Meeting your ancestors
Do you know about Zhoukou Dian? Where is it? What is famous for?
It is on the Longgu Mountain, Fangsha
District, Beijing. It is famous for Peking Man, a complete skull (头盖骨) of an ape-man (猿人) dating back 600,000 years.
北 京 原猿 图人 复
Archaeologists study early people by examining the objects they used. Look at the pictures in the reading passage and think about what kind of life Peking Man lived? Did they suffer from cold, starvation or disease? Make a tentative guess about what Peking Man may have done and used thousands of years ago. Compare their life with ours today. Then read the passage to see how accurate you were.
What objects are used by the primitive people?
Place for living Furniture Entertainment
Modern people stone, wooden or brick house wooden, special for each room TV, sport, films, hobbies, education, job, Internet fruit, vegetables, meat and fish, etc
Peking Man cave
natural furniture made of stone or wood. family get together
natural food, such as nuts and fruits.
natural and manmade fibers
Choose the best answer.
1. The main idea of the text is about the A of our earliest people in the _____ Zhoukoudian Caves. A. life and habits B. food and clothing C. homes and fishing D. farming and hunting
2. Through the conversation, everything about our earliest people is mentioned D . EXCEPT _____ A. homes B. tools C. dress D. entertainment 3. Our earliest people in the Zhoukoudian C Caves kept themselves warm by ____. A. working B. fighting C. making fires D. hunting
4. Evidence has showed that the earliest C to make people in the Caves used _____ clothes according to the conversation. A. leaves B. tree skins C. animal skins D. cotton 5. From the conversation we can infer that the earliest people in the Caves were very _____. C A. busy and rich B. idle and lazy C. clever and hard working D. stupid and cruel
Find the information about needle and necklace.
Object What can be discovered from it? clothes Needle 1. They repaired or made _______. 2. No methods _______ of making material has been found. Tools have been found to _____ cut 3. ______ clean animals skins. and ______ Guess: So early people probably wore animal skins. ______
Object What can be discovered from it?
appearance necklace 1. They cared about their ____________. 2. Some of the beads were made of animal bones ___________. cut up and Guess: So early people killed, _______ most probably ate animals 3. Some of the bead were made of __________. fish bones Guess: So early people ________ caught and probably _____ ate fish in the _______ nearby lake 4. Some of the beads were made of _________. seashells Guess: So early people may have ________ travelled to the sea or ________ traded with people who had seashells.
Answer the questions.
1. What animals were their most dangerous enemies?
Tigers and bears were their most dangerous enemies.
2. How did they make clothes?
Their clothes were made from animal _____. skins sharpened cut up the They used __________stone tools to______ remove their skin. Then smaller animals and _______ scrapers were used to clean the fat and meat ________ rub an ample amount from them. They had to ____ soft enough. of salt inside the skin to make it ____ sewn finally, they would have cut it and ______the needles made of animal pieces together with _______ bones.
3. What can we learn about the necklace they wore?
Some of the necklace beads were made of
animal ______ bones but some were made of ______, shells
which tell us that all the fields around here
used to be part of a large shallow lake. Perhaps there was _____ trade between early people or they traveled to the seaside on their journeys.
1 Read the passage and answer the questions.
1. Why have the English students come to the Zhoukoudian caves? The students want to find out about how early people lived. There are no such sites in England while the Zhoukoudian caves provide an excellent example of a site where early people lived.
2. Where did early people live? Early people lived in caves. 3. How did early people keep warm? They used fur from animals for clothes and had fires burning all winter.
4. What did they use for doors? The archaeologist thinks they may have used animal skins. 5. What did they eat? They ate animal meat, such as tigers and bears, and fish from the lake nearby. They also picked fruit when it was ripe.
2 Write down three ways in which the life of early people differs from your own. Use the information from the reading passage to help you with each category. Homes: caves, perhaps with skins to keep out the cold Tools: scrapers, axe-heads, bone needles Dress: animal skins, sewn together with needles and thread, necklaces
3 Read the conversation again and find out the three topics that the archaeologist talked about.
Topic 1 Topic 2 Topic 3 Life in the cave What can we learn from a needle What can we learn from a necklace
Suppose you are an archaeologist. Please make a report on Zhoukoudian caves.
Do you think it is important for us to know about Zhoukoudian caves? Why? Zhoukoudian Caves were formally inscribed (记入) on the “World Heritage List” in December 1987 at the eleventh session of UNESCO World Heritage Committee. The inscription of the Peking Man Site
on the World Heritage List confirms the exceptional and universal value of the cultural site, which requires protection
for the benefit of all humanity. The site
is therefore not only of China, but also of
the world as a whole.
