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从翻译美学的角度看杨必译《名利场》


湖南师范大学 硕士学位论文 从翻译美学的角度看杨必译《名利场》 姓名:陈婷 申请学位级别:硕士 专业:英语语言文学 指导教师:黄慧敏 20100401





自古以来,中国的翻译理论就与美学有着密不可分的联系。美
学对中国翻译理论的意义非同寻常。对中国人来说,语言功能与审美 判断不可分割。一代又一代的

译者对中国传统翻译美学的发展做出许 多贡献,促进了美学与翻译的结合。其中,刘宓庆教授以中国传统美 学思想为指导,发展了中国当代翻译美学。他认为,文学翻译需用另 一种语言去再现原作的美,具有审美体验和审美再现的过程。审美再 现是审美活动的必要步骤和最终目标。 杨必先生所译的《名利场》是我国译苑中的一株奇花异卉,一 经问世,便获得盛赞。如今多年过去,光泽依旧。不少文章仍时时援 引它的妙语佳句,但也有不少评论性的文章对其进行评议讨论。然而 这些研究大多是从翻译技巧和语言层面来进行评析,对译作中所蕴藏 的美学力量很少涉及。 本论文将以刘宓庆的现代翻译美学理论为指导,具体分析杨必 先生译作《名利场》如何再现语言美、艺术风格美。分析表明,翻译 美学理论对文学翻译具有重要的指导作用。《名利场》的原文作者与 译者处于不同的文化环境中,译者受中国传统美学思想浸润,在翻译 活动中必然受自身审美结构和思想所影响。刘宓庆的理论正是以美学

过程中的心理机制为依据,来分析翻译中如何达到审美再现。因此其
理论应用到本案分析是非常合适的。 在对原文理解的基础之上,杨必凭借自身中文底蕴将《名利场》

译得自然流畅,传神达意,堪称翻译中审美再现的典范,也代表了作 者在翻译领域的最高成就。译本中有许多成功、经典之处值得挖掘与 思考。

关键词:翻译美学:名利场:审美再现

Abstract

Since ancient times,Aesthetics has been in close relation with
Chinese translation theory and has been of great significance to it,too.As for the Chinese people,language function is always inseparable from aesthetic

judgments.Throughout

the history,translators of generations

have made great efforts in the development of Chinese translation
tO

theory,

promote the integration of Aesthetics and transition.Taking traditional
as

Chinese aesthetic theory

the guidance and borrowing main theories Liu

from the

Western

Aesthetics,Professor Translation

Miqing

has

developed
to

contemporary
Professor

Chinese

Aesthetics is
to
use

Theory.According the target language

Liu,literary translation

to

reproduce the aesthetic constitutes of the original works,therefore,there is naturally Aesthetic


process of aesthetic experience and aesthetic representation.
as

representation performs

the

core

and

ultimate.goal

of

aesthetic activities. The Chinese version of Vanity Fair by Yang Bi,a unique and

gorgeous flower in the field of translmion,has been held great esteem
ever

since it was first published.Though decades went by,her translation
to

has been believed

be in full flush of youth.Moreoveq many people

tend to quote beautiful lines from it here and there.Of course,others write articles to comment focus
on on

it,too.However,most of those discussions
an

Yang Bi’S translation techniques,or make

analysis

on

the

lexical level.Its aesthetic value is seldom touched upon.
For this reason,this thesis will,under the guidance of contemporary Translation Aesthetics,in particular,Liu

Miqing’S

Translation Aesthetics

Theory,conduct

an

analysis of the aesthetic representation in Yang Bi’S

translation of Vanity Fair in the aspects of literary beauty and artistic style.
The analysis shows that Translation Aesthetics role in

Theory plays an important
the translator

guiding literature translation.The original author and

of Vanity Fair lived in different cultures.With her background of Chinese
culture and traditional aesthetic views,Yang Bi was definitely influenced

by her own aesthetic based
on

structure and

thoughts.Professor Liu’S theory is

the psychological mechanism in aesthetic activities,to explain

how to achieve aesthetic representation in translation.Therefore,it is

very

appropriate to have professor Liu’S translation theories applied in this
case

study.

With



full understanding of the original work,by taking advantage

of her profound

Chinese language attainments,Yang Bi produces



wonderful translation of Vanity Fair,which is natural and smooth.Her
version of Vanity Fair not only presents aesthetic representation of
US

with



perfect example of

literary translation,but
great

al so shows her greatest in her

accomplishment
translation
are

in

translation.A

number of examples

worthy of exploring and studying.

Key

Words:Translation Aesthetics;Vanity

Fair;aesthetic representation

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On Yang Bi’S Translation of Vanity Fair:An Aesthetic Perspective

Introduction

As



precious and unique part of human wisdom,literature enriches life and enlarges their horizons of knowledge.But lack of

people’S

knowledge

of

foreign

languages

poses



formidable

obstacle

in

appreciating works of different languages.Thanks to translators,literature of one

language

is shared by people of many other languages.It is safe to


say that,literature bears the marriage

close relation with translation.Just translation is

as a

child of

of the two,literary

fascinating

but also

complicated.

0.1 Research Background
Prior to the 1 970s,translmion theories mainly focused
on

translation

criteria,translation process,translation technique,and scientificity of

translation.Since the methods
to conduct

1 970s,researchers tend to
on

employ descriptive

studies

translation theory,thus deepening people’S

understanding

on

translation

studies.Against

such



background,

Translation Aesthetics began its sprout.Two American scholars Bassnett

&Lefevere coauthored
Essays
on



book of culture turn titled Constructing Cultures: scholar Umberto Eco views and

Literary
as

Translation.Italian

translation

identical to

culture(Gentzer’2004:1 93).Lambert
as an

Robins view translation less

inter—linguistic process and more

as an

MA Thesis

intra—cultural
are

activity(Gentzer,2004:1 93).Cultures of different peoples

composed of various basic components,including religion,ethics,
SO

Aesthetics,and philosophy and closely related
to

on.As



part of culture,Aesthetics is
an

translation,because the translation is

activity

of

cross.culture communication.In this sense,translation is aesthetic communication,and

an

exchange of

an

action of aesthetic transformation.The new perspective of

integration of translation and Aesthetics signals translation studies.



Contemporary Chinese Translation Aesthetics,deeply
traditional

rooted

in and

translation

theories,absorbs

methods

of

research

argumentation of western translation theories coupled with the basic structure of modem Aesthetics.Through it has become
a a

couple of years’development, school of translation studies

particular

interdisciplinary

with Chinese characteristics.Different from schools of translation studies in the

western world,it

adds bright and brilliant flavor of Chinese nation

into Chinese translation theory.
Under such


circumstance,the author of this paper develops



strong interest in culture,Aesthetics and translation.Moreover,she is attracted by the beauty in the translation that she feels reluctant

SO

to lay

down the book,while reading the Chinese version of Vanity Fah"by"gang
Bi.In this Chinese translation,Yang Bi
uses

authentic Chinese language,
on

vivid and concise.She reads through the whole book and gets her hand



On Yang Bi’s Translation of Vanity Fair:.An Aesthetic Perspective

the English version to make great command
on



comparison.She notices that Yang has



the reproduction of beauty of the

original

text.As



result,out of admiration for Yang’S

success,a

strong interest and curiosity

grows in the author of this paper to probe into the beauty of Yang Bi’S version of Vanity Fair.Theoretical books particular,those by Liu
on

Translation Aesthetics,in

Miqing

and

Mao

Ronggui,enlighten her in doing

this research.Therefore,she sets her mind to write her Bi’S Chinese version of Vanity Fair in


MA

thesis

on

Yang

perspective

of Translation

Aesthetics.

0.2 Research

0bj ectives and

Significance

As everybody knows,Yang’S translation is glorious with enduring

charm.However,we need
can

to know where the

beauty lies in and why it

be viewed

as



beautiful translation.Only when we get to know


answers to those questions

can

we advance the development of translation

studies and produce better results when we do translations in the future.

