt that his ________ in one of the most dramatic medical experiments of all time was worth the suffering he underwent. A) apprehension B) appreciation C) presentation D) participation 9. We’ll ________ you for any damage done to your house while we are in it. A) compensate B) remedy C) supplement D) retrieve
10. High grades are supposed to ________ academic ability, but John’s actual performance did not confirm this. A) clarify B) classify C) certify D) notify
4. Fill in the blanks in the following passage by selecting suitable words from the Word Bank. You may not use any of the words more than once.
There are two types of people in the world. Although they have equal degrees of health and wealth, one becomes happy, while the other becomes 1_________. This arises from the different ways in which they 2_________ things, persons, and events. The people who are to be happy fix their attention on the 3_________ of things, the pleasant parts of conversation, the well-prepared dishes, etc. They enjoy all the 4_________ things. Those who are to be unhappy think and speak only of the 5_________ things. Therefore, they are continually discontented. They 6_________ many people, and make themselves 7_________ everywhere by their remarks and behaviors. If this turn of mind were founded in nature, such unhappy persons would be the more to be pitied. The 8_________ grows into a habit, unknown to its possessors. The habit may be strong, but it may be cured when those who have it are 9_________ of its bad effects on their interests and tastes. Although in fact it is chiefly an act of the imagination, it has serious 10_________ in life, since it brings on deep sorrow and bad luck. If they do not change their bad habit, it will be good for others to avoid any contact with them. A) consequences F) awful K) tendency B) convinced G) disagreeable L) capable C) miserable H) transmission M) accordingly D) offend I) cheerful N) contrary E) continually J) conveniences O) consider
Why Pursue a Master’s Degree?
A master ’s is an academic degree granted to individuals who have undergone study demonstrating a mastery or high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice. Within the area studied, graduates are posited to possess advanced knowledge of a specialized body of theoretical and applied topics; high order skills in analysis, critical evaluation or professional application; and the ability to solve complex problems and think rigorously and independently. There has recently been an increase in programs leading to these degrees in the United States; more than twice as many such degrees are now awarded as compared to the 1970s. In Europe, there has been a standardization of conditions to deliver the master ’s degrees and most countries present degrees in all disciplines.
Major Language Points
1. aspire: v. 渴望成就某事物；对某事物有雄心或野心 (~ after / to sth.) ? Examples: aspire after knowledge 渴求知识 aspire to become an author 热望成为作家 Aspiring musicians must practice many hours a day. 有抱负的音乐家每天要练习很多小时。 2. disdain: n. 鄙视；轻视；蔑视
a look / tone / expression of disdain
鄙夷的神态、语气、表情 treating other people’s ideas with disdain 藐视别人的意见 3. ridicule: v. 嘲弄（某人、某事物） ；嘲笑 ? Examples: The opposition ridiculed the government’s proposals, saying they offered nothing new. 反对派揶揄政府的建议, 说成是老调重弹。 4. indication: n. ~ (of sth. / doing sth.); (~ as to sth. / that ...) 表示某种意思的言语﹑姿势﹑记号等 ? Examples: She gave no indication of having heard us. 看不出她听见我们的声音了。 Can you give me some indication as to your intentions? 你究竟是什麽用意, 能向我透露一点吗？ There are indications that the situation may be improving. 有迹象表明情况可能好转。 5. aptitude: n. 天生的才能或技巧；天资；天赋 (~ for sth. /doing sth.) ? Examples: Does she show any aptitude for games? 能看得出她有体育方面的天赋吗？ He has an unfortunate aptitude for saying the wrong thing. 