1. You must be aware that it’s here that we’ve found evidence of some of the earliest people who lived in this part of the world. 想必你们知道, 正是在这儿我们找到了居住 在世界这个部分最早人类的证据。 1) You must be aware that…主句后接由 强调句和定语从句组成的宾语从句。 must是作为情态动词表示肯定推测, 译作“一定, 肯定”, 只用于肯定推测。 对现在或将来事实推测, 用 “must do”。
You must be hungry after a long walk．
对正发生或进行的事进行推测, 用“must be doing”。
The light is on. He must be doing his
homework now. 灯亮着, 他一定正在做作业。
对过去的事进行推测, 用“must have done”。
The ground is wet. It must have rained last night.
表示过去的时间状语, 反意疑问句用“didn’t +
主语”; 如果句中无表示过去的时间状语, 反义
He must have arrived here last night, didn’t he?
He must have arrived here, hasn’t he?
2) aware adj．意识到的, 知道的 通常用作表语 We should be aware that a lot of animals
are becoming endangered．
be aware of sth. 知道; 意识到
Though most smokers are aware of the dangers
of smoking, they won’t give up.
3) it’s here that we’ve… 是强调句, 其基本句式 是It is (was)+被强调部分+that (who)+句子其他
It was your mother whom I met in the street．
It was in the street that I met your mother.
It was she who had been wrong. 错的是她。
It is what you do rather than what you say
A matters. (2005天津高考) ____
A. That B. what C. which D. this
4) “Who lived in this part of the world”是定语
2. I’m sorry to interrupt you but how could they live here? 很抱歉打扰你, 我想问问他们是怎么在这里 生活的？
1) 句型“I’m sorry...but...”是口语中委婉的表达, “but”表示语义上的转折。 --- Are you free this weekend? --- I’m sorry, but l have lots of work to do． --- 周末有空吗? --- 对不起, 我有大量的事要做。
2) interrupt vt. & vi.
① 打断; 中断
别打扰他, 他还没完成呢。 Don’t interrupt him for he hasn’t finished yet. __________________,
他的学习由于战争而中断。 were interrupted by the war His studies ___________________________. ② 打岔; 插嘴 It is rude to interrupt. “Don’t interrupt,” he said.
区别: interrupt 和disturb
interrupt v. 打扰, 打断, 阻碍。常有 “使??停止 (中断)”的意思。
His speech was constantly interrupted by applause.
disturb v. 打扰, 妨碍。常指失去了正常的状态 或导致困难产生。 Bad dreams disturbed her sleep.
3. We have found human and animal bones in those caves higher up the hill as well as tools and ornaments. 我们在山的比较高的洞穴里发现了动物和 人类的骨头以及工具和装饰品。 as well as 1) conj. as well as 可以用来连接 两个相同的成分, 如：名词、形容词、动 词、 介词, 通常不位于句首。意为“不 但??而且”。
She sings as well as playing the piano. Helen as well as I is eager to see the performance.
2) prep. 相当于besides, in addition to，意 为“除??之外”, 后面通常接名词或动词。 As well as eating five course meals, they drank two bottles of wine.
4. So we think it is reasonable to assume they lived in these caves, regardless of the cold． 因此我们有理由认为他们不顾寒冷住在这些 洞穴里。 1) regardless of 不管; 不顾 He climbed the building, regardless of the danger. 不管有多危险, 他还是爬上了大厦。 in spite of We will persevere regardless of past failures. 尽管以前我们失败过, 但仍要坚持下去。
2) assume vt.
① 假定; 设想 科学家们设想月球上没有动物。
The scientists assume that there are ______________________
no animals on the moon. ② 装作 她装出一副吃惊的样子。 assumed a look of surprise She __________________________. ③ 担任, 承担 我来承担责任。 assumed the responsibility I _________________________.
Assume 后多跟名词, 宾语+ to be + n. / adj. that 从句。 Assuming 放在句首, 表一种猜测。 e.g. Assuming it rains tomorrow, what shall we do? 假如明天下雨, 我们该做什么呢？ 扩展: assumption n. make an assumption
5. That would have kept them warm, cooked
the food and scared wild animals away as well.
1) would 表示猜测, 译为“想必??”、
如果汽车当时翻到悬崖下, 他们早就丧命了。 They would have been killed if the car ___________________________ had gone over the cliff.
2) keep them warm为keep+宾语+宾语
现在分词、过去分词、形容词、副词 以及介词短语。 He kept me waiting for half an hour. Keep your mouth shut and your eyes open.