Of course,many people have already conducted lots of research about
this Chinese translation.But most of the studies
are

focusing

on

aspects

of stylistics,differences in syntactic structures,functional equivalence,

feminist,cultural—loaded terms,and translation techniques.It is obvious
that aesthetic values of the translation which is
are not

receiving enough attention,



great lose in the field of translation studies.

MA Thesis

Therefore,the

goal

of

this

paper

is

to

unveil

the

aesthetic

representation of literary beauty and artistic

style

in this outstanding

translation in light of contemporary Chinese Translation Aesthetics.In this way,we translators know better how
to

do literary translation

and

what is needed in order to produce excellent translations,by way of

learning from Yang Bi’S translation.In the long run,we contributions
to

can

make greater

the communication and exchanges between English and

Chinese languages and cultures,and promote the prosperous development
of both cultures. Professor Liu of translation studies is

Miqing’S theory

very helpful

and enlightening in doing translation studies.Revealing the aesthetic
values in Yang Bi’S Chinese version of Vanity Fair is conducive to the

combination of theory and practice,promoting the further development of
Translation Aesthetics.Research from
an

aesthetic angle also supplies



gap

in studies

on

Yang Bi’S translation,which is of practical significance.

It is shown that Yang Bi’S version of Vanity Fair is fluent,natural and

smooth.Her unique achievement is due and Chinese,as well
as

to her great

command of English
as a good

her aesthetic structure.Regarding Yang
to

example,we translators feel imperial

make efforts in self-improvement more

in both mother and foreign languages.Translators should learn about

languages and cultures,both native and foreign,in addition tO
as

translation techniques.As far

the author of this paper is concerned,



On Yang Bi’S Translation of

Vanity忍以An Aesthetic MA thesis,she

Perspective

during the process of writing this

not only

learns



lot

about Yang’S excellent translation skills,but also becomes aware that she,
as all

English

maj or,should

endeavor to learn

more about Chinese

language,culture and long history.She is delighted to acknowledge that she benefits


lot from Yang,her translation and research

on

them.

0.3 Structure of the Thesis
This thesis mainly includes four chapters.Chapter One reviews the aesthetic origins in translation theory the development and then of both Chinese and

Western

some

relative

studies

on

Translation

Aesthetics.During each period of the whole history of the development of translation theories,we may find the aesthetic origins
or sources.

Especially in China,the marriage of Aesthetics and translation been


theory

has

happy and fruitful one,which symbolizes the unique characteristic

of Chinese language and culture.Chapter Two introduces the theoretical
foundation of this thesis,mainly based
on

Professor Liu

Miqing’S

and Mr.

Mao

Ronggui’S

theory about Translation Aesthetics.This chapter first

deals with the relationship between Aesthetics and Translation Aesthetics.
After


clear classification of what Translation Aesthetics is,the main
are

features of Translation Aesthetics in literary translation
intrinsic correlations between Aesthetics and

presented.The

literary translation and
are

literary beauty and artistic style in light of Translation Aesthetics

also



MA Thesis

introduced in this chapter.Chapter Three provides some background information of the original work Vanity Fair and Yang’S version,as well
as

the writer and the translator.It is shown that Yang Bi is influenced by

the traditional Chinese

philosophy,Aesthetics,and

translation theories of

some prestigious scholars at that time.Meanwhile,her own personality
has
an

impact

on

her way of translation.Chapter Four is

an

analysis of

the aesthetic activities and representation in Yang’S version,including two aspects,that is,literary language and artistic style,which
are

illustrated

with examples taken from Yang Bi’S translation of Vanity Fair.The last part is the conclusion,which summarizes the whole thesis

with the

conclusion that Yang Bi’S Chinese version has achieved the ideal realm of
translation and offers some suggestions for further study.



On Yang Bi’S Translation of Vanity Fair:An Aesthetic Perspective

Chapter 1 Literature Review

Talking about literary works,people think of beauty instantly.As for the translation work,we may say,it should not only convey the exact

meaning of the original,but also pay great attention
target text,making it it is rather
as

to the diction of the

beautiful and natural

as

the

source

text.Therefore,

appropriate
as

and quite necessary

to

employ Translation

Aesthetic

Theory

guidance while doing translation.A retrospect into

the long developmental abroad shows that they


history

of translation theories both at home and

are

all related to Aesthetics.This chapter provides

historical review of aesthetic origins of translation

theory

in both China Translation

and the

Western world,followed

by some relative studies

on

Aesthetics.

1.1 Development of Translation Aesthetics Theory
In
our

life,beauty is everywhere.It is also
one can

true

for literary works,

from which

find all kinds of beauty.But how to preserve beauty


while sharing literature of other languages poses
both Chinese and foreign,ancient

problem.Translators,
concerned about traditional

and contemporary,are

beauty in translation.Both in China and in the translation theories
are

West,the

closely linked to the literary Aesthetics,although
are

the Chinese traditional translation theories

obviously more attached to



MA Thesis

Aesthetics than

the既st ones,.

1.1.1

Origins of Translation Aesthetics and its Development at

Home
Aesthetics iS related
to

traditional translation theories in the whole

history of the development of translation theories in China.Nearly all propositions have some philosophic and aesthetic origins.They
are

exploration and comment of Aesthetics

literary Aesthetics.We might

even

say that

iS the theoretical basis of Chinese traditional
exerts

translation the

theories.Chinese classical Aesthetics

much

influence

on

development of traditional Chinese translation theories.

1.1.1.1

Aesthetic Origins of Translation Theories at Home

Even

from the very beginning,it is easy for

US

to

find some

connection between translation theory and Aesthetics.Chinese traditional translation theory dated back
to about 1 700 years ago,when the Buddhist

scripture started to be translated into Chinese for the first time in the

history.At

that time,translators had

no

choice but to tum to the Taoist

concepts for theoretical foundation.The master of Taoist,Laocius said in his work Dao De Jing:‘‘the graceful faithful,but faithful speeches not Xinzhang,1 speeches in translation
are

not

graceful."(信而不美,美而不信)(Luo
over

954:56).There

was the dispute

the emphasis

on

form

or



On Yang Bi’s Translation of Vanity Fair.An Aesthetic Perspective

on

content throughout Buddhist

scripture translation.Translators who

emphasis more on“content"stick to the aesthetic—philosophical notion

advocated by Laocius,while those who emphasis more on“form’’hold
the view of simple and straightforward writing which is closest to the original text. Dao’an,one of the well—known monks of the

Qian Qin

State during

the East Jin Dynasty,stuck faithfulness
to

to strict literal translation

for the purpose of

the content.But

another

translator,one of Dao’an’s free translation,and all

contemporaries,Kumarajiva,strongly advocated

his translations were done according to the usage of the Chinese.His translations influence were widely

accepted and welcomed,exerting



great

on

Chinese philosophy and literature.Their aesthetic thoughts
are

in translation translation.

mainly about the argument

on

literal translation and free

Early in the Tang

Dynasty,the learned

monk and

distinguished

scholar Xuan Zang,the outstanding master of translation,provided his own criteria of translation with both emphasis
on

accuracy and general

knowledge.He posted new devices for translation in which both literal

translation and free translation were suggested
translation.The role that Aesthetics fulfills emphasized by those ancient scholars.

tO

be used appropriately in

in translation was greatly

The second bloom of traditional translation theories also has

its



MA

Thesis

aesthetic clues.It did

not

come until 1 9th century when the
over

Western

thoughts and technology spread all
again prosperous

China.Thus,translation became

in China.In 1 894,Ma Jianzhong put forward his

translation concept

of"Shan Yi¨(善译)(Luo

Xinzhang,1 954:1 26).Two

years later,Yan Fu presented his three principles of translation,namely “faithfulness,expressiveness and

elegance'’(Liu Miqing,1 995:64).Their
philosophy-aesthetics
lot
to

notions

carried
to

on

China’S

classic


and

are

acknowledged

have

contributed

the

Chinese

traditional

translational

theory.Obviously,elegance is

focusing

on

the aesthetic

perspective of translation. The period between the Opium Wars and the 1919

May

4th

Movement

of

witnessed the third bloom in translation,when Aesthetics in
was

translation

more apparently
once

emphasized.Chinese famous

and

influential writer Lu Xun

pointed out.‘‘Translation work has to be

both smooth in
Fu Lei put

contents

and faithful in

expression".(2006:200)In

1 950s,

forward

his concept of artistic approximation in

spirit(神似),

advancing greatly the development of China’S translation theories.The matter of artistic approximation in spirit and artistic approximation in

form(形似)is



classic topic under discussion in China’S

art

history.From

the aesthetic perspective,his theory summarizes the aesthetic standards and values of translations rather precisely.Meanwhile,it describes the artistic characteristics of translations aesthetically.