他有失言的倒霉本事。 6. assess: n. 估计﹑评定某事物的质量 (~ sth. as sth.) ? Examples: It’s difficult to assess the impact of the President’s speech. 总统讲话的巨大影响很难估计。 I’d assess your chances as extremely low. 我估计你成功的机会极微。 Meanwhile, I am arranging for Mr. Smith, one of our inspectors, to call and assess the damage. 本人同时正安排我行检查员史密斯先生，拜访阁下并计算损失。 She look at the house and assess its market value. 她看了看房子并估算了其市场价值。 7. credential: n. 关于某人可以相信、信任或具有权力的证件或证明书 ? Examples: The new ambassador presented her credentials to the president. 新大使向总统递交了国书。 I examined his credentials. 我查验了他的证件。 She has the perfect credentials for the job. 她做这工作完全够格。 8. demanding: adj.（指任务等）需要很大耐性﹑技巧﹑努力等的 ? Examples: a demanding job, schedule, etc 需要高度技巧的工作﹑需努力才能实现的计划 9. oriented: adj. orientated (用以构成复合形容词) 朝某方向的 ? Examples: a sports-orientated course 以体育为宗旨的课程 10. perspective: n. 观点；视角 ? Examples: Remember that perspective is subjective. 记住，观点是带主观性的。 They will view a lot of things from a new perspective. 他们将从新的角度审视问题。
11. formulate: v. 确切地表达（某思想） ? Examples: He formulated his thought clearly. 他清楚确切地表达了自己的思想。 The contract was formulated in difficult legal language. 该合同是用深奥的法律术语订立的。 12. focus: v. 将（注意力等）集中於（某事物）(~ sth. on sth.) ? Examples: Please focus your minds on the following problem. 请集中考虑以下问题。 13. discipline: n. 训练，锻练，磨练（尤指在智力和品德方面） ? Examples: school discipline 学校的训练 Strict discipline is imposed on army recruits. 新兵受到严格的训练。 The children are happy at the school, but they lack discipline. 孩子们在学校里很快活，但很散漫。 The teacher can’t keep discipline in her class. 那位老师无法维持教室纪律。 14. accomplishment: n. 成就；成绩 ? Examples: An attainment, such as a skill or social accomplishment. 成就，造诣成就、造诣，如技艺或社会成就 The Apollo program was not so much a scientific achievement as a technical accomplishment. 阿波罗计划与其说是一项科学成果，不如说是一项技术成就。 Developing the supersonic jet was quite an accomplishment. 开发超音速喷气机是一项了不起的成就。 15. concentration: n. 集中（於某事物） （之力）(~ on sth.) ? Examples: Stress and tiredness often result in a lack of concentration. 紧张和疲劳常使人精神不集中。 a book that requires great concentration 需全神贯注才能看懂的书 I found it hard to keep my concentration with such a noise going on. 吵闹声不绝於耳, 我很难保持精神集中。 The tennis players need total concentration during play. 网球运动员在比赛中需要全神贯注。 The drug affects one’s power(s) of concentration. 这种药影响人精神不能集中。
accomplishment discipline aptitude focus aspire indication concentration oriented credential perspective
1. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary.
1. Rice __________ to go to college. 2. There are __________ that the situation may be improving. 3. Does she show any __________ for games? 4. She has the perfect __________ for the job. 5. It seems almost inevitable that North African economies will still be primarily __________ toward Europe.
6. They will view a lot of things from a new __________. 7. The research effort has __________ on tracing the effects of growing levels of five compounds. 8. The teacher can’t keep discipline__________ in her class. 9. Developing the supersonic jet was quite an __________. 10. I found it hard to keep my __________ with such a noise going on.
2. Complete the following sentences with phrases or expressions from the passage. Change the form where necessary.
1. She looks at the house and __________ its market value. 2. The contract __________ in difficult legal language. 3. The opposition __________ the government’s proposals, saying they offered nothing new. 4. It is wrong to __________ a man merely because he is poor. 5. Please __________ your minds on the following problem.
3. Translate the following sentences into English.
1. 他试图回去工作，但发现自己不再能适应这项费时的工作。 （demanding）
2. 孩子们在学校里很快活，但很散漫。 （discipline）
3. 紧张和疲劳常使人精神不集中。 （concentration）
4. 对于一个小说家来说，那是一个了不起的成就。 （accomplishment）
5. 他说 18 个月前他父亲的去世使他对人生产生了新的看法。 （perspective）