6. We have been excavating layers of ash
almost six metres thick, which suggests that
they might have kept the fire burning all winter.
1) have been excavating 现在完成进行时,
I have been looking for my lost book for three
days, but I still haven’t found it．
She has been sweeping the street all day.
She is too tired.
她一整天都在扫大街, 她太累了。 We have been waiting for you for two hours. We don’t want to wait any longer. 我们已经等你两个小时了, 不想再等了。
2) 句中 “ which” 用来引导非限制性定语从句,
3) suggest vt. to make evident indirectly; imply
意为“暗示, 意味, 表明” Her pale face suggests that she was ill. 她苍白的脸色表明她病了。 The handwriting of the letter suggests that the letter might be from a lady． 从书信的字体上看, 写信人是一位女性。
A silence suggested disapproval. 沉默暗示着反对。 His face suggests he is happy now． 从他脸上能看出他现在很幸福。 His bad manners suggest a lack of family
但当suggest作“建议”讲时, 其用法为: ? suggest+doing
I suggest her going home at once．
我建议她马上回家。 ? suggest+(that)… should do… I suggested (that) she (should) go home at once. 我建议她要马上回家。
---How do you ____ D we go to Beijing for our holidays? ---I think we’d better fly there. It’s much more comfortable. (2004福建高考) A. insist B. want C. suppose D. suggest
4) might have done
A: Where was your sister? I didn’t see
her at the party．
B: She might have gone swimming with some friends． B: 她可能和朋友游泳去了。
A: 你姐姐上哪儿去了? 聚会时我没见到她。
7. sharpen vt. 使锋利，尖锐；使强烈 The knife needs sharpening.
The tone of his letters has sharpened recently.
sharp adj. 锋利的, 尖锐的; 急转的, 陡峭;
a sharp turn 急转弯
a sharp increase 急剧增加
8. cut up 切碎 工人将木头劈碎。 The worker cut up the wood _____________________________. 早期人类用石器切割动物。 used stone tools to cut up animals. Early man _______________________
cup down cut away cut in cut off cut through 砍倒; 削减 切掉; 剪掉; 跑开 插嘴; 突然插入; 超车 切断, 断绝 刺穿; 抄近路通过
9. Yes and so well preserved．
这是省略的句子, 完整句应是: …and it is so
well preserved (it指necklace)
preserve vt. 1) 保存; 保护; 收藏
e.g. You can preserve meat or fish in salt.
2) 保持; 维持 e.g. It is one of the duties of the police to preserve
public order. 警察的职责之一是维持公共秩序。
preserve sb./ sth.
preserve sth. (for sth.) 保存/保留某物以??
preserve sb. (from sb./ sth.) 保护某人以免??
10. Yes, indeed, as the botanical analyses have been specifically showing us, all the fields around here used to be part of a large shallow lake． 确实, 正如植物学分析具体显示给我们的那样, 附近所有的土地都曾是大型浅湖的一部分。 1) as引导的非限制性定语从句常译作“正如?? 那样”。 As the proverb goes, “The enemy in disguise is just like the wolf in sheep’s clothing.” 正如谚语所说的那样, 伪装的敌人就像是披着 羊皮的狼。
2) analysis n. (pl analysis) 分析 I was very much pleased by your analysis of the situation. 我非常满意你对形势的分析。 3) part 前无形容词时, 修饰不可数名词，前面 不用冠词；其前有形容词时，修饰可数名词， 要用冠词。 The blues has been part of African American culture since then and it is still an important part of American culture． 自从那以后布鲁斯就已经是非美文化的一部分, 而且现在仍是美国文化的重要部分。
尝试, 猜测 领??到处看 意识到?? 不管, 不顾 把??吓走 使??一直?? 切碎 关心, 在意 在途中 try a tentative guess show sb around be aware that regardless of scare sth/sb away keep…doing cut up care about on one’s journey (to sp)
继续, 保持, 遵守 继续 不接近; 不接触
keep out sth 使??不进入; 留在外边
Guess the meanings of the new words.
1. Don’t interrupt him while he is giving a speech.
(stop sb. speaking) 2. I didn’t see your car, so I assumed that you had gone out. (think something is true) 3. Higgins kept talking about Eliza, regardless of her feelings. (pay no attention to)
4. You had better sharpen the knife before cutting the meat with it. (make sth. sharp) 5.We get ample food and clothing by working hard with our own hands. (more than enough)
6. Primitive men lived in caves. (at the early stage) 7. We should preserve our eyesight.
1. Go over the text. 2. Write a brief introduction to the
3. Find out the useful words and expressions
in the dialogue.