IO

On Yang Bi’s Translation of Vanity Fair:An Aesthetic Perspective

Translation

has



3000一year long history in China and it was

instrumental in the development of the Chinese nmional culture.Looking
at the

study

on

translation theory of China,we may reach



conclusion

that

translation theory

is always

inseparable from Aesthetics.The

combination of traditional Chinese translation theory with Aesthetics is
especially prominent;in another word,the Translation Aesthetics is the

basic feature of

our

traditional translation

theory.

1.1.1.2

The Development Aesthetics

of

Contemporary Chinese Translation

The

contemporary

Chinese Translation Aesthetics establishes itself

on

the traditional Chinese translation theories,and endeavors to transf01"Ill

them into modernized translation theories.It absorbs the methodology from the

Western

translation studies,borrows the fundamental theories

and structure from Aesthetics,and studies translation mechanisms and
functions

from

its

distinctive


perspective.After

several

years

of

development,it has become

school of translation study in China,with

inter—disciplinary feature,different from the western translation theories and with typical Chinese characteristics.It makes China’S translation study take
on

distinctive nmional features.
0t"1

Comparative Studies

Translation A esthetics written by Xi

Yongj i

in 1 992,which is also the foundmion of his later book Comparative

MA Thesis

Aesthetics

of

Literary Translation in 2000,starts the development of
as

contemporary Chinese Translation Aesthetics

its embryo.Xi
source

Yongji

affirms

the

artistic and aesthetic values


of both

and target

languages.Through both Chinese

great number of examples from literary works of in several

and foreign languages

aspects,including
on

language,style,and artistry,he conducts aesthetic factors affect



comparative study

how
uses

translators’choices.What’S more,Xi Yongji

the phrase of‘‘Translation Aesthetics’’to express:

‘‘The integration of Aesthetics of literary translation with both eastern and

western cultures provides profound cultural background for

Translation

Aesthetics,whim

not only broadens

the field of translation study but also
well

changes the mechanism (2000:200)

of research ideology

as

aS

methodology.’’

Fu

Zhongxuan’S
on

Prac6cal

Translation

Aesthetics

is

the

first

monograph
research
on

Translation Aesthetics in China.He conducts



detailed

aesthetic

subj ect,aesthetic obj ect,aesthetic

activity,criteria

of beauty in translation and aesthetic representation.

Later,Liu Miqing publishes
乃Ⅵnslation



book titled An
the theoretical

Introduction framework

to

Aesth!etics

which

builds

of

contemporary Chinese Translation Aesthetics.The book

starts

from the

12

On Yang Bi’s Translation of

Vanity而沪An Aesthetic Perspective

discussion

on

the scientificity and artistry of translation.According to Liu,

translation of law and technological materials and religious classics,in

addition

to

that of drama and

poetry,is

also

an

art,for translation

inseparable from word choice,sentence reorganization,and artistic refinement.The significant role culture plays in aesthetic translation is
highlighted,which is the first feature of the book.

And then

esthetic

origins

of translation

theory

are

introduced.
by the

Comparative studies reflect the different influences Chinese and
source

exerted

Westem
as

esthetics

on

translation theory.Liu regards the target

language

the aesthetic

obj ect,the

language

the aesthetic

subject,establishing

the fundamental frame of Translation Aesthetics.

Dynamic roles of aesthetic
the book.

object

and

subj ect

are

the second feature of

Moreover,he
aesthetic

puts forward two properties of aesthetic is restricted by
use

subj ect.First,

subject

aesthetic

object;Second,aesthetic

subject

can

make full

of his

subjective
great

initiative to achieve aesthetic
tO

representation.Liu

attaches

importance

the

aesthetic

consciousness of aesthetic

subject.By employing

aesthetic psychology
an

theories,he introduces the process of literary translation from

aesthetic

perspective,which follows the law of comprehension,transformation, improvement and representation.Liu’S theories
and help to translators.
are

of great importance

13

MA Thesis

In the first step comprehension,translators have to try their best to grasp the

form and
serves

content

of the

source

text.The

second

step

transformation

as



key link in the development from aesthetic

information into representation.During emphatical obstacles that the aesthetic obstacles of space—time,the

transformation,there

are

some

subject must overcome,that is,the
obstacles of

obstacles of culture,the

psychology and those of language.After the first two

steps,it is

necessary
can

for translators

to

make aesthetic improvement

to

better them,which

be achieved by basic structuring and refinement.In the end,the translator
puts all he gains to represent the beauty
source text as

well

as

the meaning of the

into the target text.Aesthetic representation also involves

aesthetic pre—structure of the translator,which is composed of aesthetic feeling,knowledge,capability and tenacity,the

main

methods and

principles adopted in aesthetic translation and other factors. Another

book

worth

mentioning

in

the

development

of

contemporary Chinese Translation Aesthetics is Translation Aesthetics,a
recent

publication in
gives


this

particular

field.Its author,Professor Mao
on

Ronggui

further

detailed analysis
that

beauty

of English and

Chinese,gets

to

the

conclusion

two languages have different

aesthetic functions and values,and summarizes their aesthetic features
respectively.It is the first time that the phrase‘‘Translation Aesthetics’’ alone iS used
as

the title of a book.

14

On Yang Bi’s Translation of Vanity Fair:An Aesthetic Perspective

Contemporary

Chinese

Translation

Aesthetics

needs

further

improvement,and it reflects the development and innovation of Chinese translation studies and helps
arena US to

give forth the Chinese voice in the

of world translation theories.

1.1.2 Aesthetic Origins of Translation in the
Like the Chinese traditional translation

Western World
entered the

theory,Aesthetics

field of translation studies

at



very

early stage in the

West world.From
von

Marcus

Tullius Cicero to Martin Luther and Johann 1 800 years,translation

Wolfgang
linked

Goethe,

for about

theory

was

also

to

literary

Aesthetics.
It is generally acknowledged that with Tullius Cicero and

Western

translation theories began

Quintus

Horatius Flaccus in

ancient

age.The

famous ancient Roman philosopher,Cicero,primogenitor of translation

theory

of the

Westem

world,was against word—for-word translation,but

for sense—for—sense translation(non verbum exprimere de

de

verbo,sed

sensum
use

sensu).Quintus Flaccus

Horace promoted the

of

aesthetic criteria in translation.The views of both Cicero and Horace had great influence

on

successive generations of translators.Deeply rooted in


the ancient Greek culture,the Classical period is

very important part of

the history of the western translation theory.Translators at that time all

followed the principles

set up in

the works of those ancient Greek sages

15

MAThesiS

like Thales,Heraldeitus,Plato etc.In



way,those ancient philosophers
theory because of their

did have some impact aesthetic thoughts.

on

the

Westem translation

In the 1 7tll century,two

great figures in translation theories,St.
as

Jerome and John Dryden,held the view that translations should be
natural
as

possible. Faser

Later,Alexander

Tytler

put
on

forward

his

famous

three

fundamentals in translation in Essay
They

the Principles

of Translation.

were“1)A

translation should give



complete transcript of the ideas

of the original

work;2)The

style and manner of writing should be of the

same character as that of the
ease

original,3)A translation should have

all the

of original

composition."(Liu Miqing,2005:46)Those principles

got their origins from classical literary Aesthetics.

During the last three decades,translation theories have turned
other

to

disciplines,like

modem

linguistics

modem

Aesthetics

and

semeiology,for theoretical supports.This intra-disciplinary development saw prosperity of translation theories in the 20m century.Throughout the

history,western translation theories have gone through



dispute of literal
are

translation VS.1iberal translation.In another word,they relations between the content and the form in Aesthetics.

centered

on

However,the

Western

translation theory does not focus

SO

much

on

Aesthetics

as

Chinese.The

Western

languages are not

as

sensitive

as

16

On Yang Bi’s Translation of Vanity Fait:An Aesthetic Perspective v




Chinese and they strive for logic,which might be

an

explanation.While

Chinese translation theory,as the Chinese language pays more attention
to Aesthetics,never goes

far from Aesthetics but become closer.

1.2

Relative Studies Studies
on

011

Translation Aesthetics
are

Translation Aesthetics

prosperous

and

fruitful.

Against the background of cultural

tum

and further deeper development

of Chinese Translation Aesthetics,more and more people choose to do research in light of Translation Aesthetics,in order to accelerate the

development of the theory and better appreciate beauty in translation
literature. Professor Zhang Boran reflects upon the status and Translation Aesthetics in the 20m century.Li Jie conducts

objectives


of

detailed and of Liu and

systematical
contemporary

review Chinese

and

contemplation

on

the

development Rongyi
and

Translation

Aesthetics.Sui

Fengping make
western studies





tentative study of whether and how Chinese theories

aesthetic and

influence the

development

of translation of

present

an

overall

perspective

of the development
on

Translation Aesthetics.They

are

concentrating their efforts

the

theory

level,while others choose tO apply the theory to practice. Liu Miqing’S theory was


sparking star in the history of Chinese

translation theory.According

to

his theories,literary translation is the

17

MA Thesis

process of using

one

language(target language),in

the most faithfully

and accurately way,to convey the meaning and represent the literary beauty and artistic style of the

original(source text).Meanwhile,it is

also

the process of aesthetic experience and representation in the Aesthetics.Therefore,aesthetic translation of literature is
activity in which aesthetic


sense

of

recreating aesthetic

subj ect(translator)transfers

one

object(source text)into
activity
consists

the other aesthetic aesthetic

object(target text).This

of

comprehension,transformation,

improvement and representation,among which the last step plays the most important role.

More and more
researches,which

people turn to Liu

Miqing’S

theory while doing

can

be

seen

from the MA thesis in the past several

years.Wang Qians’S MA

thesis discusses the aesthetic representation in

Lin Yutang’S S/x Chapters

of a

Floating

Life

by employing Translation

Aesthetics theories in his detailed analysis,with the conclusion that Lin Yutang’S

version provides

US

with



perfect

example of aesthetic

representation of literary work.Another MA thesis,An Aesthetic Probe
into the

Transference ofArtistic Concept


in Literary Translation by Zhao of artistic concept in

Yue,makes

tentative study of the
on

transference

literary translation

the basis of Translation Aesthetics studies.Some put forward and other

useful skills and methods of transferring artistic concept by the author.On the basis of examples in the Book

are

ofPoetry

】8

O_n

Yan曼碰’s

Translation of Vanity Fair:An Aesthetic Perspective

Chinese classical poems,Yang Lu’S thesis focuses reduplicated words in

on

how to translate

Chinese classical poetry into English from the


aesthetic perspective.Yang Jiangling also does

tentative study of the

aesthetic criteria in Translation Aesthetics.This thesis mainly deals with the aesthetic

objects,the

aesthetic

subjects
on

and the aesthetic activities in

translating,and puts special emphases
concrete language

the analysis and discussion of
of Translation Aesthetics.

materials with the
are

guidance

Those researches

all successful and reveal the beauty of different

literary translation works,attracting the author of this paper tO do some research from the perspective of Translation Aesthetics. Thus,this thesis attempts tO employ Liu analysis
on

Miqing’S

theory in the

the aesthetic representation in the novel Vanity Fair translated

by Yang Bi.The novel Vanity Fair best displays the life of the British people in the 1 8曲century with vividness,beauty and humor.Its translator, Yang Bi,also delivers


charming and beautiful Chinese version of the
to employ Liu

original.So it is most suitable

Miqing’S aesthetic principles

to analyze beauty in Yang’S version.

There

are

also

some other researches

from the perspective of

Translation Aesthetics,which talk about translation of poetry,essay, idioms
as

well

as

famous literary works.Although studies with respect

to

Translation Aesthetics may

vary

in their particular aspects,they

are

all

conducive tO the advance and maturity of the development of Translation

MA Thesis

Aesthetics and translation studies

as

well.Yet,more efforts

are

needed end.

to

be made in this regard,for Man’S exhumation of beauty will

never

Chapter 2 Aesthetics and Translation Aesthetics

Contemporary Translation
traditional and

Aesthetics

is

an

integration

of both
an

modem

translation theories.Translation Aesthetics iS applies basic

interdisciplinary
Aesthetics function
to

subject that

theories and

structure

of and

the

studies of translation,to explain the process is
in

of

translation,which

line

with

inter-disciplinary

development of translation studies.This chapter provides information about some basic elements i11 Aesthetics and Translation Aesthetics.

2.1 Definition and Content ofAesthetics
Beauty is vitally interrelated with people’S life.To some degree,the evolution of human being and the advance of society
can

be viewed

as a

process of pursue,realization,creation and appreciation of beauty.A branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty,Aesthetics is of crucial significance in doing research,in particular,in the field of art and 1iterature.

2.1.1

Definition ofAesthetics

According to

Webster’S

New

World dictionary,‘‘Aesthetics

is the

study of theories of beauty and of the psychological responses to it; especially the branch of philosophy dealing with art,its creative

sources,

its

forms

and its

effects.’’(1988:136)Actually,it


is

the

study and

2l

MA Thesis

philosophy of the quality and
not

nature

of sensory responses related to,but
as

limited by,the concept of beauty.It is more scientifically defined study of sensory
or

the

sensori—emotional

values,sometimes called
the field

judgments of sentiment and taste.More broadly,scholars in
define Aesthetics


as

critical

reflection

on

art,culture

and nature.

Aesthetics is

sub—discipline of axiology,a branch of philosophy,and is

closely associated with the philosophy of art.Aesthetics studies new ways of seeing and of perceiving the world.

The Chinese aesthetic master Zhu Guangqian defines Aesthetics as
this:‘‘Aesthetics is the feature
or

quality from which some
to

objective

things,qualities and configurations adapt
they combine or blend together to form


subjective ideologies,and image".(2004:54)

complete

2.1.2

Content of Aesthetics


Actually the study of Aesthetics has experienced

long historical

period of time,and the achievements in the field
to the

are

numerous.According
covers

summary about Aesthetics

on

the website of Baidu Baikel,it



wide range:

First,beauty,including its creation and development,its

essence,

features and functions,its forms like natural beauty,social beauty and
artistic beauty,its constitutes?like beauty in content and in

form

and its



http://baike.baidu.com/view/1 8968.htm
22

—OnYa—ng
general

Bi’蔓Translation of Vanity忍加An Aesthetic Perspective

law;second,aesthetic,for

example,aesthetic psychology,

aesthetic consciousness,and the creation,development,characteristics
and process of aesthetic feeling;third,creation of beauty,for instance,the laws of creation,development and appreciation of realistic beauty and artistic beauty;fourth,category of Aesthetics,conceming the aesthetic features and the law of development of ugliness,loftiness,tragedy and

comedy

as

well

as

their relations with beauty;fifth,aesthetic education; in all,aesthetic plays


sixth,Aesthetics itself.All theoretical role

very

significant

in advancing the development of philosophy,social

science,and natural science,in particular,in propelling the prosperity of literary and art. Generally speaking,discussions Aesthetics mainly talk about the
on

literature from the perspective of
in form,content and language.
on

beauty

This thesis is intended

to conduct an analysis

the representation of

beauty in Yang Bi’S translation of Vanity Fair from the aspects of literary beauty and artistic style.

2.2 Translation Aesthetics and its Relation with Aesthetics
Study
on

Translation

Aesthetics

is the theoretical research with
forward and developing Chinese

Chinese characteristics.By carrying

traditional aesthetic translation theory,Translation Aesthetics theory
applies
to

translation of foreign language

to

Chinese in light of the

MA

Thesis

features of Chinese language and text.As

all

indispensable part and



distinguishing feature of Chinese translation studies,it forms the main

body of

the structure of translation Liu

studies in
can

China.(Liu Miqing,
sense

2005:83)From

Miqing’s acclaim,we


that Translation in

Aesthetics maintains
studies.

significant

and particular role

translation

2.2.1

Definition of Translation Aesthetics

According to Fang

Mengzhi,

‘‘Translation Aesthetics unearths the aesthetic origins of translation studies

and

explores the particular

meaning that

Aesthetics has

on

translation

studies.With the and

application of views of Aesthetics,it leams about the

scientificity

artistry of translation.Fundamental theories of Aesthetics

are employed
aesthetic

to propose different criteria and

analysis,explain,and transference.With


solve

problems

during

intra-language

full

understanding of translation aesthetic

subject and object,it

explores the

aesthetic constitutes of the

objective

and the

dynamic
object

role of the

subject. and

The relationship between aesthetic

subject

and

is made clear

aspects and means of aesthetic representation are provided,SO
translation

as

to guide

practice.”(2004:1 67)

24

On Yang Bi’S Translation of Vanity Fair:An Aesthetic Perspective

His definition gives Aesthetics iS about.

US a

comprehensive idea about what Translation

On the basis of Fang’S definition,Professor

Mao

Ronggui gives his

definition which is more concise in the preface of his book Translation Aesthetics.In his view,“translation aesthetics refer to study
on

aesthetic and

objective(source

text

and target

text),aesthetic subject(translators

readers),aesthetic activities,aesthetic judgments,aesthetic
aesthetic criteria,and creative representation in

appreciation,

translation.’’(2005:6)

Actually,Translation Aesthetics has its own characteristics.

2.2.2

Features of Contemporary Translation Aesthetics
an

Translation Aesthetics is

inter-disciplinary theory with Chinese
on

characteristics.In his paper The Review and Contemplation Development

the

of Contemporary Chinese maj or features

Translation Aesthetics,IA Jie
aS

points out three follows:

of contemporary Translation Aesthetics

1)On contemporary

the

basis

of

Chinese

traditional

translation

theories,

Translation Aesthetics inherits from and carries forward

Chinese classic Aesthetics.Valuable thoughts in traditional translation
theories
are

preserved,refined and developed.Characteristics of classic reflected.
Aesthetics borrows basic theories and structure of

Aesthetics

are

2)Translation

25

MA Thesis

Aesthetics to the studies of translation,to elaborate

on

the process and

function of translation.Aesthetic representation in translation
are

subject,object,activity,standard,and

been discussed and explored.
traditional translation

3)Overcoming the shortcomings of Chinese

theories and adopting western methods of research and argumentation,
Translation Aesthetics has embarked research. The above mentioned three features of contemporary Translation Aesthetics shed some light relation with Aesthetics.
on on a

systematic and scientific way of

the nature of Translation Aesthetics and its

2.2.3

Relation between Aesthetics and Translation Aesthetics
can

As have

be

seen

from the previous discusses,translators and scholars


never

ceased to take in nutrition from Aesthetics.Aesthetics iS

fundamental
resource

subj ect constructing translation studies,as
Translation Aesthetics.Aesthetics

well

as

the key basic

of

provides

the

theoretical frame for Translation Aesthetics,and the latter

never

goes far


away from the former.Aesthetic activity is considered to be

higher

stratum

on

translation activity.As Liu

Miqing

puts

it,“the bud of

translation theory was first bound to the tree of philosophic Aesthetics and has

stood

for

as

long

as

one

thousand

and

eight

hundred

years."(2005:78)

On Yang Bi’s Translation of Vanity Fair:An Aesthetic Perspective

On the
Chinese

one

hand,Translation Aesthetics inherits some thoughts of
Aesthetics,through learning

classic

from,analyzing Chinese

and

absorbing aesthetic origins

from the traditional

translation

theories.Some valuable topics,such as,meaning,image,spirit and style
are

refined and preserved,which

are

taken into Translation Aesthetics for

further explanation and development.
On the other hand,researches based
on on

Translation Aesthetics should be Aesthetics

basic thoughts of

Western

theories.With



good

knowledge of

Western

Aesthetics theories,we may better understand
as to

Translation Aesthetics,SO represent

make study

on

Translation Aesthetics and

aesthetic pleasure

for readers of the target
as

language.The
as

introduction of aesthetic

subject,aesthetic object

well

aesthetic

activity into Translation Aesthetics provides the theoretical foundation for the study in this regard.、 Therefore,when we conduct researches
on

translation,we

are

more

aware of the factors that influence the translator and the outcome of the aesthetic fine

translation,from

an

angle.In

particular,with



understanding of the aesthetic activities during the process of literary translation,we get
to

know

that emphasis should be put

on

aesthetic

representation,for the purpose of reproducing the beauty of the original work
as

much

as

possible.

27

MA

Thesis

2.3 Aesthetic Activities in Literary Translation
Literary translation is


maj or

type in the translation field.Generally
one

speaking,translation means the process of converting
another one.In

language into

every perspective,it is



creative process of reproduction,
cultures and certain

on

the basis of knowledge of both


languages and

translation techniques.In
beauty itself.As


way,translation is recreation,and



kind of its own

part of

translation,literary

translation has

special aesthetic implications.

2.3.1

Intrinsic Correlations between Aesthetics and Literary Translation

Aesthetics

is



branch of philosophy dealing with the

nature

of

beauty,art,and taste,and with the creation and appreciation of beauty.
Literary works
are

known

for their beauty,SO does translation literature.It
to

is quite obvious that literary translation is tightly linked
it involves the appreciation and recreation of beauty. Literary translation is
an art

Aesthetics,for

by nature.To be more exact,we

can

also

claim that literary translation is,in its

nature,a process of aesthetical

reaction.First the translator,by carefully and repeatedly reading the
source

language(SL)text,tries

to receive exactly and

creatively all levels

of information stored in the SL text by the author.He may sympathize with the original author,SO
as

to get a

better comprehension about the

28

On Yang Bi’s Translation of Vanity Fair:An Aesthetic Perspective

artistic style besides the content.And then he ought to release it exactly

and creatively by storing it in the target
the spirit.He is

language(TL)text,the form
as

and

supposed

to

convey all the information
to release the

close

as

possible

tO that of the SL

text.While planning
to

information

to the TL

reader,the translator has

jump


out of

it,restrain his own rich

imagination and association and make

sober and scientific analysis and

judgment

of the content,the style and the artistic concept of the SL text.
text,can get an effect as

Therefore,the TL reader,while reading the TL approximate
as

possible to that obtained by the SL reader from the SL

text.The whole process of literary translation is labeled by aesthetic activities of the translator.

Mao
original

Dun

once

said:“As for all kinds of merits manifested in

all

literary

work,they cannot be all represented in its translation. two of them
can

Instead,only

one or

be.We should

choose

one

merit of

the most significance and retain

it."(qtd

Luo Xinzhang,1 984:5 1 3)Every


translation inevitably involves some losses,but what

translator should

do is to choose

an

aesthetic element which is worthy of the translator’S
to represent

most attention and efforts

it in the translation.

2.3.2

The Process of Aesthetic Activity in Literary Translation

The aesthetic activity in translation means the reproduction of the aesthetic values of the original work in the translation.So that readers of

MA Thesis

the target language could get the most equivalent aesthetic experience

as

readers of the

source

language.It is especially true for literary translation.
one

Translators cannot accomplish the representation in

move.Actually, Introduction

according

to

Liu Miqing’S theory in

his book An

of

Translation Aesthetics,the process of aesthetic activity in translation
consists

of

comprehension,transformation,

improvement

and

representation.(2005:2 1 4)

Comprehension
The first step in translation is to comprehend the
serves source

text,which

the basis for the
have


next three steps.First

and foremost,translators
source

should

good

understanding of the
have
to

text.With this
to

preliminary requirement,translators

do

their best

grasp

aesthetic properties of form and content.As for form,translators should

analyze,infer and
on

judge

the

source text on

the lexical and semantic level,
as

the basis of their knowledge of

vocabulary and grammar

well

as

cultural background

knowledge.With

regard to content,such

as

image

and style,translators should do their outmost
delicate

to understand all of these

elements

by
on

way

of



whole

system.The

activity

of

comprehension goes

repeatedly.

On Yang Bi’s Translation of Vanity Fair:An Aesthetic Perspective

Transformation Transformation
not

only

serves

as

an

important part


of

the

language—structure of the two languages concerned,but also

key link in

the development from aesthetic information into representation.The basic way of

transformation

is empathy which was

first pointed

out

by

American psychologist Edward Titchnner in 1 909(Liu Miqing,1 995:220).
It

is also

called‘‘inward imitation”,which
of the aesthetic

means through inward
will gain

imitation

object,the aesthetic subject

satisfaction in the

sense

of beauty.The aesthetic constitutes won’t be

transformed without empathy,even the comprehension of the aesthetic
constituents in ST had been done. some emphatical obstacles that aesthetic

During translation,there

are

subj ect must overcome:the

obstacles of space—time,the obstacles of

culture,the obstacles of psychology and the obstacles of language.

Improvement
Through the first two steps of comprehension and

transformation,

translators gain aesthetic feelings,which might be various and rough,and

with

errors

and

omissions.So,it is impossible and impractical

to

represent translators

all of them
to

in the target text.Rather,it is necessary for
or

make selection

so—called optimization to
as

improve it.

Improvement could be realized through two steps

following:

3l

MA Thesis

1.Basic structuring
The first main goal of improvement is trying to perserve the content

of the target

text

in conception with that of the

source

text.Language

structure

such

as

words,phrases and sentences,should be taken into

careful consideration.In other words,translators should be faithful to the
source

text.The second main purpose of improvement is trying to achieve
to

expressiveness.Translators need
and structure in


make efforts

to arrange the

language

natural and expressive way.That is

to

say,being faithful
sense or

doesn’t mean that the translation doesn’t make any

appears

unreadable.This second step of improvement is also called optimization of figures of speech
or

language based

on

linguistic structure.In this step,

the transformation and improvement in all

varieties,forms

and

subj ect

matters of the

source text are

involved.

2.Refinement
The purpose of improvement is to regain the beauty of the target text. That is to say,improvement of the
content
source text

should

not only keep the

in conception with the meaning of
contained in the

source text

but also keep all that
way,the

aesthetic information

source

text.In

aesthetic effect of the target text will be
source text.

as

close

as

possible

to that of the

32

On Yang Bi’s Translation of Vanity Fa#-:An Aesthetic Perspective

Representation The last progression of aesthetic experience,representation

is

to

transform the

source text

into the target text.The translator puts all his


achievements in Aesthetics in the form of target text.Even though
translator has


deep and thorough comprehension of the

source

text,if he

could

not find

the functional equivalent
source text

form

in the

source

language,all

that he gains from the useless
at

during the previous three steps will be of the aesthetic representation of

last.The central

point

translation is to materialize the aesthetic experience of source text.In this way,the target language readers will have the same aesthetic feelings and experiences. To achieve satisfying effects in aesthetic representation in translation, according to Liu basic principles:

Miqing,it

is necessary for translators to follow some

“1)When

undergoing bi—lingual

translation,translators

should keep

the content of conception in

source

text,that is,to realize equivalent

representation of the

source

text

semantic

content.

2)When

undergoing bi—lingual translation,translators should also keep

the stylistic format of the

source

text.For example,rhyme,rhythm and

stanza in

poems,structures in

discourse(conversation and topic)in

common literary form,etc.

33

MA Thesis

3)When undergoing bi?lingual
the skills of description of

translation,translators should

even

keep

source

language.For instance,the figures
of speech such

choice of

image,the description of image,and

as

simile,

metaphor,metonymy,synecdoche,irony,personification,etc.

4)When undergoing bi-lingual translation,translators
style of the
source

should

keep

the

text in the target text.Besides

the relative factors

mentioned in 2 and 3,translators would better represent the idiolect of the writer,or characters of writer’S wording and phrasing and the way
of

narrating."(qtd Wang Qian,2006:1 3)

5).“The

translator’S individual capability should be given full‘play."

(2000:2 1 8—220)
Aesthetic representation


is

the

terminal

stage

of

all

aesthetic

activities.、Ⅳhether
highly

translator the

can

achieve the ideal realm for translation his

depends

on

outcome of aesthetic representation in

translation work.In this context,we should attach great importance to it, and make careful and meticulous studies
on

it.

2.3.3

Literary Beauty and Artistic Style in Light of Translation Aesthetics

Literary translation

covers

nearly all topics in translation study,from

the transference of meaning to the relation between from and content,to

On Yang_Bi's Translation of

Vanity忍沪An Aesthetic

Perspective

matters

concerning

culture

and rhetoric

device,and
and artistic

to

high

level the

representation procedure

of artistic

concept,image

style.In

of aesthetic representation of literary translation,there

are

mainly two aspects for reproduction and recreation in the target
is the literary beauty of the original text,and the other style.
one

text,one

is the artistic

2.3.3.1

Literary Beauty
can

Literary work
out of his

stimulate the translator’S ability of imagination

understanding and personal aesthetic attitudes.The translator


plays the role of linking the author and the reader,while he himself is reader and author.As for the artistic values of created the realized

literary works,they

are

first

by

writer,then

by the translator,and
as

finally

appreciated by the reader.However,as far

the transl ator is concerned,

besides realizing the artistic value of the original,he needs to transfer

such artistic values into his translation.As
language
can



result,readers of the target

fully

enjoy

it.From the view of Translation Aesthetics, work
can

suggested by Liu non—artistic
text

Miqing,literary
and artistic

be divided into two types,
source

source text

source

text.(2005:278)Artistic

mainly includes novel,poem,drama and prose.The reproduction of

the literary beauty is desperately required for the translation of the artistic
source

text,as

literature is the

art

of using language

to create artistic

MA Thesis

images and express the thoughts and feelings. Professor Liu Miqing classifies the structure of literary beauty into
three

levels.(2005:279)The first

one

is the

outer

fonn?-the language

structure.This is the beginning of aesthetic appreciation.The reader’S aesthetic feelings sprout due work,and he begins
to to

their natural perception of the literary
to

think and tries

understand.The second level is

the inner form,in other words,the image.Image refers to using the

linguistic word

or

phrase

to make the scene

vividly,to

create a

certain

phenomenon with ideological and aesthetic significance.In this way,
particular pictures will appear in the reader’S mind while running into

images.The translator,after reading the works like

an

ordinary readeg he

has to represent those images after he has perceived them.The third level

is the comprehensive

form,the symb01.While

doing translation,the

translator should grasp the implied connotations in

symbols

and try his

best to choose proper words under the guidance of hidden implications.

2.3.3.2

The Artistic Style talking about literary beauty,the beauty of style should not be

When

forgotten.Theodore Savory said:“Style is the essential characteristic of every piece of writing;the outcome of the writer’S personality and his
emotions at the moment,and
no

single paragraph

can

be put together

—O—n——Y——an——g—B—i—'—s Translation of Vanity Fair:An Aesthetic Perspective

without revealing in some degree the

nature of its

author'’(1957:54)
as a

Actually,an independent aspect,style exists

whole entirety in

literary works.If the translation fails
source

to convey the original style of the

text,it

is

all

unsuccessful

version.Those without basically
or

retaining the original style cannot be called genuine translation.A qualified

faithful literary
no

literary translator should

spare

effort

to

reproduce the style of the original work. In

literary works,style is



unique characteristic

manner which

shows the writer’S particular personality through the forms of language and

structure.Every

writer has his own literary style which is manifested
as

in his works;correspondingly,the style of the translation should be close to that of the original
as

possible.Translators

are

entrusted with the
on

task to represent the original style.Bearing in mind that he is working other’S literary work,the translator should always

seek to make his

translation in conformity with the original’S style.Before getting started,

the translator should comprehend thoroughly the whole original work, and decides the literary style in translation.By taking into consideration the literature and linguistics,he
starts to recreate the

original style first

word by word,then sentence by sentence,and finally the whole work into the target text.It is very significant for the translator to translate and

introduce literary work with



unique style,for readers of the target

37

MA Thesis

language

will be

inspired,moved and aesthetically entertained while
can

reading the translation.From the long-term view,literature from those fine translated works.

benefit

38

On Yang Bi’s Translation of

Vanity内沪An Aesthetic

Perspective

Chapter 3 Vanity Fair and Yang Bi’S Chinese Version

Since
of this

William Thackeray’S Vanity Fah"is
US

chosen

as

the study

case

thesis,it is quite necessary for
as

to

get

some background

knowledge of the novel,its author before
our

well

as

the translation and translator

further discussion.

3.1

William

Thackeray’s Biography and Van/ty Fair
an

William Makepeace Thackeray(1 8 1 1—1 863)is
novelist of critical realism in the nineteenth

outstanding


century

in Britain.As

major

novelist,he won his reputation out of his exquisitely humorous and ironic portrayal of the middle and upper classes of that time.

3.1.1

About

William


Thackeray

He was born

gentleman,and

enj oyed



good childhood and fine travel,Inns of

education;Trinity

College


Cambridge,European

Court..his youth followed

high road

to Victorian success.But later,he

gambled away part of his patrimony and lost the
then idled at college,and got bored by

rest

in



bank crash,and
those incidents,

law.Without all

Thackeray might have entered the leisured,lettered,professional life for which birth and upbringing destined

him.We

can see

that Thackeray was

39

MA Thesis

quite familiar with the life of the upper class in his early life.However, after his misfortune,Thackeray had to write for his life from 1 835—1 845. His works expose the

vanity,hypocrisy,snobbery,immorality and
to

evil—doings of the aristocrats and the capitalists
style

readers.His writing

is well

known

for it’S

generally

witty,ironic,sarcastic and

humorous.
Vanity

Fair(1 847)is regarded

as

the perfect starting point for those

wishing to discover Thackeray’S bright wit,attractive humor,and seldom matched comic powers.It is

very

easy for

one to

find the clever mixture

of epigrammatic wit with subtle humor,of sharp sarcasm with innocent

understatement,couched style
serves

ever

in superb diction in this novel.And this
at the different

perfectly the purpose of satire aimed
or

objects

of the author’S attack

ridicule.
on as

Vanity Fair,Thackeray’S masterpiece,is always looked

the

best English novel between 1 832 and 1 848.This novel presents
panorama of the English upper and middle



social

classes of the nineteenth

century,a

satire upon the heartlessness and pretentiousness of the English


aristocratic bourgeoisie,and

powerful exposure of the Utilitarianism of

his age.“Vanity Fair.or A Novel

Without



Hero”has



significant title.

The main part of the title came from Bunyan’S Pilgrim’S Progress,in which the pilgrims,arriving at the city of Vanity,find sub—title


Vanity Fair.“The
not

indicates that the novel

is

concerned principally

with

塑Yang Bi's Translation of Vanity teair:An_Aesthetic Perspective
individual heroes but with the society possible
one as a

whole,though it is also

to interpret the phrase as meaning that there are only heroines or

heroine but

no

heroes."(Chen Jia,1 986:244)

3.1.2

The Outline of Van/ty Fair

The story of Vanity Fair develops around two heroines,who stand in striking contrast:Amelia Sedley is


tame,sentimental and dependent

woman,while Rebecca Sharp is sharp but resourceful,practical and
capable.The novel begins with the departure of the two girl—schoolmates

from their sch001.Amelia Sedley,of good family,and Rebecca Sharp,an
orphan,leave

Miss

Pinkerton’S academy to live out their lives in Vanity

Fair—the world of social climbing and search for wealth.Rebecca first


attempts

to enter the sacred

domain of Vanity Fair by inducing Joseph

Sedley,Amelia’S brother,to marry her.George Osborne,however,
destroys this plan.Then Rebecca goes to the Crawley family to teach two children and she wins the attention of both father and


son

in the Crawley
Crawley,

family.Because she is already secretly married
second
son

to

Rawdon

of Sit Pitt Crawley,she has to refuse the old baronet’S offer of
aunt

marriage.Out of her expectation,Rawdon’S rich

disinherits Rawdon
to a

because of his marriage;therefore,Rebecca’S hopes of being wedded
rich husband
are

dashed.First introduced

as a

friend of George Osborne,

William Dobbin

becomes the instrument for getting George to marry

4l

MA Thesis

Amelia,after George’S father has forbidden the marriage

on account

of

the Sedleys’loss of fortune.Just because of George’S marriage,old

Osborne disinherits him.The Napoleonic wars have come British troops
are sent over

to a

climax and

to Belgium when Amelia and Rebecca meet
to

in Brussels.They both go there
about
to

accompany their husbands who
as

are

take

part in the fighting
to the

officers in
on

the army.The two

husbands rush becomes


battle,and George dies
to

the battlefield and Amelia

widow,only

be consoled with the birth of

a son

Georgy,

and Joseph goes back to his post in India.

。Rebecca goes with Rawdon comfortable living brings them
a on

to

Paris and they manage

to make a

Rawdon’S cheating in gambling.But cheating
can

soon

bad name,SO that they

hardly go

on

living there.Just

then the news of Rawdon’S rich old aunt’S death brings them back to

London,but

to

their

mortification the

aunt

leaves

them practically

nothing.After Rebecca becomes the favorite of the great Lord Steyne,she

accumulates both money and fortune.Finally Rawdon is imprisoned for

debt.When

he retums home

suddenly,he finds Rebecca entertaining


Lord Steyne alone.He flies into Lord Steyne
to


rage,breaks with

he£and

challenges
an

duel.The duel is called off and Rawdon gets governor of
an

unexpected post

as

island in the

West Indies,where

he

dies of yellow fever. Because her parents
are

starving and she

can

neither provide them

42

On Yang Bi’s Translation of Vanity Fair:An Aesthetic Perspective

nor

give LiRle Georgy what he needs,Amelia chooses

to

give up her

son

to

his grandfather Osborne.Dobbin comes back from the service and

remains devoted to her.Then after the death of old Osborne and Georgy’S

inheritance of the family property,Amelia Rebecca wanders in Europe for


becomes wealthy again.

couple of years and finally meets
on

Joseph,Georgy,Amelia,and Dobbin

the Continent.Rebecca cleverly

reconciles herself to Amelia and resumes her flirtation with Joseph. Finally,Rebecca shows Amelia George’S letter asking Rebecca to elope
on

the

eve

of the battle of

Waterloo.This

letter shatters Amelia’S

idolatry of her husband and she decides
on

to marry Dobbin.Rebecca goes

living with Joseph until he dies,and she takes away all his money.At
to

the end of the book,Rebecca returns

England and lives like



grand

lady.Little Rawdon,upon the death of his uncle Pitt and his cousin Pitt, becomes the heir of

Queen’S Crawley.Little

Georgy,through the

kindness of Dobbin,has lost his distorted values obtained in Vanity Fair.

3.2 Yang Bi and Her Version of Van/ty Fair
As


critical

realistic work,Vanity Fair exposes the corruption,

greed,hypocrisy and snobbery of almost the entire range of English society.The pictures of the persons and incidents given
reflections of that historical epoch but
serve tO are not

merely the

show the whole English

society in the early decades of the nineteenth

century.

MA Thesis

In China,the translation of Vanity Fair started in the early twentieth century.It was first translated by

Wu Guangjian in the

year 1 934,entitled
on

《浮华世界》,but it

was only parts of the novel based

Max J.
Yang

Hegbrig’S excerpts from Vanity Fair.Other versions following

are

Bi’S《名利场》,Peng Changjiang’S《虚幻世界》,Rong Rude’S《花 花世界》,and Jia Wenhao
and Jia

Wenyuan’S《名利场》and

SO on.

Among all these versions,it is Yang Bi who first translated the complete
work of the original in 1957 and

adopted《名利场》as

the title of its

Chinese version.

3.2.1

Yang Bi and Her Translation
as an

Yang Bi is regarded

outstanding woman scholar and translator


in China.She was born in 1 922,Shanghai,the youngest child of family with 8 sisters and brothers.Her family was scholars.Her father Yang Yinhang is
an a

big

traditional family of

impartial

jurist and active

communicative leader.He challenged the feudal system by encouraging
his two younger sisters to study at sch001.For in old China,it was

advocated by the male authority that“ignorance is women’S virtue”,but
Yang Yinhang was the exception.One of his two sisters was Yang Yinyu,
once

the

president

of

the

former

Beijing Normal

University,a
Jiang,

controversi al educator.From 1

ya馏Jiang's recollection(Yang

997:473—483),we

learn that the two well—educated aunt of the Yangs

.O.。....n....Y。.....a.n.....g........B.....i....'...s.。—T—r—a—n—s—lat——io——n

o——f——Va—n—it—y—Fair:An

A_esthetic Perspective

lived

with

them

together.Both

of

them

were

strong—willed

and

open?minded.As Yang Bi lived in ideology,it was natural for her
sister,Yang Jiang and the
to



family of open and independent


form

similar personality.Both the
the most

brother—in—law,Qian Zhongshu,are

influential scholars in China and have studied abroad with the influence of westem ideologies.Born in



family like this,Yang Bi had got



good

education since childhood,though most of the female children at that

time almost had few chances of education.Yang Bi had laid



solid

foundation of Chinese culture and literature that contribute to her later

idiomatical and fluent translation in Chinese
indicates that Yang Bi lived in


language.The

above

well-educated family sharing


an

open

and independent mind.Under such

circumstance of family atmosphere,

Yang Bi was nurtured with active,democrmic and independent ideas, which a11 exert the influences
over

her translation.

Her sister Yang Jiang mentioned in her was good at mimic dogs


Memoirfor

Yang Bi that she

imitating(2004,1 3).During
and some characters

her childhood,Yang Bi could

in

American movies.Once

she

performed

fat guy in



movie called Laura and Hardy.Though thin

as

she was,she did have her unique way of reproducing his funny actions

and behaviors.She was also gifted in imitating local dialects with almost
the same tone,pitch and

intonation.What’S
or

more,she was




good story

teller.She always told stories

accidents in

vivid and attractive way

45

MA Thesis

that people were very interested in her narration.It is safe to say that she has
an

eye for the world and she is sensitive about things in life.She
essence

can

grasp the

of story telling and knows well how


to

express.No

wonder she To

can

produce such

successful Chinese version.



great extent,Yang Bi’S

translating

career

started due

to the

encouragement of

Qian Zhongshu and

Fu Lei.After the founding of the

People’S Republic of China,Fu Lei encouraged Yang Bi to do

some

literary translation.Yang
wrote to

Bi took his suggestion into consideration,and


Qian

Zhongshu,asking him to recommend her

book.Qian

first

introduced her Castle Backrent by Mafia Edgeworth,a realistic woman novelist and

suggested《剥削世家》as

the title of the Chinese version.

Yang Bi’S version was first published in 1 953 and it tumed out to be



success.Not long afterwards,Fu Lei suggested that she should translate some books by famous writers.Yang Bi asked

Qian

Zhongshu for advice Vanity Fair,the the title for

again,SO complete

Qian

suggested that she

should translate

version.What’S more,he suggested《名利场》as

her version.Thus,Yang Bi began her translation in 1 953 when she was
an

associate

professor

in

the Foreign

Languages
to

Department,Fudan

University.She devoted all her spare time

translating this novel and

finally fulfilled this arduous task at the time set.Her translation was published in

1957.When

the book was to be republished in 1959,Yang

Bi was asked whether she would like to revise her own translation.Yang

On Yang Bi’s Translation of Vanity Fair:An Aesthetic Perspective

Bi refused and replied,‘'Not



single word to be revised”,because she

was too weary to do any modification. The time when Yang Bi translated Vanity Fair was


period in which

most of Chinese scholars insisted on“faithful translation'’,including both
of the influential seniors
tutors to

Qian

and Fu.On the

one

hand,they were close their advice and

Yang

Bi,and she benefited
other



lot

from

suggestions.On the

hand,with

some influence of feminist
to struggle for

movement from the west,it was inevitable for Yang Bi freedom.Therefore it results in the creative

treason in her translations.To

some degree,it is Yang Bi’S elaboration of her personality and proper
‘treason’that
earn

high praise for her version.
are

Castle Backrent and Vanity Fair

the only two translated works

Yang Bi left behind her,but the two translations already show that she was
an

outstanding woman translator.Just


as

Nan

Mu

points out,“Yang

Bi÷S version of Vanity Fctir is really

great translated work and it is worth

reading."(Luo

Xinzhang,1 984:850)

3.2.2

Studies

on

Yang Bi’S Version of Vanitv Fair
1 957,Yang Bi’S version

First published in

of Vanity Fair was

received with great satisfaction by People’S Literature Publishing House. Afterwards,many scholars have made their commendatory comments
her translation
on

from different perspectives.A large part

of current

47

MA Thesis

research

on

Yang Bi’S translation of Vanity Fair
on

is confined

to

the

linguistic level,mainly focusing

the lexical level,the syntactic level,

the contextual level,and etc.Meanwhile,Yang Bi’S translation style,her

language

and the stylistic cohesion of her translation have caught

people’S attention.

As Xu Yuanchong says,“In my opinion,there

are

three famous

translated works in the translation field of China in the 20th century,that is,A Complete Edition
Selections

of Shakespeare's Plays by
Fu

Zhu

Shenghao,

from

Balzac by

Lei,and

Vanity

Fair

by Yang Bi.’’

(2004:2 14)Most
is
as

scholars agree that Yang Bi’S translation of Vanity Fair


smooth

as

the original and it does not read like

translation.Yang
SO

Bi’S version has scholars and

enjoyed



great fame and it has influenced
as

many



great number of Chinese readers
on

well.

Many

people conduct researches

this translation literature,which

mainly discuss from the aspects of stylistics,differences in Syntactic Structures,functional equivalence,feminist,cultural-loaded terms,and translation techniques.
Tan Fang and Guo Sichun take some examples from the translation
to show the way Yang Bi

dealt with vague

language.Wu Ling makes
are

some study

on

Yang’S choice of words and phrases.There her translation techniques.Yang

also lots of useful

discussions about

Wei

makes

exploration into the translmion strategy of foregrounding based

on

the

On Yang Bi's Translatio_n o——f Vanity F——ai—t—:—A—n——A——esthetic Perspective

successful translation of typical figures’speech in

Vanity Fair.Yang foreignization
use

Chunxia

and Liu

Yue

discusses

the

value

of

and

domestication as well based
on an

as

hybrid resulting from
and



combinati.ve of

of them, and

analysis

categorization

foreignization

domestication in the preface and the first two chapters of Vanity Fair translated by Yang Bi.Xue Zhong gives
an

outlook

on

the differences of how Yang Bi

syntactic structures of English and Chinese deals with these differences and what
are

languages and

her strategies.

Yang Bi’S translation style is also discussed.Sheng Yiying points out that the
reason

for her translation is

SO

popular among readers lies in its
to Chinese readers’habits of

readability.Yang always pays close attention

reading and appreciating.Cui Aiyong also explores her translation style

and techniques,and personalities,and

conducts

some

research

on

characters’status, several excellent

languages.Cai

Yaochong

takes

translations out of the Chinese version,and gives



summary of her

translation skills with regard to words,sentences and paragraphs. Of course,some other people choose to make their study from the angles of feminist and cultural-loaded terms.Jin Dan focuses
on

the

femini

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